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Brain function network

Jae Hyun Yoo, Yunhye Oh, Byongsu Jang, Jihye Song, Jiwon Kim, Seonwoo Kim, Jiyoung Lee, Hye-Yeon Shin, Jeong-Yi Kwon, Yun-Hee Kim, Bumseok Jeong, Yoo-Sook Joung
Objective: Equine-assisted activities and therapy (EAA/T) have been used as adjunct treatment options for physical and psychosocial rehabilitation. However, the therapeutic effects on resting-state brain function have not yet been studied. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of EAA/T on participants with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by comparing resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) signals and their clinical correlates. Methods: Ten participants with ADHD participated in a 12-week EAA/T program without any medication...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Christine Petschow, Lukas Scheef, Sebastian Paus, Nadine Zimmermann, Hans H Schild, Thomas Klockgether, Henning Boecker
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Pain is a common non-motor symptom in Parkinson's disease. As dopaminergic dysfunction is suggested to affect intrinsic nociceptive processing, this study was designed to characterize laser-induced pain processing in early-stage Parkinson's disease patients in the dopaminergic OFF state, using a multimodal experimental approach at behavioral, autonomic, imaging levels. METHODS: 13 right-handed early-stage Parkinson's disease patients without cognitive or sensory impairment were investigated OFF medication, along with 13 age-matched healthy control subjects...
2016: PloS One
Ana Coito, Christoph M Michel, Pieter van Mierlo, Serge Vulliemoz, Gijs Plomp
: The importance of functional brain connectivity to study physiological and pathological brain activity has been widely recognized. Here, we aimed to 1) review a methodological pipeline to investigate directed functional connectivity between brain regions using source signals derived from high-density EEG; 2) elaborate on some methodological challenges; 3) apply this pipeline to temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients and healthy controls to investigate directed functional connectivity differences in the theta and beta frequency bands during EEG epochs without visible pathological activity...
October 20, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Tanya T Nguyen, Sanja Kovacevic, Sheena I Dev, Kun Lu, Thomas T Liu, Lisa T Eyler
Objective: Disturbances in functional connectivity have been suggested to contribute to cognitive and emotion processing deficits observed in bipolar disorder (BD). Functional connectivity between medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and other brain regions may be particularly abnormal. The goal of the present study was to characterize the temporal dynamics of the default mode network (DMN) connectivity in BD and examine its association with cognition. Method: In a preliminary study, euthymic BD (n = 15) and healthy comparison (HC, n = 19) participants underwent resting-state functional MRI, using high-resolution sequences adapted from the Human Connectome Project, and completed neuropsychological measures of processing speed and executive function...
October 24, 2016: Neuropsychology
Samantha V Abram, Krista M Wisner, Jaclyn M Fox, Deanna M Barch, Lei Wang, John G Csernansky, Angus W MacDonald, Matthew J Smith
Impaired cognitive empathy is a core social cognitive deficit in schizophrenia associated with negative symptoms and social functioning. Cognitive empathy and negative symptoms have also been linked to medial prefrontal and temporal brain networks. While shared behavioral and neural underpinnings are suspected for cognitive empathy and negative symptoms, research is needed to test these hypotheses. In two studies, we evaluated whether resting-state functional connectivity between data-driven networks, or components (referred to as, inter-component connectivity), predicted cognitive empathy and experiential and expressive negative symptoms in schizophrenia subjects...
October 24, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
V B Puetz, D Parker, N Kohn, B Dahmen, R Verma, K Konrad
Childhood maltreatment is associated with alterations in neural architecture that potentially put these children at increased risk for psychopathology. Alterations in white matter (WM) tracts have been reported, however no study to date has investigated WM connectivity in brain networks in maltreated children to quantify global and local abnormalities through graph theoretical analyses of DTI data. We aimed for a multilevel investigation examining the DTI-based structural connectome and its associations with basal cortisol levels of 25 children with documented maltreatment experiences before age 3, and 24 matched controls (age: 10...
October 24, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
B Bellana, Z-X Liu, N B Diamond, C L Grady, M Moscovitch
The default mode network (DMN) has been identified reliably during rest, as well as during the performance of tasks such as episodic retrieval and future imagining. It remains unclear why this network is engaged across these seemingly distinct conditions, though many hypotheses have been proposed to account for these effects. Prior to generating hypotheses explaining common DMN involvement, the degree of commonality in the DMN across these conditions, within individuals, must be statistically determined to test whether or not the DMN is truly a unitary network, equally engaged across rest, retrieval and future imagining...
October 24, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Sherie Ma, Craig M Smith, Anna Blasiak, Andrew L Gundlach
Relaxin-3 is a member of a superfamily of structurally-related peptides that includes relaxin and insulin-like peptide hormones. Soon after the discovery of the relaxin-3 gene, relaxin-3 was identified as an abundant neuropeptide in brain with a distinctive topographical distribution within a small number of GABA neuron populations that is well conserved across species. Relaxin-3 is thought to exert its biological actions through a single class-A GPCR - relaxin-family peptide receptor 3 (RXFP3). Class-A comprises GPCRs for relaxin-3 and insulin-like peptide-5 and other peptides such as orexin and the monoamine transmitters...
October 23, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Jia Zhao, Jiangang Liu, Xin Jiang, Guifei Zhou, Guowei Chen, Xiao P Ding, Genyue Fu, Kang Lee
Executive function (EF) plays vital roles in our everyday adaptation to the ever-changing environment. However, limited existing studies have linked EF to the resting-state brain activity. The functional connectivity in the resting state between the sub-regions of the brain can reveal the intrinsic neural mechanisms involved in cognitive processing of EF without disturbance from external stimuli. The present study investigated the relations between the behavioral executive function (EF) scores and the resting-state functional network topological properties in the Prefrontal Cortex (PFC)...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Javier Gonzalez-Castillo, Gang Chen, Thomas E Nichols, Peter A Bandettini
Here we report an exploratory within-subject variance decomposition analysis conducted on a task-based fMRI dataset with an unusually large number of repeated measures (i.e., 500 trials in each of three different subjects) distributed across 100 functional scans and 9 to 10 different sessions. Within-subject variance was segregated into four primary components: variance across-sessions, variance across-runs within a session, variance across-blocks within a run, and residual measurement/modeling error. Our results reveal inhomogeneous and distinct spatial distributions of these variance components across significantly active voxels in grey matter...
October 20, 2016: NeuroImage
G Mkrtchyan, A Graf, L Bettendorff, V Bunik
Decreased thiamine and reduced activity of thiamine diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (OGDH) cause neurodegeneration. We hypothesized on concerted cell-specific regulation of the thiamine metabolism and ThDP-dependent reactions. We identified a smaller thiamine pool, a lower expression of the mitochondrial ThDP transporter, and a higher expression of OGDH in rat astrocytes versus neuroblastoma N2A. According to the data, the astrocytic OGDH may be up-regulated by an increase in intracellular ThDP, while the neuroblastomal OGDH functions at full ThDP saturation...
October 20, 2016: Neurochemistry International
Ming-Liang Wang, Wen-Bin Li
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is closely related to increased incidence of cognitive impairment from the acute phase to chronic phase. At present, the pathological mechanism leading to cognitive impairment after TBI is still not fully understood. We hypothesize that neuron loss, diffuse axonal injury, microbleed, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption altogether contribute to the development of cognitive impairment. Furthermore, the disruption of structural and functional neural network related to the cognitive function might bring about the final step in the occurrence of cognitive impairment after TBI...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
K R Sabitha, D Sanjay, B Savita, T R Raju, T R Laxmi
Neurons communicate with each other through intricate network to evolve higher brain functions. The electrical activity of the neurons plays a crucial role in shaping the connectivity. With motor neurons being vulnerable to neurodegenerative diseases, understanding the electrophysiological properties of motor neurons is the need of the hour, in order to comprehend the impairment of connectivity in these diseases. NSC-34 cell line serves as an excellent model to study the properties of motor neurons as they express Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Clare Paterson, Yanhong Wang, Thomas M Hyde, Daniel R Weinberger, Joel E Kleinman, Amanda J Law
OBJECTIVE: Genes implicated in schizophrenia are enriched in networks differentially regulated during human CNS development. Neuregulin 3 (NRG3), a brain-enriched neurotrophin, undergoes alternative splicing and is implicated in several neurological disorders with developmental origins. Isoform-specific increases in NRG3 are observed in schizophrenia and associated with rs10748842, a NRG3 risk polymorphism, suggesting NRG3 transcriptional dysregulation as a molecular mechanism of risk...
October 24, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
Jilei Zhang, Jingjing Su, Mengxing Wang, Ying Zhao, Qian Yao, Qiting Zhang, Haifeng Lu, Hui Zhang, Shuo Wang, Ge-Fei Li, Yi-Lan Wu, Feng-Di Liu, Yan-Hui Shi, Jianqi Li, Jian-Ren Liu, Xiaoxia Du
BACKGROUND: The precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex, which has been associated with pain sensitivity, plays a pivotal role in the default mode network. However, information regarding migraine-related alterations in resting-state brain functional connectivity in the default mode network and in local regional spontaneous neuronal activity is not adequate. METHODS: This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to acquire resting-state scans in 22 migraineurs without aura and in 22 healthy matched controls...
December 2016: Journal of Headache and Pain
Jesús M López, Lorena Morales, Agustín González
The present immunohistochemical study represents a detailed spatiotemporal analysis of the localization of orexin-immunoreactive (OX-ir) cells and fibers throughout development in the brain of the anuran amphibian Xenopus laevis, a model frequently used in developmental studies. Anurans undergo remarkable physiological changes during the early life stages, and very little is known about the ontogeny and the localization of the centers that control functions such as appetite and feed ingestion in the developing brain...
October 22, 2016: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Xia Wang, Xianghong Shan, Cheryl Y Gregory-Evans
The Pax6 transcription factor is essential for development of the brain, eye, olfactory and endocrine systems. Haploinsufficiency of PAX6 in humans and mice causes the congenital condition aniridia, with defects in each of these organs and systems. Identification of the PAX6 transcription networks driving normal development is therefore critical in understanding the pathophysiology observed with loss-of-function defects. Here we have focused on identification of the downstream targets for Pax6 in the developing iris and ciliary body, where we used laser capture microdissection in mouse eyes from E12...
October 20, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
L M Rueda-Delgado, E Solesio-Jofre, D Mantini, P Dupont, A Daffertshofer, S P Swinnen
The neural network and the task-dependence of (local) activity changes involved in bimanual coordination are well documented. However, much less is known about the functional connectivity within this neural network and its modulation according to manipulations of task complexity. Here, we assessed neural activity via high-density electroencephalography, focussing on changes of activity in the beta frequency band (~15-30Hz) across the motor network in 26 young adult participants (19-29 years old). We investigated how network connectivity was modulated with task difficulty and errors of performance during a bimanual visuomotor movement consisting of dial rotation according to three different ratios of speed: an isofrequency movement (1:1), a non-isofrequency movement with the right hand keeping the fast pace (1:3), and the converse ratio with the left hand keeping the fast pace (3:1)...
October 19, 2016: NeuroImage
Ying Yang, Jing Wang, Cyntia Bailer, Vladimir Cherkassky, Marcel Adam Just
The aim of the study was to test the cross-language generative capability of a model that predicts neural activation patterns evoked by sentence reading, based on a semantic characterization of the sentence. In a previous study on English monolingual speakers (Wang, Cherkassky, & Just, submitted), a computational model performed a mapping from a set of 42 concept-level semantic features (Neurally Plausible Semantic Features, NPSFs) as well as 6 thematic role markers to neural activation patterns (assessed with fMRI), to predict activation levels in a network of brain locations...
October 19, 2016: NeuroImage
J Gourlay, A P Morokoff, R B Luwor, H-J Zhu, A H Kaye, S S Stylli
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are known mediators of intercellular communication for both normal and tumour cells. With the capability to transfer nucleic acids, proteins and lipids, EVs are able to influence numerous functional and pathological aspects of both donor and recipient cells. The tumour microenvironment possesses a high level of complex heterogeneity, particularly within the most prominent brain malignancy, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). This complexity relies on a network-based communication between many different components of the local niche, including the various cell types, stroma, blood vessels, secreted factors and surrounding matrix...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
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