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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228204/decreased-resting-state-interhemispheric-functional-connectivity-correlated-with-neurocognitive-deficits-in-drug-naive-first-episode-adolescent-onset-schizophrenia
#1
Yi Liu, Yan Zhang, Luxian Lv, Feihu Hu, Renrong Wu, Jingping Zhao, Wenbin Guo
Background: Given that adolescence is a critical epoch in the onset of schizophrenia, studying aberrant brain changes in adolescent-onset schizophrenia (AOS), particularly in patients with drug-naive first-episode schizophrenia, is important to understand the biological mechanism of this disorder. Previous resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown abnormal functional connectivity in separate hemispheres in patients with adult-onset schizophrenia. Our aim to study AOS can provide clues for the early aetiology of schizophrenia...
November 7, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228195/structural-connectivity-of-right-frontal-hyperactive-areas-scales-with-stuttering-severity
#2
Nicole E Neef, Alfred Anwander, Christoph Bütfering, Carsten Schmidt-Samoa, Angela D Friederici, Walter Paulus, Martin Sommer
A neuronal sign of persistent developmental stuttering is the magnified coactivation of right frontal brain regions during speech production. Whether and how stuttering severity relates to the connection strength of these hyperactive right frontal areas to other brain areas is an open question. Scrutinizing such brain-behaviour and structure-function relationships aims at disentangling suspected underlying neuronal mechanisms of stuttering. Here, we acquired diffusion-weighted and functional images from 31 adults who stutter and 34 matched control participants...
December 8, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228120/exploring-individual-brain-variability-during-development-based-on-patterns-of-maturational-coupling-of-cortical-thickness-a-longitudinal-mri-study
#3
Budhachandra S Khundrakpam, John D Lewis, Seun Jeon, Penelope Kostopoulos, Yasser Itturia Medina, François Chouinard-Decorte, Alan C Evans
Structural covariance has recently emerged as a tool to study brain connectivity in health and disease. The main assumption behind the phenomenon of structural covariance is that changes in brain structure during development occur in a coordinated fashion. However, no study has yet explored the correlation of structural brain changes within individuals across development. Here, we used longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging scans from 141 normally developing children and adolescents (scanned 3 times) to introduce a novel subject-based maturational coupling approach...
December 8, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227796/dynamic-functional-disturbances-of-brain-network-in-seizure-related-cognitive-outcomes
#4
REVIEW
Jialing Guo, Qian Wu, Charlie W Zhao, Bo Xiao, Li Feng
Epilepsy is a prevalent neurologic disorder affecting approximately 50 million people worldwide. Cognitive dysfunction induced by seizures is one of the severe comorbidities of epilepsy and epileptic syndrome, which has a negative impact on epileptic patients' quality of life. Several mechanisms may be associated with cognitive impairment in patients with epilepsy. Here, we review how the dynamic functional alterations of brain network influence seizure-related cognitive outcomes.
December 5, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226709/enhanced-brain-network-activity-in-complex-movement-rhythms-a-simultaneous-fmri-eeg-study
#5
Bhim Mani Adhikari, Charles M Epstein, Mukesh Dhamala
Generating movement rhythms is known to involve a network of distributed brain regions associated with motor planning, control, execution, and perception of timing for the repertoire of motor actions. What brain areas are bound in the network and how the network activity is modulated by rhythmic complexity have not been completely explored. To contribute to answering these questions, we designed a study in which nine healthy participants performed simple to complex rhythmic finger movement tasks while undergoing simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography (fMRI-EEG) recordings of their brain activity during the tasks and rest...
December 10, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226069/do-older-adults-need-sleep-a-review-of-neuroimaging-sleep-and-aging-studies
#6
Michael K Scullin
Purpose of Review: Sleep habits, sleep physiology, and sleep disorders change with increasing age. However, there is a longstanding debate regarding whether older adults need sleep to maintain health and daily functioning (reduced-sleep-need view). An alternative possibility is that all older adults need sleep, but that many older adults have lost the ability to obtain restorative sleep (reduced-sleep-ability view). Prior research using behavioral and polysomnography outcomes has not definitively disentangled the reduced-sleep-need and reduced-sleep-ability views...
September 2017: Current Sleep Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225975/correlation-between-traits-of-emotion-based-impulsivity-and-intrinsic-default-mode-network-activity
#7
Jizheng Zhao, Dardo Tomasi, Corinde E Wiers, Ehsan Shokri-Kojori, Şükrü B Demiral, Yi Zhang, Nora D Volkow, Gene-Jack Wang
Negative urgency (NU) and positive urgency (PU) are implicated in several high-risk behaviors, such as eating disorders, substance use disorders, and nonsuicidal self-injury behavior. The current study aimed to explore the possible link between trait of urgency and brain activity at rest. We assessed the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) of the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal in 85 healthy volunteers. Trait urgency measures were related to ALFF in the lateral orbitofrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, ventral and dorsal medial frontal cortex, anterior cingulate, and posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225553/brain-imaging-of-human-sexual-response-recent-developments-and-future-directions
#8
REVIEW
Gerben B Ruesink, Janniko R Georgiadis
Purpose of Review: The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive summary of the latest developments in the experimental brain study of human sexuality, focusing on brain connectivity during the sexual response. Recent Findings: Stable patterns of brain activation have been established for different phases of the sexual response, especially with regard to the wanting phase, and changes in these patterns can be linked to sexual response variations, including sexual dysfunctions...
2017: Current Sexual Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225336/psychiatric-polygenic-risk-associates-with-cortical-morphology-and-functional-organization-in-aging
#9
Annie Lee, Mojun Shen, Anqi Qiu
Common brain abnormalities in cortical morphology and functional organization are observed in psychiatric disorders and aging, reflecting shared genetic influences. This preliminary study aimed to examine the contribution of a polygenetic risk for psychiatric disorders (PRScross) to aging brain and to identify molecular mechanisms through the use of multimodal brain images, genotypes, and transcriptome data. We showed age-related cortical thinning in bilateral inferior frontal cortex (IFC) and superior temporal gyrus and alterations in the functional connectivity between bilateral IFC and between right IFC and right inferior parietal lobe as a function of PRScross...
December 11, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224717/fronto-parietal-organization-for-response-times-in-inhibition-of-return-the-fortior-model
#10
REVIEW
Tal Seidel Malkinson, Paolo Bartolomeo
Inhibition of Return (IOR) refers to a slowing of response times (RTs) for visual stimuli repeated at the same spatial location, as compared to stimuli occurring at novel locations. The functional mechanisms and the neural bases of this phenomenon remain debated. Here we present FORTIOR, a model of the cortical control of visual IOR in the human brain. The model is based on known facts about the anatomical and functional organization of fronto-parietal attention networks, and accounts for a broad range of behavioral findings in healthy participants and brain-damaged patients...
November 21, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224668/circadian-clock-gastrointestinal-peptide-interaction-in-peripheral-tissues-and-the-brain
#11
REVIEW
Dominic Landgraf, Anne-Marie Neumann, Henrik Oster
Food intake and sleep are two mutually exclusive behaviors and both are normally confined to opposing phases of the diurnal cycle. The temporal coordination of behavior and physiology along the 24-h day-night cycle is organized by a network of circadian clocks that orchestrate transcriptional programs controlling cellular physiology. Many of the peptide hormones of the gastrointestinal tract are not only secreted in a circadian fashion, they can also affect circadian clock function in peripheral metabolic tissues and the brain, thus providing metabolic feedback to metabolic and neurobehavioral circuits...
December 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224485/assessment-of-dietary-factors-dietary-practices-and-exercise-on-mental-distress-in-young-adults-versus-matured-adults-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
Lina Begdache, Maher Chaar, Nasim Sabounchi, Hamed Kianmehr
The importance of the diet in modulating mental health is uncovering as many dietary factors have been described to alter brain chemistry. Brain maturation may not complete until the age of 30 which may explain the differential emotional control, mindset, and resilience between young adults and matured adults. As a result, dietary factors may influence mental health differently in these two populations. OBJECTIVES: To study dietary intake, dietary practices and exercise in young adults (YA) (18-29 years) versus matured adults (MA) (30 years and older) in relation to mental distress...
December 11, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224103/sex-differences-and-role-of-estradiol-in-hypoglycemia-associated-counter-regulation
#13
Karen P Briski, Hussain N Alhamami, Ayed Alshamrani, Santosh K Mandal, Manita Shakya, Mostafa H H Ibrahim
Vital nerve cell functions, including maintenance of transmembrane voltage and information transfer, occur at high energy expense. Inadequate provision of the obligate metabolic fuel glucose exposes neurons to risk of dysfunction or injury. Clinical hypoglycemia rarely occurs in nondiabetic individuals but is an unfortunate regular occurrence in patients with type 1 or advanced insulin-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus. Requisite strict glycemic control, involving treatment with insulin, sulfonylureas, or glinides, can cause frequent episodes of iatrogenic hypoglycemia due to defective counter-regulation, including reduced glycemic thresholds and diminished magnitude of motor responses...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223742/network-analysis-reveals-disrupted-functional-brain-circuitry-in-drug-naive-social-anxiety-disorder
#14
REVIEW
Xun Yang, Jin Liu, Yajing Meng, Mingrui Xia, Zaixu Cui, Xi Wu, Xinyu Hu, Wei Zhang, Gaolang Gong, Qiyong Gong, John A Sweeney, Yong He
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a common and disabling condition characterized by excessive fear and avoidance of public scrutiny. Neuroimaging studies have suggested that the emotional and behavior deficits in SAD are associated with abnormalities in regional brain function and functional connectivity. However, little is known about whether intrinsic functional brain networks in patients with SAD are topologically disrupted. Here, we collected resting-state fMRI data from 33 drug-naive patients with SAD and 32 healthy controls (HC), constructed functional networks with 34 predefined regions based on previous meta-analytic research with task-based fMRI in SAD, and performed network-based statistic and graph-theory analyses...
December 6, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223708/comparison-of-neuroplastic-responses-to-cathodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-and-continuous-theta-burst-stimulation-in-subacute-stroke
#15
Pierre Nicolo, Cécile Magnin, Elena Pedrazzini, Gijs Plomp, Anaïs Mottaz, Armin Schnider, Adrian G Guggisberg
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) on neural network connectivity and motor recovery in individuals with subacute stroke. DESIGN: Double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study. SETTING: Stroke subjects recruited through a university hospital rehabilitation program. PARTICIPANTS: Stroke inpatients (N=41; mean age 65y, range 28-85; mean weeks poststroke 5, range 2-10) with resultant paresis in the upper extremity (mean Fugl-Meyer score 14, range 3-48)...
December 6, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223681/language-processing-in-age-related-macular-degeneration-associated-with-unique-functional-connectivity-signatures-in-the-right-hemisphere
#16
Jie Zhuang, David J Madden, Xuan Duong-Fernandez, Nan-Kuei Chen, Scott W Cousins, Guy G Potter, Michele T Diaz, Heather E Whitson
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a retinal disease associated with significant vision loss among older adults. Previous large-scale behavioral studies indicate that people with AMD are at increased risk of cognitive deficits in language processing, particularly in verbal fluency tasks. The neural underpinnings of any relationship between AMD and higher cognitive functions, such as language processing, remain unclear. This study aims to address this issue using independent component analysis of spontaneous brain activity at rest...
November 14, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223425/assessing-age-dependent-multi-task-functional-co-activation-changes-using-measures-of-task-potency
#17
Roselyne J Chauvin, Maarten Mennes, Jan K Buitelaar, Christian F Beckmann
It is being hypothesised that the developing adolescent brain is increasingly enlisting long-range connectivity, allowing improved communication between spatially distant brain regions. The developmental trajectories of such maturational changes remain elusive. Here, we aim to study how the brain engages in multiple tasks (working memory, reward processing, and inhibition) at the network-level and evaluate how effects of age across these tasks are related to each other. We characterise how the brain departs from its functional baseline architecture towards task-induced functional connectivity modulations using a novel measure called task potency, allowing direct comparison between tasks by defining sensitivity to one or multiple tasks...
December 5, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223144/role-of-carbon-monoxide-in-neurovascular-repair-processing
#18
REVIEW
Yoon Kyung Choi
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a gaseous molecule produced from heme by heme oxygenase (HO). Endogenous CO production occurring at low concentrations is thought to have several useful biological roles. In mammals, especially humans, a proper neurovascular unit comprising endothelial cells, pericytes, astrocytes, microglia, and neurons is essential for the homeostasis and survival of the central nervous system (CNS). In addition, the regeneration of neurovascular systems from neural stem cells and endothelial precursor cells after CNS diseases is responsible for functional repair...
December 8, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222835/effective-network-of-deep-brain-stimulation-of-subthalamic-nucleus-with-bimodal-positron-emission-tomography-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-parkinson-s-disease
#19
Hui-Min Chen, Zhi-Qiang Sha, Hui-Zi Ma, Yong He, Tao Feng
AIMS: Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) has become an effective treatment strategy for patients with Parkinson's disease. However, the biological mechanism underlying DBS treatment remains poorly understood. METHOD: In this study, we investigated how STN-DBS modulated the brain network using a bimodal positron emission tomography (PET)/functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) dataset. We first performed an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of 13 PET/SPECT studies concerning STN-DBS effects on resting-state brain activity in Parkinson's disease...
December 8, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222818/task-related-effective-connectivity-reveals-that-the-cortical-rich-club-gates-cortex-wide-communication
#20
Mario Senden, Niels Reuter, Martijn P van den Heuvel, Rainer Goebel, Gustavo Deco, Matthieu Gilson
Higher cognition may require the globally coordinated integration of specialized brain regions into functional networks. A collection of structural cortical hubs-referred to as the rich club-has been hypothesized to support task-specific functional integration. In the present paper, we use a whole-cortex model to estimate directed interactions between 68 cortical regions from functional magnetic resonance imaging activity for four different tasks (reflecting different cognitive domains) and resting state. We analyze the state-dependent input and output effective connectivity (EC) of the structural rich club and relate these to whole-cortex dynamics and network reconfigurations...
December 8, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
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