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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641332/executive-dysfunctions-predict-self-restricted-driving-habits-in-elderly-people-with-or-without-alzheimer-s-dementia
#1
Ilsemarie Kurzthaler, Georg Kemmler, Michaela Defrancesco, Bernadette Moser, Wolfgang W Fleischhacker, Elisabeth M Weiss
Introduction The purpose of this study was to elucidate the impact of specific cognitive functions on self-restricted driving habits in healthy elderly drivers and patients suffering from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's dementia (AD). Method Our study population included 35 cognitively healthy controls, 10 MCI patients, and 16 patients with AD. All participants completed a neuropsychological examination and a self-reported questionnaire assessing driving habits and patterns. Results In challenging driving conditions, patients with MCI or AD showed significantly more driving self-restriction than healthy subjects (effect size d=1...
June 22, 2017: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641287/chrysophanol-suppressed-glutamate-induced-hippocampal-neuronal-cell-death-via-regulation-of-dynamin-related-protein-1-dependent-mitochondrial-fission
#2
Unbin Chae, Ju-Sik Min, Hyun Hee Leem, Hyun-Shik Lee, Hong Jun Lee, Sang-Rae Lee, Dong-Seok Lee
Chrysophanic acid, or chrysophanol, is an anthraquinone found in Rheum palmatum, which was used in the preparation of oriental medicine in ancient China. The hippocampus plays a major role in controlling the activities of the short- and long-term memory. It is one of the major regions affected by excessive cell death in Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, neuronal cell-death modulation in the hippocampus is important for maintaining neuronal function. We investigated chrysophanol's effects on glutamate-induced hippocampal neuronal cell death...
June 23, 2017: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641214/motor-system-dysfunction-in-the-schizophrenia-diathesis-neural-systems-to-neurotransmitters
#3
R Abboud, C Noronha, V A Diwadkar
Motor control is a ubiquitous aspect of human function, and from its earliest origins, abnormal motor control has been proposed as being central to schizophrenia. The neurobiological architecture of the motor system is well understood in primates and involves cortical and sub-cortical components including the primary motor cortex, supplementary motor area, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, the prefrontal cortex, the basal ganglia, and cerebellum. Notably all of these regions are associated in some manner to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia...
April 25, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641136/age-exacerbates-abnormal-protein-expression-in-a-mouse-model-of-down-syndrome
#4
Md Mahiuddin Ahmed, Aaron Block, Suhong Tong, Muriel T Davisson, Katheleen J Gardiner
The Ts65Dn is a popular mouse model of Down syndrome (DS). It displays DS-relevant features of learning/memory deficits and age-related loss of functional markers in basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. Here we describe protein expression abnormalities in brain regions of 12-month-old male Ts65Dn mice. We show that the magnitudes of abnormalities of human chromosome 21 and non-human chromosome 21 orthologous proteins are greater at 12 months than at ∼6 months. Age-related exacerbations involve the number of components affected in the mechanistic target of rapamycin pathway, the levels of components of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, and proteins associated with Alzheimer's disease...
May 10, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641120/the-cognitive-bases-of-the-development-of-past-and-future-episodic-cognition-in-preschoolers
#5
Gülten Ünal, Annette Hohenberger
The aim of this study was to use a minimalist framework to examine the joint development of past and future episodic cognition and their underlying cognitive abilities in 3- to 5-year-old Turkish preschoolers. Participants engaged in two main tasks, a what-where-when (www) task to measure episodic memory and a future prediction task to measure episodic future thinking. Three additional tasks were used for predicting children's performance in the two main tasks: a temporal language task, an executive function task, and a spatial working memory task...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640825/olfactory-learning-without-the-mushroom-bodies-spiking-neural-network-models-of-the-honeybee-lateral-antennal-lobe-tract-reveal-its-capacities-in-odour-memory-tasks-of-varied-complexities
#6
HaDi MaBouDi, Hideaki Shimazaki, Martin Giurfa, Lars Chittka
The honeybee olfactory system is a well-established model for understanding functional mechanisms of learning and memory. Olfactory stimuli are first processed in the antennal lobe, and then transferred to the mushroom body and lateral horn through dual pathways termed medial and lateral antennal lobe tracts (m-ALT and l-ALT). Recent studies reported that honeybees can perform elemental learning by associating an odour with a reward signal even after lesions in m-ALT or blocking the mushroom bodies. To test the hypothesis that the lateral pathway (l-ALT) is sufficient for elemental learning, we modelled local computation within glomeruli in antennal lobes with axons of projection neurons connecting to a decision neuron (LHN) in the lateral horn...
June 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640632/gut-microbiota-nitric-oxide-and-microglia-as-pre-requisites-for-neurodegenerative-disorders
#7
Joyce Ka Yu Tse
Regulating fluctuating endogenous nitric oxide (NO) levels is necessary for proper physiological functions. Aberrant NO pathways are implicated in a number of neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Parkinson's Disease. The mechanism of NO in oxidative and nitrosative stress with pathological consequences involves reactions with reactive oxygen species (e.g. superoxide) to form the highly reactive peroxynitrite, hydrogen peroxide, hypochloride ions and hydroxyl radical. NO levels are typically regulated by endogenous nitric oxide synthases (NOS), and inflammatory iNOS is implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, in which elevated NO mediates axonal degeneration and activates cyclooxygenases to provoke neuroinflammation...
June 22, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637289/the-importance-of-knowing-when-you-don-t-remember-neural-signaling-of-retrieval-failure-predicts-memory-improvement-over-time
#8
Yana Fandakova, Silvia A Bunge, Carter Wendelken, Peter Desautels, Lauren Hunter, Joshua K Lee, Simona Ghetti
Just as the ability to remember prior events is critical for guiding our decision-making, so too is the ability to recognize the limitations of our memory. Indeed, we hypothesize that neural signaling of retrieval failure promotes more accurate memory judgments over time. To test this hypothesis, we collected longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 8 to 9 years olds, 10 to 12 years olds, and adults, with two time points spaced approximately 1.4 years apart (198 scan sessions in total)...
November 23, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636948/pten%C3%AE-modulates-camkii-signaling-and-controls-contextual-fear-memory-and-spatial-learning
#9
Pan Wang, Fan Mei, Jiapan Hu, Minglu Zhu, Hailong Qi, Xi Chen, Ruiqi Li, Michael A McNutt, Yuxin Yin
PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homology deleted on chromosome 10) has multiple functions, and recent studies have shown that the PTEN family has isoforms. The roles of these PTEN family members in biologic activities warrant specific evaluation. Here, we show that PTENα maintains CaMKII in a state that is competent to induce long-term potentiation (LTP) with resultant regulation of contextual fear memory and spatial learning. PTENα binds to CaMKII with its distinctive N terminus and resets CaMKII to an activatable state by dephosphorylating it at sites T305/306...
June 20, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636890/memory-t-cells-a-helpful-guard-for-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-without-causing-graft-versus-host-disease
#10
REVIEW
Wei Huang, Nelson J Chao
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) and the major cause of nonrelapse morbidity and mortality of AHSCT. In AHSCT, donor T cells facilitate hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) engraftment, contribute to anti-infection immunity, and mediate graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) responses. However, activated alloreactive T cells also attack recipient cells in vital organs, leading to GVHD. Different T-cell subsets, including naïve T (TN) cells, memory T (TM) cells, and regulatory T (Treg) cells mediate different forms of GVHD and GVL; TN cells mediate severe GVHD, whereas TM cells do not cause GVHD, but preserve T-cell function including GVL...
June 13, 2017: Hematology/oncology and Stem Cell Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636574/early-intervention-programme-for-patients-with-psychotic-disorders-in-sveti-ivan-psychiatric-hospital-ripepp-sociodemographic-and-baseline-characteristics-of-the-participants
#11
Branka Restek-Petrović, Ana Majdančić, Sven Molnar, Majda Grah, Ena Ivezić, Igor Filipčić, Anamarija Bogović, Vladimir Grošić, Nina Mayer, Slobodanka Kezić, Irena Pavlović
BACKGROUND: Psychiatric hospital "Sveti Ivan" in Zagreb, Croatia, offers an outpatient Early intervention programme for patients with psychotic disorders (RIPEPP), consisting of psychoeducational workshops and group psychodynamic psychotherapy. The aim of this study was to describe sociodemographic and baseline characteristics of the participants, in order to provide better understanding of this population, and to assist with the development of more effective therapeutic approaches. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Since 2008, a total of 245 patients with first episodes of psychosis and their family members participated in the programme...
June 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635960/somatic-mutations-in-clonally-expanded-cytotoxic-t-lymphocytes-in-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-rheumatoid-arthritis
#12
P Savola, T Kelkka, H L Rajala, A Kuuliala, K Kuuliala, S Eldfors, P Ellonen, S Lagström, M Lepistö, T Hannunen, E I Andersson, R K Khajuria, T Jaatinen, R Koivuniemi, H Repo, J Saarela, K Porkka, M Leirisalo-Repo, S Mustjoki
Somatic mutations contribute to tumorigenesis. Although these mutations occur in all proliferating cells, their accumulation under non-malignant conditions, such as in autoimmune disorders, has not been investigated. Here, we show that patients with newly diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis have expanded CD8+ T-cell clones; in 20% (5/25) of patients CD8+ T cells, but not CD4+ T cells, harbour somatic mutations. In healthy controls (n=20), only one mutation is identified in the CD8+ T-cell pool. Mutations exist exclusively in the expanded CD8+ effector-memory subset, persist during follow-up, and are predicted to change protein functions...
June 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635542/gene-expression-study-of-mitochondrial-complex-i-in-schizophrenia-and-paranoid-personality-disorder
#13
Arvin Haghighatfard, Sarah Andalib, Mozhdeh Amini Faskhodi, Soha Sadeghi, Amir Hossein Ghaderi, Shadi Moradkhani, Jalal Rostampour, Zeinab Tabrizi, Ali Mahmoodi, Talie Karimi, Zakieh Ghadimi
OBJECTIVES: The aetiology and molecular mechanisms of schizophrenia (SCZ) and paranoid personality disorder (PPD) are not yet clarified. The present study aimed to assess the role of mitochondrial complex I and cell bioenergetic pathways in the aetiology and characteristics of SCZ and PPD. METHODS: mRNA levels of all genomic and mitochondrial genes which encode mitochondrial complex I subunits (44 genes) were assessed in blood in 634 SCZ, 340 PPD patients and 528 non-psychiatric subjects using quantitative real-time PCR, and associated comprehensive psychiatric, neurological and biochemical assessments...
February 20, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634745/prolactin-function-and-putative-expression-in-the-brain
#14
REVIEW
Erika Alejandra Cabrera-Reyes, Ofelia Limón-Morales, Nadia Alejandra Rivero-Segura, Ignacio Camacho-Arroyo, Marco Cerbón
INTRODUCTION: Prolactin is a peptide hormone mainly synthetized and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland, but also by extrapituitary tissues, such as mammary gland, decidua, prostate, skin, and possibly the brain. Similarly, prolactin receptor is expressed in the pituitary gland, many peripheral tissues, and in contrast to prolactin, its receptor has been consistently detected in several brain regions, such as cerebral cortex, olfactory bulb, hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, among others...
June 20, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634543/cannabis-and-cognitive-functioning-in-multiple-sclerosis-the-role-of-gender
#15
Viral P Patel, Anthony Feinstein
BACKGROUND: Cognitive function in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) is associated with gender differences and the use of smoked/ingested cannabis. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this report is to explore a possible gender-cannabis interaction associated with cognitive dysfunction in PwMS. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was undertaken of cognitive data collected from 140 PwMS. A general linear model was conducted to determine gender and cannabis effects on processing speed (SDMT), verbal (CVLT-II) and visual (BVMT-R) memory, and executive functions (D-KEFS), while controlling for age and years of education...
April 2017: Multiple Sclerosis Journal—Experimental, Translational and Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634451/berberine-ameliorates-diabetes-associated-cognitive-decline-through-modulation-of-aberrant-inflammation-response-and-insulin-signaling-pathway-in-dm-rats
#16
Qingjie Chen, Ran Mo, Ninghua Wu, Xin Zou, Cai Shi, Jing Gong, Jingbin Li, Ke Fang, Dingkun Wang, Deshen Yang, Kaifu Wang, Juan Chen
Background: Memory-impairment was one of the common characteristics in patients with diabetes mellitus. The release of chronic inflammation mediators and insulin resistance in diabetic brain gave rise to the generation of toxic factor Aβ42 which was the marker of Alzheimer's disease. In addition, the impairment of memory in diabetes mellitus was also correlated predominantly with uptake/metabolism of glucose in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Previously, anti-inflammation and hypoglycemic effects of berberine (BBr) have been described in peripheral tissues...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634382/expression-of-p301l-htau-in-mouse-mec-induces-hippocampus-dependent-memory-deficit
#17
Xinghua Liu, Kuan Zeng, Mengzhu Li, Qun Wang, Rong Liu, Bin Zhang, Jian-Zhi Wang, Xiji Shu, Xiaochuan Wang
Intracellular accumulation of abnormally phosphorylated tau in different types of neurons is a pathological characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD). While tau modification and associated neuronal loss and hypometabolism start in the entorhinal cortex (EC) in early AD patients, the mechanism by which mutant P301L hTau leads to dementia is not fully elucidated. Here, we studied the effects of P301L hTau transduction in the medial EC (MEC) of mice on tau phosphorylation and accumulation, and cognitive deficit...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634329/long-days-enhance-recognition-memory-and-increase-insulin-like-growth-factor-2-in-the-hippocampus
#18
Adriano Dellapolla, Ian Kloehn, Harshida Pancholi, Ben Callif, David Wertz, Kayla E Rohr, Matthew M Hurley, Kimberly M Baker, Samer Hattar, Marieke R Gilmartin, Jennifer A Evans
Light improves cognitive function in humans; however, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying positive effects of light remain unclear. One obstacle is that most rodent models have employed lighting conditions that cause cognitive deficits rather than improvements. Here we have developed a mouse model where light improves cognitive function, which provides insight into mechanisms underlying positive effects of light. To increase light exposure without eliminating daily rhythms, we exposed mice to either a standard photoperiod or a long day photoperiod...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634266/30-years-of-the-mineralocorticoid-receptor-the-brain-mineralocorticoid-receptor-a-saga-in-three-episodes
#19
REVIEW
Marian Joëls, E Ronald de Kloet
In 1968, Bruce McEwen discovered that (3)H-corticosterone administered to adrenalectomised rats is retained in neurons of hippocampus rather than those of hypothalamus. This discovery signalled the expansion of endocrinology into the science of higher brain regions. With this in mind, our contribution highlights the saga of the brain mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in three episodes. First, the precloning era dominated by the conundrum of two types of corticosterone-binding receptors in the brain, which led to the identification of the high-affinity corticosterone receptor as the 'promiscuous' MR cloned in 1987 by Jeff Arriza and Ron Evans in addition to the classical glucocorticoid receptor (GR)...
July 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634074/distinct-regulation-of-activity-dependent-transcription-of-immediate-early-genes-in-cultured-rat-cortical-neurons
#20
Mamoru Fukuchi, Tomofumi Sanabe, Toshifumi Watanabe, Takane Kubota, Akiko Tabuchi, Masaaki Tsuda
The activity-regulated expression of immediate early genes (IEGs) contributes to long-lasting neuronal functions underlying long-term memory. However, their response properties following neuronal activity are unique and remain poorly understood. To address this knowledge gap, here we further investigated the response properties of two representative IEGs, c-fos and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf). Treatment of cultured cortical cells with KCl produces a depolarization process that results in the increase of intracellular calcium concentration in a KCl concentration-dependent manner...
June 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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