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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086835/stunting-and-severe-stunting-among-children-under-5%C3%A2-years-in-nigeria-a-multilevel-analysis
#1
Blessing Jaka Akombi, Kingsley Emwinyore Agho, John Joseph Hall, Dafna Merom, Thomas Astell-Burt, Andre M N Renzaho
BACKGROUND: Stunting has been identified as one of the major proximal risk factors for poor physical and mental development of children under-5 years. Stunting predominantly occurs in the first 1000 days of life (0-23 months) and continues to the age of five. This study examines factors associated with stunting and severe stunting among children under-5 years in Nigeria. METHODS: The sample included 24,529 children aged 0-59 months from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS)...
January 13, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081463/analysis-of-the-results-of-recurrent-intracranial-meningiomas-treated-with-re-radiosurgery
#2
Moinay Kim, Do Hee Lee, Hyun Jung Kim Rn, Young Hyun Cho, Jeong Hoon Kim, Do Hoon Kwon
OBJECTS: Meningioma is the most common intracranial neoplasm, comprising approximately 30% of all primary intracranial tumors (Claus et al., 2005) [1]. Treatment options include observation, microsurgical resection, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), and whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT). Gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) is a very effective treatment for intracranial meningiomas; previous studies showed the tumor control rate at 5-10 years of follow-up as 84.3%-100% in all cases (Feigl et al...
December 29, 2016: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080916/aerobic-microflora-and-endoparasites-of-freshly-shot-wild-agouti-dasyprocta-leporina-in-trinidad-west-indies
#3
Rod Suepaul, Roxanne Charles, Francis Dziva
The agouti ( Dasyprocta leporina ) is a New World wild rodent hunted for its meat in Trinidad and other Latin American countries. Studies on agouti under captive conditions have yielded some data on health-related aspects, but relatively very little is known about their wild counterparts. The environment of the agouti can influence the microflora and parasites harbored by the animals, which may contain zoonotic pathogens. Here, the microflora found on the nasal mucosa and sections of the intestinal tract and endoparasites of freshly shot agouti from various areas of Trinidad are described...
December 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079495/on-the-principle-of-temporal-diminution-in-serial-photography
#4
Ludwig Mach
In some cases our sensory organs are no longer capable of rendering processes in the external world perceptible to us. Their inadequacy expresses itself, for example, in phenomena that involve the kind of expansion of space and time in which the conditions for summary perception are no longer at all present. The resources that aid our immediate sense perception in these circumstances will thus be charged with the task of expanding or diminishing space and time to the extent that the contiguity and succession of events is comprehensible to us...
December 2016: Science in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079308/greater-temperature-sensitivity-of-plant-phenology-at-colder-sites-implications-for-convergence-across-northern-latitudes
#5
Janet Prevéy, Mark Vellend, Nadja Rüger, Robert D Hollister, Anne D Bjorkman, Isla H Myers-Smith, Sarah C Elmendorf, Karin Clark, Elisabeth J Cooper, Bo Elberling, Anna Maria Fosaa, Gregory H R Henry, Toke T Høye, Ingibjörg Svala Jónsdóttir, Kari Klanderud, Esther Lévesque, Marguerite Mauritz, Ulf Molau, Susan M Natali, Steven F Oberbauer, Zoe A Panchen, Eric Post, Sabine B Rumpf, Niels M Schmidt, Ted Schuur, Phillip R Semenchuk, Tiffany Troxler, Jeffrey M Welker, Christian Rixen
Warmer temperatures are accelerating the phenology of organisms around the world. Temperature sensitivity of phenology might be greater in colder, higher-latitude sites than in warmer regions, in part because small changes in temperature constitute greater relative changes in thermal balance at colder sites. To test this hypothesis, we examined up to 20 years of phenology data for 47 tundra plant species at 18 high-latitude sites along a climatic gradient. Across all species, the timing of leaf emergence and flowering were more sensitive to a given increase in summer temperature at colder than warmer high-latitude locations...
January 11, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078499/carbonaceous-chondrite-meteorites-the-chronicle-of-a-potential-evolutionary-path-between-stars-and-life
#6
Sandra Pizzarello, Everett Shock
The biogenic elements, H, C, N, O, P and S, have a long cosmic history, whose evolution can still be observed in diverse locales of the known universe, from interstellar clouds of gas and dust, to pre-stellar cores, nebulas, protoplanetary discs, planets and planetesimals. The best analytical window into this cosmochemical evolution as it neared Earth has been provided so far by the small bodies of the Solar System, some of which were not significantly altered by the high gravitational pressures and temperatures that accompanied the formation of larger planets and may carry a pristine record of early nebular chemistry...
January 11, 2017: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078196/prosthetic-jamming-terminal-device-a-case-study-of-untethered-soft-robotics
#7
Nadia Cheng, John Amend, Todd Farrell, Debra Latour, Carlos Martinez, Jen Johansson, Anthony McNicoll, Marek Wartenberg, Samuel Naseef, William Hanson, William Culley
This article illuminates the major and often overlooked challenge of untethering soft robotic systems through the context of recent work, in which soft robotic gripper technology enabled by jamming of granular media was applied to a prosthetic jamming terminal device (PJTD). The PJTD's technical and market feasibility was evaluated in a pilot study with two upper-limb amputees. A PJTD prototype was tested against a commercial device (Motion Control electric terminal service with a one degree-of-freedom pinching mechanism) using two existing hand function tests: the first quantified the device's speed in picking and placing small blocks and the second evaluated a person's ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs)...
December 1, 2016: Soft Robotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077063/gendered-health-inequalities-in-mental-well-being-the-nordic-countries-in-a-comparative-perspective
#8
Sigrun Olafsdottir
AIMS: The aims of this study were to: (a) compare gender differences in mental well-being in the Nordic countries with gender differences in 28 other countries around the world; and (b) evaluate whether gender differences in the Nordic countries remain when other social and lifestyle factors are taken into account. METHODS: Data were obtained from 32 countries around the world that participated in the 2011 health module of the International Social Survey Programme...
January 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076982/from-structure-to-activity-using-centrality-measures-to-predict-neuronal-activity
#9
Jack McKay Fletcher, Thomas Wennekers
It is clear that the topological structure of a neural network somehow determines the activity of the neurons within it. In the present work, we ask to what extent it is possible to examine the structural features of a network and learn something about its activity? Specifically, we consider how the centrality (the importance of a node in a network) of a neuron correlates with its firing rate. To investigate, we apply an array of centrality measures, including In-Degree, Closeness, Betweenness, Eigenvector, Katz, PageRank, Hyperlink-Induced Topic Search (HITS) and NeuronRank to Leaky-Integrate and Fire neural networks with different connectivity schemes...
November 16, 2016: International Journal of Neural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076910/treatment-of-patients-with-waldenstr%C3%A3-m-macroglobulinaemia-clinical-practice-guidelines-from-the-myeloma-foundation-of-australia-medical-and-scientific-advisory-group
#10
Dipti Talaulikar, Constantine S Tam, Douglas Joshua, Joy Phoebe Ho, Jeff Szer, Hang Quach, Andrew Spencer, Simon Harrison, Peter Mollee, Andrew W Roberts, Noemi Horvath, Cindy Lee, Andrew Zannettino, Ross Brown, Bradley Augustson, Wilfrid Jaksic, John Gibson, Anna Kalff, Anna Johnston, Judith Trotman, Akash Kalro, George Grigoriadis, Chris Ward, H Miles Prince
Waldenström macroglobulinaemia (WM) is an indolent B-cell malignancy characterised by the presence of immunoglobulin M (IgM) paraprotein and bone marrow infiltration by clonal small B lymphocytes, plasmacytoid lymphocytes and plasma cells. The symptoms of WM are protean, often follow an asymptomatic phase and may include complications related to the paraneoplastic effects of IgM paraprotein. The revised 2016 World Health Organization classification includes the MYD88 L265P mutation, which is seen in >90% of cases, within the diagnostic criteria for WM...
January 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074500/level-of-environmental-threat-posed-by-horticultural-trade-in-cactaceae
#11
Ana Novoa, Johannes J Le Roux, David M Richardson, John R U Wilson
Ornamental horticulture has been identified as an important threat to plant biodiversity and the major pathway for plant invasions worldwide. In this context, the family Cactaceae is particularly interesting and challenging for three main reasons-it is considered the fifth most threatened major taxonomic group in the world; several cactus species are amongst the most widespread and damaging invasive species; and Cactaceae is one of the most popular horticultural plant groups. Based on CITES trade data and the eleven main auction sites selling cacti on the internet we document a substantial global trade from and to almost all continents...
January 11, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073791/rapid-deployment-aortic-replacement-radar-registry-in-spain-a-protocol
#12
Victor Bautista-Hernandez, Natalia Cal-Purriños, Jose M Arribas-Leal, Manuel Carnero-Alcazar, Jose F Gutierrez-Diez, Jose J Cuenca-Castillo
INTRODUCTION: Rapid deployment valves (RDV) represent a newly introduced approach to aortic valve replacement which facilitates surgical implantation and minimally invasive techniques, shortens surgical times and shows excellent haemodynamic performance. However, evidence on their safety, efficacy and potential complications is mostly fitted with small-volume and retrospective studies. Moreover, no current guidelines exist. To improve our knowledge on this technology, The Rapid Deployment Aortic Replacement (RADAR) Registry will be established across Spain with the aim of assessing RDV outcomes in the real-world setting...
January 10, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073472/the-interaction-between-cyanobacteria-and-zooplankton-in-a-more-eutrophic-world
#13
REVIEW
Kemal Ali Ger, Pablo Urrutia-Cordero, Paul C Frost, Lars-Anders Hansson, Orlando Sarnelle, Alan E Wilson, Miquel Lürling
As blooms of cyanobacteria expand and intensify in freshwater systems globally, there is increasing interest in their ecological effects. In addition to being public health hazards, cyanobacteria have long been considered a poor quality food for key zooplankton grazers that link phytoplankton to higher trophic levels. While past laboratory studies have found negative effects of nutritional constraints and defensive traits (i.e., toxicity and colonial or filamentous morphology) on the fitness of large generalist grazers (i...
April 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072872/population-pharmacokinetic-properties-of-piperaquine-in-falciparum-malaria-an-individual-participant-data-meta-analysis
#14
Richard M Hoglund, Lesley Workman, Michael D Edstein, Nguyen Xuan Thanh, Nguyen Ngoc Quang, Issaka Zongo, Jean Bosco Ouedraogo, Steffen Borrmann, Leah Mwai, Christian Nsanzabana, Ric N Price, Prabin Dahal, Nancy C Sambol, Sunil Parikh, Francois Nosten, Elizabeth A Ashley, Aung Pyae Phyo, Khin Maung Lwin, Rose McGready, Nicholas P J Day, Philippe J Guerin, Nicholas J White, Karen I Barnes, Joel Tarning
BACKGROUND: Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are the mainstay of the current treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria, but ACT resistance is spreading across Southeast Asia. Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine is one of the five ACTs currently recommended by the World Health Organization. Previous studies suggest that young children (<5 y) with malaria are under-dosed. This study utilised a population-based pharmacokinetic approach to optimise the antimalarial treatment regimen for piperaquine...
January 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070736/genome-wide-analysis-of-mirnas-and-tasi-rnas-in-zea-mays-in-response-to-phosphate-deficiency
#15
Saurabh Gupta, Manju Kumari, Himansu Kumar, Pritish Kumar Varadwaj
Globally important cereal crop maize provides important nutritions and starch in dietary foods. Low phosphate (LPi) availability in the soil frequently limits the maize quality and yield across the world. Small non-coding RNAs (Snc-RNAs) play crucial roles in growth and adaptation of plants to the environment. Snc-RNAs like microRNAs (miRs) and trans-acting small interfering RNAs (Tasi-Rs) play important functions in posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression, which controls plant development, reproduction, and biotic/abiotic stress responses...
January 9, 2017: Functional & Integrative Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069505/end-point-immobilization-of-heparin-on-plasma-treated-surface-of-electrospun-polycarbonate-urethane-vascular-graft
#16
Xuefeng Qiu, Benjamin Li-Ping Lee, Xinghai Ning, Niren Murthy, Nianguo Dong, Song Li
: Small-diameter synthetic vascular grafts have high failure rate due to primarily surface thrombogenicity, and effective surface chemical modification is critical to maintain the patency of the grafts. In this study, we engineered a small-diameter, elastic synthetic vascular graft with off-the-shelf availability and anti-thrombogenic activity. Polycarbonate-urethane (PCU), was electrospun to produce nanofibrous grafts that closely mimicked a native blood vessel in terms of structural and mechanical strength...
January 6, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068789/pragmatic-trial-of-video-education-in-nursing-homes-the-design-and-rationale-for-a-pragmatic-cluster-randomized-trial-in-the-nursing-home-setting
#17
Vincent Mor, Angelo E Volandes, Roee Gutman, Constantine Gatsonis, Susan L Mitchell
Background/Aims Nursing homes are complex healthcare systems serving an increasingly sick population. Nursing homes must engage patients in advance care planning, but do so inconsistently. Video decision support tools improved advance care planning in small randomized controlled trials. Pragmatic trials are increasingly employed in health services research, although not commonly in the nursing home setting to which they are well-suited. This report presents the design and rationale for a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial that evaluated the "real world" application of an Advance Care Planning Video Program in two large US nursing home healthcare systems...
January 1, 2017: Clinical Trials: Journal of the Society for Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068481/micrornas-and-periodontal-homeostasis
#18
X Luan, X Zhou, J Trombetta-eSilva, M Francis, A K Gaharwar, P Atsawasuwan, T G H Diekwisch
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of small RNAs that control gene expression in all aspects of eukaryotic life, primarily through RNA silencing mechanisms. The purpose of the present review is to introduce key miRNAs involved in periodontal homeostasis, summarize the mechanisms by which they affect downstream genes and tissues, and provide an introduction into the therapeutic potential of periodontal miRNAs. In general, miRNAs function synergistically to fine-tune the regulation of biological processes and to remove expression noise rather than by causing drastic changes in expression levels...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068343/the-fleas-siphonaptera-in-iran-diversity-host-range-and-medical-importance
#19
Naseh Maleki-Ravasan, Samaneh Solhjouy-Fard, Jean-Claude Beaucournu, Anne Laudisoit, Ehsan Mostafavi
BACKGROUND: Flea-borne diseases have a wide distribution in the world. Studies on the identity, abundance, distribution and seasonality of the potential vectors of pathogenic agents (e.g. Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis, and Rickettsia felis) are necessary tools for controlling and preventing such diseases outbreaks. The improvements of diagnostic tools are partly responsible for an easier detection of otherwise unnoticed agents in the ectoparasitic fauna and as such a good taxonomical knowledge of the potential vectors is crucial...
January 9, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066132/resilience-and-the-population-history-of-the-kuril-islands-northwest-pacific-a-study-in-complex-human-ecodynamics
#20
Ben Fitzhugh, Erik Gjesfjeld, William Brown, Mark J Hudson, Jennie D Shaw
Living in remote places can strain the adaptive capacities of human settlers. It can also protect communities from external social, political and economic forces. In this paper, we present an archaeological population history of the Kuril Islands. This string of small volcanic islands on the margins of the Northwest Pacific was occupied by maritime hunting, fishing and gathering communities from the mid-Holocene to recent centuries. We bring together (1) 380 new and previously published archaeological radiocarbon dates, (2) a new paleodemographic model based on a radiocarbon-timestamped temporal frequency distribution of archaeological deposits, (3) recently published paleoclimate trends, and (4) recently published archaeological proxy evidence for changes in the extent of social networks...
October 17, 2016: Quaternary International: the Journal of the International Union for Quaternary Research
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