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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453688/edlib-a-c-c%C3%A2-library-for-fast-exact-sequence-alignment-using-edit-distance
#1
Martin Šošic, Mile Šikic
Summary: We present Edlib, an open-source C/C ++ library for exact pairwise sequence alignment using edit distance. We compare Edlib to other libraries and show that it is the fastest while not lacking in functionality and can also easily handle very large sequences. Being easy to use, flexible, fast and low on memory usage, we expect it to be easily adopted as a building block for future bioinformatics tools. Availability and Implementation: Source code, installation instructions and test data are freely available for download at https://github...
May 1, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453603/the-effect-of-insomnia-on-neuropsychological-functioning-in-patients-with-comorbid-symptoms-of-pain-fatigue-and-mood-disorders
#2
Julie Aasvik, Tore C Stiles, Astrid Woodhouse, Petter Borchgrevink, Nils Inge Landrø
Objectives: To examine if elevated symptoms of insomnia affects neuropsychological functioning in patients with concurrent symptoms of pain, fatigue, and mood disorders. Methods and results: A total of seventy-six subjects participated in this (cross-sectional) study. Based on the cut-off score guidelines from The Insomnia Severity Index subjects were assigned to either a clinical insomnia group (N = 35) or a comparison group (N = 41). Factors such as age, general cognitive functioning, and symptoms of pain, fatigue, depression, and anxiety did not differ between the groups...
April 27, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453589/-effects-of-prebiotics-and-probiotics-on-gastrointestinal-tract-lymphoid-tissue-in-hiv-infected-patients
#3
Manuel G Feria, Natalia A Taborda, Juan C Hernandez, María T Rugeles
HIV infection induces alterations in almost all immune cell populations, mainly in CD4+ T cells, leading to the development of opportunistic infections. The gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) constitutes the most important site for viral replication, because the main target cells, memory T-cells, reside in this tissue. It is currently known that alterations in GALT are critical during the course of the infection, as HIV-1 induces loss of tissue integrity and promotes translocation of microbial products from the intestinal lumen to the systemic circulation, leading to a persistent immune activation state and immune exhaustion...
February 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453532/feasibility-of-computerized-working-memory-training-in-individuals-with-huntington-disease
#4
Mahsa Sadeghi, Emily Barlow-Krelina, Clare Gibbons, Komal T Shaikh, Wai Lun Alan Fung, Wendy S Meschino, Christine Till
OBJECTIVES: Huntington disease (HD) is associated with a variety of cognitive deficits, with prominent difficulties in working memory (WM). WM deficits are notably compromised in early-onset and prodromal HD patients. This study aimed to determine the feasibility of a computerized WM training program (Cogmed QM), novel to the HD population. METHODS: Nine patients, aged 26-62, with early stage HD underwent a 25-session (5 days/week for 5 weeks) WM training program (Cogmed QM)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453484/can-better-management-of-periodontal-disease-delay-the-onset-and-progression-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Alice Harding, Sarita Robinson, St John Crean, Sim K Singhrao
A risk factor relationship exists between periodontal disease and Alzheimer's disease (AD) via tooth loss, and improved memory following dental intervention. This links the microbial contribution from indigenous oral periodontal pathogens to the manifestation of chronic conditions, such as AD. Here, we use Porphyromonas gingivalis infection to illustrate its effect on mental health. P. gingivalis infection, in its primary sub-gingival niche, can cause polymicrobial synergy and dysbiosis. Dysbiosis describes the residency of select commensals from the oral cavity following co-aggregation around the dominant keystone pathogen, such as P...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453473/prodromal-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-and-prodromal-alzheimer-s-disease-a-comparison-of-the-cognitive-and-clinical-profiles
#6
Dilman Sadiq, Tim Whitfield, Lean Lee, Tim Stevens, Sergi Costafreda, Zuzana Walker
BACKGROUND: Dementia must be diagnosed accurately and early in the disease course to allow pathology-specific treatments to be effective. Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is often misdiagnosed as Alzheimer's disease (AD), especially at the prodromal stage. OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical and neuropsychological profiles of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients who, at follow-up, progressed to AD (retrospectively AD-MCI) or DLB (retrospectively DLB-MCI) or remained MCI...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449397/differential-proteome-profiling-in-the-hippocampus-of-amnesic-mice
#7
Meghraj Singh Baghel, Mahendra Kumar Thakur
Amnesia or memory loss is associated with brain aging and several neurodegenerative pathologies including Alzheimer's disease (AD). This can be induced by a cholinergic antagonist scopolamine, but the underlying molecular mechanism is poorly understood. The present study of proteome profiling in the hippocampus could provide conceptual insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in amnesia. To reveal this, mice were administered scopolamine to induce amnesia and memory impairment was validated by novel object recognition test...
April 27, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449268/ventral-but-not-dorsal-hippocampus-inactivation-impairs-reward-memory-expression-and-retrieval-in-contexts-defined-by-proximal-cues
#8
Sadia Riaz, Anett Schumacher, Seyon Sivagurunathan, Matthijs Van Der Meer, Rutsuko Ito
The hippocampus (HPC) has been widely implicated in the contextual control of appetitive and aversive conditioning. However, whole hippocampal lesions do not invariably impair all forms of contextual processing, as in the case of complex biconditional context discrimination, leading to contention over the exact nature of the contribution of the HPC in contextual processing. Moreover, the increasingly well-established functional dissociation between the dorsal (dHPC) and ventral (vHPC) subregions of the HPC has been largely overlooked in the existing literature on hippocampal-based contextual memory processing in appetitively-motivated tasks...
April 27, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449242/resting-sympathetic-arousal-moderates-the-association-between-parasympathetic-reactivity-and-working-memory-performance-in-adults-reporting-high-levels-of-life-stress
#9
Ryan J Giuliano, Lisa M Gatzke-Kopp, Leslie E Roos, Elizabeth A Skowron
The neurovisceral integration model stipulates that autonomic function plays a critical role in the regulation of higher-order cognitive processes, yet most work to date has examined parasympathetic function in isolation from sympathetic function. Furthermore, the majority of work has been conducted on normative samples, which typically demonstrate parasympathetic withdrawal to increase arousal needed to complete cognitive tasks. Little is known about how autonomic regulation supports cognitive function in populations exposed to high levels of stress, which is critical given that chronic stress exposure alters autonomic function...
April 27, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448820/is-there-a-link-between-biological-parents-insight-into-their-offspring-s-schizophrenia-and-their-cognitive-functioning-expressed-emotion-and-knowledge-about-disorder
#10
Alexandra Macgregor, Joanna Norton, Stéphane Raffard, Delphine Capdevielle
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that parents' awareness of their offspring's schizophrenia could influence their offspring's insight. Low patient insight is linked to impairment of specific cognitive abilities, and biological parents of schizophrenia patients have impaired capacities in these same domains. However, little is known about what specific socio-demographic, affective or cognitive factors may influence biological parents' awareness of their offspring's disease. METHOD: Data were drawn from 41 patient-parent dyads...
April 13, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448453/working-memory-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#11
REVIEW
Shintaro Funahashi
The prefrontal cortex participates in a variety of higher cognitive functions. The concept of working memory is now widely used to understand prefrontal functions. Neurophysiological studies have revealed that stimulus-selective delay-period activity is a neural correlate of the mechanism for temporarily maintaining information in working memory processes. The central executive, which is the master component of Baddeley's working memory model and is thought to be a function of the prefrontal cortex, controls the performance of other components by allocating a limited capacity of memory resource to each component based on its demand...
April 27, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448374/characteristics-and-correlates-of-caregivers-perceptions-of-their-family-members-memory-loss
#12
Hairong Yu, Jennifer H Lingler, Susan M Sereika, Judith A Erlen
BACKGROUND: Understanding caregiver's perceptions of their family member's memory loss is a necessary step in planning nursing interventions to detect and address caregiver burden. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to characterize caregivers' perceptions of their family members' memory loss and identify potential correlates within Leventhal's common sense model (CSM). METHODS: This secondary analysis used baseline data from a larger randomized controlled trial...
May 2017: Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448085/obesity-and-cognitive-decline-in-adults-effect-of-methodological-choices-and-confounding-by-age-in-a-longitudinal-study
#13
K Deckers, M P J Van Boxtel, F R J Verhey, S Köhler
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Obesity has been associated with increased risk of cognitive impairment or dementia, but recent findings are contradictory, possibly due to methodological differences. The present study tries to clarify these inconsistencies by following the cognitive trajectories of individuals with obesity over 12 years and studying the effect of obesity status (obesity at baseline versus incident obesity at follow-up), chronicity, definition, potential confounding (e.g. age, cardiovascular factors), and non-linear associations...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448009/using-primary-neurosphere-cultures-to-study-primary-cilia
#14
Issei S Shimada, Hemant Badgandi, Bandarigoda N Somatilaka, Saikat Mukhopadhyay
The primary cilium is fundamentally important for the proliferation of neural stem/progenitor cells and for neuronal differentiation during embryonic, postnatal, and adult life. In addition, most differentiated neurons possess primary cilia that house signaling receptors, such as G-protein-coupled receptors, and signaling molecules, such as adenylyl cyclases. The primary cilium determines the activity of multiple developmental pathways, including the sonic hedgehog pathway during embryonic neuronal development, and also functions in promoting compartmentalized subcellular signaling during adult neuronal function...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447818/correction-to-weststrate-and-gl%C3%A3-ck-2017
#15
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Hard-earned wisdom: Exploratory processing of difficult life experience is positively associated with wisdom" by Nic M. Weststrate and Judith Glück (Developmental Psychology, 2017[Apr], Vol 53[4], 800-814). (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2017-12497-007.) Laypersons and experts believe that wisdom is cultivated through a diverse range of positive and negative life experiences. Yet, not all individuals with life experience are wise. We propose that one possible determinant of growth in wisdom from life experience is self-reflection...
April 27, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447764/sevoflurane-anesthesia-in-pregnant-rats-negatively-affects-nerve-function-in-offspring-potentially-via-inhibition-of-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway
#16
Yiyao Wang, Yu Li, Qunzhi Xing, Xuechan G Han, Xu Dong, Yiping Lu, Mintao Zhou
Due to the rapid development of medical technology used to perform intrauterine procedures during pregnancy, the number of patients receiving fetal surgery under general anesthesia is increasing. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of anesthetics on the offspring of rats, and to identify the potential mechanisms underlying these effects. On day 14 of pregnancy, Sprague‑Dawley rats were equally divided into the following 3 groups (n=9): Control group (n=3), 3% sevoflurane group (n=3) and 4% sevoflurane group (n=3)...
March 13, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447536/health-related-quality-of-life-of-nepalese-children-with-leukemia-using-pediatric-quality-of-life-inventory-4-0-generic-core-scale
#17
Anu V K, Mandira Onta, Sarala Joshi
Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is an essential measure to consider when evaluating the full impact of illness in children diagnosed with leukemia. The purpose of the current study was to assess the overall HRQOL and specific functioning subscales of Nepalese children with leukemia using Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 Generic Core Scale (PedsQL 4.0), compare self-report with parent proxy report of HRQOL and to identify the determinants affecting HRQOL. After cultural linguistic validation of PedsQL, a descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 43 children with leukemia and their parents in B...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing: Official Journal of the Association of Pediatric Oncology Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447268/atypical-age-dependency-of-executive-function-and-white-matter-microstructure-in-children-and-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#18
Kenia Martínez, Jessica Merchán-Naranjo, Laura Pina-Camacho, Yasser Alemán-Gómez, Leticia Boada, David Fraguas, Carmen Moreno, Celso Arango, Joost Janssen, Mara Parellada
Executive function (EF) performance is associated with measurements of white matter microstructure (WMS) in typical individuals. Impaired EF is a hallmark symptom of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) but it is unclear how impaired EF relates to variability in WMS. Twenty-one male youth (8-18 years) with ASD and without intellectual disability and twenty-one typical male participants (TP) matched for age, intelligence quotient, handedness, race and parental socioeconomic status were recruited. Five EF domains were assessed and several DTI-based measurements of WMS [fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD) and radial diffusivity (RD)] were estimated for eighteen white matter tracts...
April 26, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447066/neuronal-functions-of-foxo-daf-16
#19
REVIEW
Sun Y Kim, Ashley E Webb
The FOXO family of transcription factors plays a conserved role in longevity and tissue homeostasis across species. In the mammalian nervous system, emerging evidence has implicated FOXOs in cognitive performance, stem cell maintenance, regeneration, and protection against stress. Much of what we know about neuronal functions of FOXO emerged from recent studies in C. elegans. Similar to mammalian FOXO, the worm FOXO ortholog, called DAF-16, regulates learning and memory, regeneration, and stress resistance in neurons...
March 31, 2017: Nutrition and Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446944/protective-effects-of-proline-rich-peptide-in-a-rat-model-of-alzheimer-disease-an-electrophysiological-study
#20
Naser Khalaji, John Sarkissian, Vergine Chavushyan, Vaghinak Sarkisian
INTRODUCTION: Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly that slowly destroys memory and cognitive functions. The disease has no cure and leads to significant structural and functional brain abnormalities. To facilitate the treatment of this disease, we aimed to investigate proline-rich peptide (PRP-1) action of hypothalamus on hippocampal (HP) neurons and dynamics of their recovery, after intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of amyloid-β (Aβ). METHODS: Experiments were carried out on 24 adult, male Albino rats (average weight: 230±30 g)...
January 2017: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
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