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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160384/current-use-and-acceptability-of-novel-diagnostic-tests-for-active-tuberculosis-a-worldwide-survey
#1
Massimo Amicosante, Lia D'Ambrosio, Marcela Munoz, Fernanda Carvalho de Queiroz Mello, Marc Tebruegge, Novel Njweipi Chegou, Fouad Seghrouchni, Rosella Centis, Delia Goletti, Graham Bothamley, Giovanni Battista Migliori
OBJECTIVE: To determine the current use and potential acceptance (by tuberculosis experts worldwide) of novel rapid tests for the diagnosis of tuberculosis that are in line with World Health Organization target product profiles. METHODS: A multilingual survey was disseminated online between July and November of 2016. RESULTS: A total of 723 individuals from 114 countries responded to the survey. Smear microscopy was the most commonly used rapid tuberculosis test (available to 90...
September 2017: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160173/gene-delivery-to-joints-by-intra-articular-injection
#2
Christopher H Evans, Steven Craig Ghivizzani, Paul D Robbins
Most forms of arthritis are incurable, difficult to treat and a major cause of disability in western countries. Better local treatment of arthritis is impaired by the pharmacokinetics of the joint that make it very difficult to deliver drugs to joints at sustained, therapeutic concentrations. This is especially true of biologic drugs, such as proteins and RNA, many of which show great promise in pre-clinical studies. Gene transfer provides a strategy for overcoming this limitation. The basic concept is to deliver cDNAs encoding therapeutic products by direct intra-articular injection, leading to sustained, endogenous synthesis of the gene products within the joint...
November 21, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157445/an-ensemble-deep-learning-based-approach-for-red-lesion-detection-in-fundus-images
#3
José Ignacio Orlando, Elena Prokofyeva, Mariana Del Fresno, Matthew B Blaschko
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of preventable blindness in the world. Its earliest sign are red lesions, a general term that groups both microaneurysms (MAs) and hemorrhages (HEs). In daily clinical practice, these lesions are manually detected by physicians using fundus photographs. However, this task is tedious and time consuming, and requires an intensive effort due to the small size of the lesions and their lack of contrast. Computer-assisted diagnosis of DR based on red lesion detection is being actively explored due to its improvement effects both in clinicians consistency and accuracy...
January 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157065/small-spotted-bodies-with-multiple-specific-mitochondrial-dnas-existence-of-diverse-and-differentiated-tigrina-lineages-or-species-leopardus-spp-felidae-mammalia-throughout-latin-america
#4
Manuel Ruiz-García, Myreya Pinedo-Castro, Joseph Mark Shostell
We analysed two sets of mitochondrial (mt) DNA data from tigrinas (traditionally, Leopardus tigrinus) we sampled in Costa Rica, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, northwestern and northeastern Argentina and southern Brazil. Additionally, the analysis included some GenBank sequences from southern, central and northeastern Brazil. The first mt set (mt ATP8+mt 16S rRNA with 41 tigrina) revealed the existence of seven different tigrina-like haplogroups. They could represent, at least, 4-6 different tigrina species following the Phylogenetic Species Concept (PSC)...
November 20, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156521/micrornas-as-novel-biomarkers-for-colorectal-cancer-new-outlooks
#5
REVIEW
Naghmeh Shirafkan, Behzad Mansoori, Ali Mohammadi, Navid Shomali, Mehri Ghasbi, Behzad Baradaran
Colorectal cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers with high mortality in the world. MicroRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression through targeting mRNAs. MicroRNAs involve in many biological and pathological processes such as cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis. etc. Dysregulation of miRNAs expression patterns have been reported in many tumors including Colorectal Cancer. Various studies indicate that miRNAs can be utilized as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for evaluation of tumor initiation, development, invasion, metastasis and response to chemotherapeutic drugs...
November 14, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155331/evolution-of-vomeronasal-receptor-1-v1r-genes-in-the-common-marmoset-callithrix-jacchus
#6
Keiko Moriya-Ito, Takashi Hayakawa, Hikoyu Suzuki, Kimiko Hagino-Yamagishi, Masato Nikaido
Pheromones are crucial for eliciting innate responses and inducing social and sexual behaviors in mammals. The vomeronasal receptor 1 genes, V1Rs, encode members of a pheromone receptor family that are mainly expressed in the vomeronasal organ (VNO). The V1R family shows extraordinary variety in gene number among vertebrates owing to successive gene gains and losses during evolution. Such diversity is believed to reflect a degree of dependence on the VNO. We investigated V1R evolution in primate lineages closely related to humans because these VNOs show a trend toward degeneration...
November 16, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153153/a-100-year-review-advances-in-goat-milk-research
#7
Stephanie Clark, María Bárbara Mora García
In the century of research chronicled between 1917 and 2017, dairy goats have gone from simply serving as surrogates to cows to serving as transgenic carriers of human enzymes. Goat milk has been an important part of human nutrition for millennia, in part because of the greater similarity of goat milk to human milk, softer curd formation, higher proportion of small milk fat globules, and different allergenic properties compared with cow milk; however, key nutritional deficiencies limit its suitability for infants...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152734/access-to-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-facilities-for-psychogenic-nonepileptic-seizures-an-international-survey-by-the-ilae-pnes-task-force-2nd-revision
#8
Coraline Hingray, Wissam El-Hage, Rod Duncan, David Gigineishvili, Kousuke Kanemoto, W Curt LaFrance, Alejandro de Marinis, Ravi Paul, Chrisma Pretorius, José F Téllez Zenteno, Hannah Wiseman, Markus Reuber
OBJECTIVE: Studies from a small number of countries suggest that patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) have limited access to diagnostic and treatment services. The PNES Task Force of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) carried out 2 surveys to explore the diagnosis and treatment of PNES around the world. METHODS: A short survey (8 questions) was sent to all 114 chapters of the ILAE. A longer survey (36 questions) was completed by healthcare professionals who see patients with seizures...
November 20, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152288/small-bowel-stenosis-following-blunt-abdominal-trauma-a-case-report
#9
Sheela Prince, Hajer Abdullah Saleh Busharar, Osama Mohemmed AlZoabi
Blunt abdominal trauma is a rare case of intestinal obstruction, and only few cases have been reported in the world literature. Stenotic intestinal obstruction following blunt abdominal trauma is a very rare complication. This case highlights the need for clinical suspicion serial clinical assessment and radiological evaluation and the need for early surgery in patients presenting with abdominal symptoms following blunt abdominal trauma.
November 2017: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151094/glossolalia-and-aphasia-related-but-different-worlds
#10
Leila Chouiter, Jean-Marie Annoni
The word glossolalia, also referred to as "speaking in tongues," originates from the Greek "glossa" which means "language" and "Lalia" which means "speak." It simply means to talk language. On a linguistic perspective, glossolalia is characterized by almost no recognizable words or semantic content, apart from biblical words and phrases, with an overrepresentation of a small phonemes number, accelerated speech output, and modification of accents and melody. Its phonemic properties have been said to resemble those of the language(s) of the speaker...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150680/potential-landscape-of-high-dimensional-nonlinear-stochastic-dynamics-with-large-noise
#11
Ying Tang, Ruoshi Yuan, Gaowei Wang, Xiaomei Zhu, Ping Ao
Quantifying stochastic processes is essential to understand many natural phenomena, particularly in biology, including the cell-fate decision in developmental processes as well as the genesis and progression of cancers. While various attempts have been made to construct potential landscape in high dimensional systems and to estimate transition rates, they are practically limited to the cases where either noise is small or detailed balance condition holds. A general and practical approach to investigate real-world nonequilibrium systems, which are typically high-dimensional and subject to large multiplicative noise and the breakdown of detailed balance, remains elusive...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150282/artesunate-quercetin-luteolin-dual-drug-nanofacilitated-synergistic-treatment-for-malaria-a-plausible-approach-to-overcome-artemisinin-combination-therapy-resistance
#12
Nethravathi Puttappa, Raman Suresh Kumar, Karthik Yamjala
Malaria is one of the major global health challenge with 300 million new cases annually. The best regimen for treating Plasmodium falciparum induced malaria is based on artemisinin and its derivatives which were prescribed as artemisinin combination therapy (ACT). These are highly effective drugs resulting in rapid clearance of parasites even in severe P. falciparum induced malaria patients. However, from the past few years parasites resistant to ACT's have begun to emerge in various parts of the world such as Cambodia and Greater Mekong Subregion...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149858/famine-food-of-vegetal-origin-consumed-in-the-netherlands-during-world-war-ii
#13
Tom Vorstenbosch, Ingrid de Zwarte, Leni Duistermaat, Tinde van Andel
BACKGROUND: Periods of extreme food shortages during war force people to eat food that they normally do not consider edible. The last time that countries in Western Europe experienced severe scarcities was during World War II. The so-called Dutch famine or Hunger Winter (1944-1945) made at least 25,000 victims. The Dutch government took action by opening soup kitchens and providing information on wild plants and other famine food sources in "wartime cookbooks." The Dutch wartime diet has never been examined from an ethnobotanical perspective...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148024/blue-planet-dialysis-novel-water-sparing-strategies-for-reducing-dialysate-flow
#14
Alejandra Molano-Triviño, Benjamin Wancjer, Mauro M Neri, Akash N Karopadi, Mitchell Rosner, Claudio Ronco
INTRODUCTION: Hemodialysis (HD) is an expensive therapy in economic and in ecological terms, owing to a high carbon footprint and significant consumption of natural sources, especially water. Our aim was to review strategies to diminish waste of water in maintenance dialysis, exploring previously described water reuse trends and less known strategies for reducing the dialysate flow. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of water-sparing strategies, including the reuse of reverse osmosis rejected water and the reduction of dialysate flux...
November 8, 2017: International Journal of Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147147/collective-behavior-of-large-scale-neural-networks-with-gpu-acceleration
#15
Jingyi Qu, Rubin Wang
In this paper, the collective behaviors of a small-world neuronal network motivated by the anatomy of a mammalian cortex based on both Izhikevich model and Rulkov model are studied. The Izhikevich model can not only reproduce the rich behaviors of biological neurons but also has only two equations and one nonlinear term. Rulkov model is in the form of difference equations that generate a sequence of membrane potential samples in discrete moments of time to improve computational efficiency. These two models are suitable for the construction of large scale neural networks...
December 2017: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144426/experimental-exploration-of-metal-cable-as-reinforcement-in-3d-printed-concrete
#16
Freek P Bos, Zeeshan Y Ahmed, Evgeniy R Jutinov, Theo A M Salet
The Material Deposition Method (MDM) is enjoying increasing attention as an additive method to create concrete mortar structures characterised by a high degree of form-freedom, a lack of geometrical repetition, and automated construction. Several small-scale structures have been realised around the world, or are under preparation. However, the nature of this construction method is unsuitable for conventional reinforcement methods to achieve ductile failure behaviour. Sometimes, this is solved by combining printing with conventional casting and reinforcing techniques...
November 16, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143612/values-preferences-and-current-hepatitis-b-and-c-testing-practices-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-results-of-a-survey-of-end-users-and-implementers
#17
Elena Ivanova Reipold, Alessandra Trianni, Douglas Krakower, Stefano Ongarello, Teri Roberts, Philippa Easterbrook, Claudia Denkinger
BACKGROUND: Access to hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) diagnostics remains a key bottleneck in scale-up of access to HBV and HCV treatment, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) that lack laboratory resources and skilled personnel. To inform the development of World Health Organization (WHO) testing guidelines on who to test and how to test, we performed a "values and preferences" survey of end users and implementers of hepatitis testing in LMICs on current hepatitis B and C testing practices and acceptability of diagnostic approaches, as well as preferences for the future...
November 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141881/it-s-not-all-black-and-white-visual-scene-parameters-influence-optokinetic-reflex-performance-in-xenopus-laevis-tadpoles
#18
Céline M Gravot, Alexander G Knorr, Stefan Glasauer, Hans Straka
The maintenance of visual acuity during active and passive body motion is ensured by gaze-stabilizing reflexes that aim at minimizing retinal image slip. For the optokinetic reflex (OKR), large-field visual motion of the surround forms the essential stimulus that activates eye movements. Properties of the moving visual world influence cognitive motion perception and the estimation of visual image velocity. Therefore, the performance of brainstem-mediated visuo-motor behaviors might also depend on image scene characteristics...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141604/genome-wide-identification-of-mirnas-and-lncrnas-in-cajanus-cajan
#19
Chandran Nithin, Amal Thomas, Jolly Basak, Ranjit Prasad Bahadur
BACKGROUND: Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are important players in the post transcriptional regulation of gene expression (PTGR). On one hand, microRNAs (miRNAs) are an abundant class of small ncRNAs (~22nt long) that negatively regulate gene expression at the levels of messenger RNAs stability and translation inhibition, on the other hand, long ncRNAs (lncRNAs) are a large and diverse class of transcribed non-protein coding RNA molecules (> 200nt) that play both up-regulatory as well as down-regulatory roles at the transcriptional level...
November 15, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140816/the-role-of-small-incision-suture-less-cataract-surgery-in-the-developed-world
#20
Sanduk Ruit, Reeta Gurung, Shyam Vyas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Manual small incision cataract surgery (MSICS) has recently gone through much refinement and fine tuning. It is often taken as an alternate option for phacoemulsification, especially in developing country. This review will present some insight on its applications especially for developed nations. The role of MSCIS in tackling complex cataracts with stony hard nucleus is fairly established. The role of training residents with MSCIS has certain advantages though debatable...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
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