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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353280/microstructure-of-strategic-white-matter-tracts-and-cognition-in-memory-clinic-patients-with-vascular-brain-injury
#1
J Matthijs Biesbroek, Alexander Leemans, Hanna den Bakker, Marco Duering, Benno Gesierich, Huiberdina L Koek, Esther van den Berg, Albert Postma, Geert Jan Biessels
BACKGROUND: White matter injury is an important factor for cognitive impairment in memory clinic patients. We determined the added value of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of strategic white matter tracts in explaining variance in cognition in memory clinic patients with vascular brain injury. METHODS: We included 159 patients. Conventional MRI markers (white matter hyperintensity volume, lacunes, nonlacunar infarcts, brain atrophy, and microbleeds), and fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity (MD) of the whole brain white matter and of 18 white matter tracts were related to cognition using linear regression and Bayesian network analysis...
January 19, 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353053/conditional-inactivation-of-npy1r-gene-in-mice-induces-behavioural-inflexibility-and-orbitofrontal-cortex-hyperactivity-that-are-reversed-by-escitalopram
#2
Angela Longo, Melissa Fadda, Claudio Brasso, Paolo Mele, Paola Palanza, Ishira Nanavaty, Ilaria Bertocchi, Alessandra Oberto, Carola Eva
Cognitive flexibility is the ability to rapidly adapt established patterns of behaviour in the face of changing circumstance and depends critically on the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Impaired flexibility also results from altered serotonin transmission in the OFC. The Y1 (Y1R) and Y5 (Y5R) receptors for neuropeptide Y (NPY) colocalize in several brain regions and have overlapping functions in regulating cognition and emotional behaviour. The targeted disruption of gene encoding Y1R (Npy1r gene) in Y5R containing neurons (Npy1rY5R-/- mice) increases anxiety-like behaviour and spatial reference memory...
January 15, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353013/bottom-up-gamma-maintenance-in-various-disorders
#3
REVIEW
E Garcia-Rill, S Mahaffey, James R Hyde, F J Urbano
Maintained gamma band activity is a key element of higher brain function, participating in perception, executive function, and memory. The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), as part of the reticular activating system (RAS), is a major source of the "bottom-up" flow of gamma activity to higher regions. However, interruption of gamma band activity is associated with a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders. This review will focus on the role of the PPN in activating higher regions to induce arousal and descending pathways to modulate posture and locomotion...
January 15, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353010/modulation-of-immune-responses-by-plasmodium-falciparum-infection-in-asymptomatic-children-living-in-the-endemic-region-of-mbita-western-kenya
#4
Caroline Kijogi, Daisuke Kimura, Lam Quoc Bao, Risa Nakamura, Evans Asena Chadeka, Ngetich Benard Cheruiyot, Felix Bahati, Kazuhide Yahata, Osamu Kaneko, Sammy M Njenga, Yoshio Ichinose, Shinjiro Hamano, Katsuyuki Yui
Individuals living in malaria endemic areas become clinically immune after multiple re-infections over time and remain infected without apparent symptoms. However, it is unclear why a long period is required to gain clinical immunity to malaria, and how such immunity is maintained. Although malaria infection is reported to induce inhibition of immune responses, studies on asymptomatic individuals living in endemic regions of malaria are relatively scarce. We conducted a cross-sectional study of immune responses in asymptomatic school children aged 4-16years living in an area where Plasmodium falciparum and Schistosoma mansoni infections are co-endemic in Kenya...
January 15, 2018: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352274/compliance-free-digital-set-and-analog-reset-synaptic-characteristics-of-sub-tantalum-oxide-based-neuromorphic-device
#5
Yawar Abbas, Yu-Rim Jeon, Andrey Sergeevich Sokolov, Sohyeon Kim, Boncheol Ku, Changhwan Choi
A two terminal semiconducting device like a memristor is indispensable to emulate the function of synapse in the working memory. The analog switching characteristics of memristor play a vital role in the emulation of biological synapses. The application of consecutive voltage sweeps or pulses (action potentials) changes the conductivity of the memristor which is considered as the fundamental cause of the synaptic plasticity. In this study, a neuromorphic device using an in-situ growth of sub-tantalum oxide switching layer is fabricated, which exhibits the digital SET and analog RESET switching with an electroforming process without any compliance current (compliance free)...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352196/hyper-hippocampal-glycogen-induced-by-glycogen-loading-with-exhaustive-exercise
#6
Mariko Soya, Takashi Matsui, Takeru Shima, Subrina Jesmin, Naomi Omi, Hideaki Soya
Glycogen loading (GL), a well-known type of sports conditioning, in combination with exercise and a high carbohydrate diet (HCD) for 1 week enhances individual endurance capacity through muscle glycogen supercompensation. This exercise-diet combination is necessary for successful GL. Glycogen in the brain contributes to hippocampus-related memory functions and endurance capacity. Although the effect of HCD on the brain remains unknown, brain supercompensation occurs following exhaustive exercise (EE), a component of GL...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352155/conflict-sensitive-neurons-gate-interocular-suppression-in-human-visual-cortex
#7
Sucharit Katyal, Mark Vergeer, Sheng He, Bin He, Stephen A Engel
Neural suppression plays an important role in cortical function, including sensory, memory, and motor systems. It remains, however, relatively poorly understood. A paradigmatic case arises when conflicting images are presented to the two eyes. These images can compete for awareness, and one is usually strongly suppressed. The mechanisms that resolve such interocular conflict remain unclear. Suppression could arise solely from "winner-take-all" competition between neurons responsive to each eye. Alternatively, suppression could also depend upon neurons detecting interocular conflict...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352091/precursors-of-human-cd4-cytotoxic-t-lymphocytes-identified-by-single-cell-transcriptome-analysis
#8
Veena S Patil, Ariel Madrigal, Benjamin J Schmiedel, James Clarke, Patrick O'Rourke, Aruna D de Silva, Eva Harris, Bjoern Peters, Gregory Seumois, Daniela Weiskopf, Alessandro Sette, Pandurangan Vijayanand
CD4+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CD4-CTLs) have been reported to play a protective role in several viral infections. However, little is known in humans about the biology of CD4-CTL generation, their functional properties, and heterogeneity, especially in relation to other well-described CD4+ memory T cell subsets. We performed single-cell RNA sequencing in more than 9000 cells to unravel CD4-CTL heterogeneity, transcriptional profile, and clonality in humans. Single-cell differential gene expression analysis revealed a spectrum of known transcripts, including several linked to cytotoxic and costimulatory function that are expressed at higher levels in the TEMRA (effector memory T cells expressing CD45RA) subset, which is highly enriched for CD4-CTLs, compared with CD4+ T cells in the central memory (TCM) and effector memory (TEM) subsets...
January 19, 2018: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350764/the-protective-effect-of-antarctic-krill-oil-on-cognitive-function-by-inhibiting-oxidative-stress-in-the-brain-of-senescence-accelerated-prone-mouse-strain-8-samp8-mice
#9
Qian Li, Fengjuan Wu, Min Wen, Teruyoshi Yanagita, Changhu Xue, Tiantian Zhang, Yuming Wang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder, and oxidative stress plays a vital role in its progression. Antarctic krill oil (AKO) is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, which has various biological activities, such as improving insulin sensitivity, alleviating inflammation and ameliorating oxidative stress. In this study, the protective effect of AKO against AD were investigated in senescence-accelerated prone mouse strain 8 (SAMP8) mice. Results showed that treatment with AKO could effectively ameliorate learning and memory deficits and ease the anxiety in SAMP8 mice by Morris water maze, Barnes maze test and open-field test...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350754/neurocognitive-differences-between-inpatients-and-outpatients-with-symptomatically-nonremitted-schizophrenia-a-cross-sectional-study
#10
Yusuke Kurebayashi, Junichi Otaki
PURPOSE: We aimed to examine whether neurocognition in individuals with nonremitted schizophrenia differed between inpatients and outpatients. DESIGN AND METHODS: We recruited 59 inpatients and 41 patients with nonremitted schizophrenia (assessed with the Andreason criteria), and neurocognitive functions were compared between both, controlling for demographics, psychiatric symptoms. FINDINGS: Outpatients with nonremitted schizophrenia performed better on tests of processing speed, visual attention, and working memory than did inpatients with nonremitted...
January 19, 2018: Perspectives in Psychiatric Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350084/exploring-assistive-technology-use-to-support-cognition-in-college-students-with-histories-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#11
Jessica Brown, Madeline Wollersheim
PURPOSE: College students with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) may experience chronic cognitive deficits necessitating use of external supports for daily task completion. The purpose of this study was to explore cognitive support system selection and use by students with histories of mTBI when completing novel prospective memory tasks. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We implemented a multiple case study, sequential explanatory mixed-methods design with three participants...
January 19, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348927/improved-cognitive-performance-and-event-related-potential-changes-following-working-memory-training-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#12
Thomas J Covey, Janet L Shucard, Ralph Hb Benedict, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman, David W Shucard
Background: Few studies of cognitive rehabilitation in multiple sclerosis (MS) have targeted working memory specifically. Objective: We examined the effects of n-back working memory training on cognitive performance and brain function in patients with MS. Methods: Patients with MS (n = 12) and healthy controls (HC; n = 12) underwent 20 sessions of n-back working memory training. Before and after training (pre- and posttest) cognitive event-related potential (ERP) measures were obtained during a 3-back task...
January 2018: Multiple Sclerosis Journal—Experimental, Translational and Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348821/glycan-microarray-reveal-induced-iggs-repertoire-shift-against-a-dietary-carbohydrate-in-response-to-rabbit-anti-human-thymocyte-therapy
#13
Ron Amon, Shani Leviatan Ben-Arye, Limor Engler, Hai Yu, Noha Lim, Ludmilla Le Berre, Kristina M Harris, Mario R Ehlers, Stephen E Gitelman, Xi Chen, Jean-Paul Soulillou, Vered Padler-Karavani
Humans have circulating antibodies against diverse glycans containing N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) due to function-loss mutation of the CMAH gene. This xenogenic non-human carbohydrate is abundant in red meat, xenografts and biotherapeutics. Low levels of diet-derived Neu5Gc is also present on normal human endothelial cells, and together with anti-Neu5Gc antibodies could potentially mediate "xenosialitis" chronic-inflammation. Rabbit anti-human thymocyte globulin (ATG) is a drug containing polyclonal IgG glycoproteins commonly used as an immunosuppressant in human transplantation and autoimmune diseases...
December 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348430/rotator-side-chains-trigger-cooperative-transition-for-shape-and-function-memory-effect-in-organic-semiconductors
#14
Hyunjoong Chung, Dmytro Dudenko, Fengjiao Zhang, Gabriele D'Avino, Christian Ruzié, Audrey Richard, Guillaume Schweicher, Jérôme Cornil, David Beljonne, Yves Geerts, Ying Diao
Martensitic transition is a solid-state phase transition involving cooperative movement of atoms, mostly studied in metallurgy. The main characteristics are low transition barrier, ultrafast kinetics, and structural reversibility. They are rarely observed in molecular crystals, and hence the origin and mechanism are largely unexplored. Here we report the discovery of martensitic transition in single crystals of two different organic semiconductors. In situ microscopy, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, Raman and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and molecular simulations combined indicate that the rotating bulky side chains trigger cooperative transition...
January 18, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348191/multi-modal-encoding-of-novelty-reward-and-learning-in-the-primate-nucleus-basalis-of-meynert
#15
Clarissa Martinez-Rubio, Angelique C Paulk, Eric J McDonald, Alik S Widge, Emad N Eskandar
Associative learning is crucial for daily function, involving a complex network of brain regions. One region, the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM), is a highly interconnected, largely cholinergic structure implicated in multiple aspects of learning. We show that single neurons in the NBM of non-human primates (NHPs; N=2 males; Macaca mulatta) encode learning a new association through spike rate modulation. Yet, the power of low-frequency local field potential (LFP) oscillations decreases in response to novel, not-yet-learned stimuli but then increase as learning progresses...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348190/pronounced-hyperactivity-cognitive-dysfunctions-and-bdnf-dysregulation-in-dopamine-transporter-knockout-rats
#16
Damiana Leo, Ilya Sukhanov, Francesca Zoratto, Placido Illiano, Lucia Caffino, Fabrizio Sanna, Giulia Messa, Marco Emanuele, Alessandro Esposito, Maria Dorofeikova, Evgeny A Budygin, Liudmila Mus, Evgenia E Efimova, Marco Niello, Stefano Espinoza, Tatyana D Sotnikova, Marius C Hoener, Gianni Laviola, Fabio Fumagalli, Walter Adriani, Raul R Gainetdinov
Dopamine (DA) controls many vital physiological functions and is critically involved in several neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The major function of the plasma membrane dopamine transporter (DAT) is the rapid uptake of released DA into presynaptic nerve terminals leading to control of both the extracellular levels of DA and the intracellular stores of DA. Here, we present a newly developed strain of rats (DAT-knockout, DAT-KO rats) in which the gene encoding the DAT has been disrupted by using zinc finger nuclease technology (ZFN)...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348041/executive-dysfunction-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-is-associated-with-a-failure-to-modulate-frontoparietal-insular-hub-architecture
#17
Charles J Lynch, Andrew L Breeden, Xiaozhen You, Ruth Ludlum, William D Gaillard, Lauren Kenworthy, Chandan J Vaidya
BACKGROUND: Comorbid executive dysfunction in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a barrier to adaptive functioning, despite remittance of core social-communication symptoms. Network models of ASD address core symptoms but not comorbid executive dysfunction. Following recent demonstrations in healthy adults that, with increasing executive demands, hubs embedded within frontoparietal-insular control networks interact with a more diverse set of networks, we hypothesized that the capability of hubs to do so is perturbed in ASD and predicts executive behavior...
September 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348039/face-processing-measures-of-social-cognition-a%C3%A2-dimensional-approach-to-developmental-psychopathology
#18
Raquel E Gur, Tyler M Moore, Monica E Calkins, Kosha Ruparel, Ruben C Gur
BACKGROUND: Social cognition impairments in neurodevelopmental disorders impact functioning. Face processing is the most extensively studied aspect of social cognition, commonly indexing this construct in neuropsychiatric disorders compared with typically developing youths. Applying social cognition measures as a Research Domain Criteria concept in the clinical arena requires establishing cutoffs for intervention and identifying vulnerability for psychopathology across disorders. This can be accomplished by comparing extreme performers across multiple clinical symptom features...
September 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347897/-effects-of-bilingualism-on-cognitive-functions-in-early-childhood
#19
Laura Bastian, Katrin Reichenbach, Lisann Helbig, Klaus Lenz, Saskia Rohrbach, Dörte Pollex-Fischer, Martina Schäuble, Manfred Gross, Lea Sarrar
Effects of Bilingualism on Cognitive Functions in Early Childhood Studies have revealed advantages in cognitive functions among children with bilingualism. In this study we investigate cognitive functions in monolingual and bilingual preschool children taking socioeconomic status into account. The study population consists of 40 monolingual (German) children (Mage = 5.0 ± 0.4) and 23 bilingual (German/English) children (Mage = 5.1 ± 0.6). A neuropsychological test battery was conducted. The analyses revealed better performance for bilingual children...
January 2018: Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347715/cusps-enable-line-attractors-for-neural-computation
#20
Zhuocheng Xiao, Jiwei Zhang, Andrew T Sornborger, Louis Tao
Line attractors in neuronal networks have been suggested to be the basis of many brain functions, such as working memory, oculomotor control, head movement, locomotion, and sensory processing. In this paper, we make the connection between line attractors and pulse gating in feed-forward neuronal networks. In this context, because of their neutral stability along a one-dimensional manifold, line attractors are associated with a time-translational invariance that allows graded information to be propagated from one neuronal population to the next...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
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