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Small world

Viktor Müller, Johanna Sänger, Ulman Lindenberger
When playing music in an ensemble, musicians need to precisely coordinate their actions with one another. As shown in our previous studies on guitar duets, interbrain synchronization plays an essential role during such interactions. In this study, we simultaneously recorded electroencephalograms from four guitarists during quartet playing, to explore the extent and the functional significance of synchronized cortical activity across four brains. We found that hyperbrain networks based on intra- and interbrain connectivity across four brains dwell on higher frequencies for intrabrain communication and on lower frequencies for interbrain connections...
March 15, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Respati W Ranakusuma, Yupitri Pitoyo, Eka D Safitri, Sarah Thorning, Elaine M Beller, Sudigdo Sastroasmoro, Chris B Del Mar
BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media (AOM) is a common acute infection in children. Pain is its most prominent and distressing symptom. Antibiotics are commonly prescribed for AOM, although they have only a modest effect in reducing pain at two to three days. There is insufficient evidence for benefits of other treatment options, including systemic corticosteroids. However, systemic corticosteroids are potent anti-inflammatory drugs, and so theoretically could be effective, either alone or as an addition to antibiotics...
March 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Patric Schmitz, Julian Hildebrandt, Andre Calero Valdez, Leif Kobbelt, Martina Ziefle
In virtual environments, the space that can be explored by real walking is limited by the size of the tracked area. To enable unimpeded walking through large virtual spaces in small real-world surroundings, redirection techniques are used. These unnoticeably manipulate the user's virtual walking trajectory. It is important to know how strongly such techniques can be applied without the user noticing the manipulation-or getting cybersick. Previously, this was estimated by measuring a detection threshold (DT) in highly-controlled psychophysical studies, which experimentally isolate the effect but do not aim for perceived immersion in the context of VR applications...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Thomas A Haugen, Paul A Solberg, Carl Foster, Ricardo Morán-Navarro, Felix Breitschädel, Will G Hopkins
The aim of this study was to quantify peak age and improvements over the preceding years to peak age in elite athletic contestants according to athlete performance level, sex and discipline. Individual season bests for world-ranked top 100 athletes from 2002 to 2016 (14937 athletes and 57049 individual results) were downloaded from the International Association of Athletics Federations' web site. Individual performance trends were generated by fitting a quadratic curve separately to each athlete's performance and age data using a linear modeling procedure...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
S K Abdrakhmanov, S B Tyulegenov, F I Korennoy, A A Sultanov, I I Sytnik, K K Beisembaev, A A Bainiyazov, A E Munsey, A M Perez, K VanderWaal
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) poses a significant obstacle to international trade and economic development, and for that reason, FMD prevention, control and eradication are major goals guiding animal health policy in most countries. The purpose of this study was to conduct a retrospective spatiotemporal analysis of FMD outbreaks among livestock in the Republic of Kazakhstan (RK) from 1955 to 2013. During that time, several FMD control strategies were implemented in RK, which culminated with the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) recognition of RK as a country that is FMD-free with partial vaccination (2015)...
March 15, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Scott Pardo, Rimma M Shaginian, David A Simmons
BACKGROUND: Diabetes treatment is intended to maintain near-normal glycemic levels. Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) allows patients to track their BG levels compared with glycemic targets and is associated with improved health outcomes. Because of the importance of SMBG, it is essential that results are accurate to prevent errors in nutritional intake and drug dosing. This study presents a new methodology to evaluate the accuracy of BG monitoring systems (BGMSs). METHODS: Sensitivity analyses were performed using real and simulated BGMS data to compute probabilities that, for any BG value, the BGMS result would be within prescribed error bounds and confidence limits compared with laboratory reference values...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
G F Pierce, A Haffar, G Ampartzidis, F Peyvandi, S Diop, M El-Ekiaby, H M van den Berg
INTRODUCTION: The gaps in haemophilia treatment around the world are enormous; approximately 60% of an estimated 475 000 individuals are not identified. Of the 187 000 diagnosed, 30% (57 000) access clotting factor replacement therapy. Since 1996, humanitarian aid distributed by the World Federation of Hemophilia (WFH) has played a minor, yet vital role providing life-saving clotting factor to countries in emergency situations. Donated amounts have been small and sporadic, often salvaging short-dated products, providing little opportunity to leverage donations with governments...
March 14, 2018: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
Midori Kjellin, Terése Wesslén, Erik Löfblad, Johan Lennerstrand, Anders Lannergård
BACKGROUND: The clinical experience with protease-inhibitor (PI) triple regimen appears disappointing regarding effect, side effects, high work load, and costs. This real-world study evaluates baseline and emerging resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) and their significance for treatment outcome. METHOD: Thirty-six genotype 1a/b patients treated according to Swedish recommendations during 2011-2013 with triple therapy including pegylated interferon and ribavirin in combination with a protease-inhibitor, either boceprevir (BOC) or telaprevir (TVR), were retrospectively evaluated...
March 14, 2018: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences
Kunal Jani, Dhiraj Dhotre, Jayashree Bandal, Yogesh Shouche, Mangesh Suryavanshi, Vinay Rale, Avinash Sharma
Kumbh Mela is one of the largest religious mass gathering events (MGE) involving bathing in rivers. The exponential rise in the number of devotees, from around 0.4 million in 1903 to 120 million in 2013, bathing in small specified sites can have a dramatic impact on the river ecosystem. Here, we present the spatiotemporal profiling of bacterial communities in Godavari River, Nashik, India, comprising five sites during the Kumbh Mela, held in 2015. Assessment of environmental parameters indicated deterioration of water quality...
March 13, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Congming Wu, Yingchao Wang, Xiaomin Shi, Shuang Wang, Hongwei Ren, Zhangqi Shen, Yang Wang, Juchun Lin, Shaolin Wang
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) strains are emerging around the world as a source of resistance to β-lactam antibiotics such as ampicillin, cefotaxime, and ceftazidime. mcr-1 is a novel plasmid-mediated gene conferring resistance to colistin. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of ESBL-EC mcr-1 of chicken origin in the different provinces of China during 2008-2014. Overall, 341 of 821 isolates were determined to be ESBL-EC strains, and the proportion of ESBL-positive strains almost doubled from 2008 to 2014...
March 14, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Z Qi, B Zhang, J Zhang, Q Hu, F Xu, B Chen, C Zhu
Lung cancer, especially non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the world. Both microRNAs and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are important factors in NSCLC. In our study, the expression of miR-30b in 47 tumor tissues and paired normal tissues of NSCLC were detected by RT-PCR, and we found that miR-30b was down-regulated in NSCLC tumor tissues and was associated with TNM stage, differentiation, and lymph node metastases. Then we investigated the ability of miR-30b to regulate EGFR in several NSCLC cell lines, and found that miR-30b inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion, induced apoptosis and enhanced sensitivity of the NSCLC cells to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) by targeting EGFR and repressing EGFR signaling pathways...
2018: Neoplasma
Andreas Stang, Jürgen C Becker, Paul Nghiem, Jacques Ferlay
AIM: The aim of this article was to provide worldwide, population-based incidence rates for Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). METHODS: We included 11,576 cases from 20 countries for time trend analyses (1990-2007) and 11,028 cases (2.5 billion person-years) from 21 countries for the period 2003-2007 extracted from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents. We computed age-standardised incidence rates (World Standard population) per million person years and sex ratios of these rates...
March 10, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
Christina Schneider, Sidney Becker, Hidenori Okamura, Antony Crisp, Tynchtyk Amatov, Michael Stadlmeier, Thomas Carell
The RNA world hypothesis assumes that life on earth started with small RNA molecules that catalyzed their own formation. Vital to this hypothesis is the need for prebiotic routes towards RNA. Contemporary RNA, however, is not only constructed from the four canonical nucleobases (A, C, G and U), but it contains in addition many chemically modified (non-canonical) bases. A yet open question is if these non-canonical bases were formed in parallel to the canonical bases (chemical origin), or whether they were created later, when life demanded higher functional diversity (biological origin)...
March 13, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Hongkai Wang, Ziyu Tan, Qiang Zheng, Jing Yu
PURPOSE: Recent researches have demonstrated the value of using 2-deoxy-2-[18 F]fluoro-D-glucose ([18 F]FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging to reveal the hypothyroidism-related damages in local brain regions. However, the influence of hypothyroidism on the entire brain network is barely studied. This study focuses on the application of graph theory on analyzing functional brain networks of the hypothyroidism symptom. PROCEDURES: For both the hypothyroidism and the control groups of Wistar rats, the functional brain networks were constructed by thresholding the glucose metabolism correlation matrices of 58 brain regions...
March 12, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Miguel Peralta, João Martins, Dartagnan Pinto Guedes, Hugo Sarmento, Adilson Marques
From a public health perspective, identifying factors related to attaining the physical activity (PA) recommendations is important in order to identify subgroups for intervention programs. The aim of this study is to identify the socio-demographic correlates of attaining the recommended levels of PA in the older European population. Using data from the European Social Survey round 6, PA and socio-demographic characteristics were collected from 10,148 participants (4556 men, 5592 women), aged 65 years and over, from 28 countries in 2012...
March 2018: European Journal of Ageing
Renaud Sabatier, Emanuel Nicolas, Maria Paciencia, Annie-Pierre Jonville-Béra, Anne Madroszyk, Maud Cecile, Cecile Braticevic, Ségolène Duran, Louis Tassy, Franck Rouby, Joëlle Micallef, Frédérique Rousseau
BACKGROUND: Nivolumab is approved worldwide as second-line treatment for metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Despite the fact that most of these cancers are being diagnosed in the older patients, few of the patients were included in pivotal trials. We aimed to describe efficacy and safety in a "real-world" older population. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively collected data from older patients (≥70 years old) with advanced or metastatic NSCLC treated with Nivolumab in our institution...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Geriatric Oncology
C A Rajabu, G G Kennedy, J Ndunguru, E M Ateka, F Tairo, L Hanley-Bowdoin, J T Ascencio-Ibáñez
Geminiviruses are devastating single-stranded DNA viruses that infect a wide variety of crops in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Tomato, which is a host for more than 100 geminiviruses, is one of the most affected crops. Developing plant models to study geminivirus-host interaction is important for the design of virus management strategies. In this study, "Florida Lanai" tomato was broadly characterized using three begomoviruses (Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, TYLCV ; Tomato mottle virus, ToMoV; Tomato golden mosaic virus, TGMV) and a curtovirus (Beet curly top virus, BCTV)...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
Sanjay Sagar, Seid M Adem, Benjamin Struchen, Sarah P Loughran, Michael E Brunjes, Lisa Arangua, Mohamed Aqiel Dalvie, Rodney J Croft, Michael Jerrett, Joel M Moskowitz, Tony Kuo, Martin Röösli
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to quantify RF-EMF exposure applying a tested protocol of RF-EMF exposure measurements using portable devices with a high sampling rate in different microenvironments of Switzerland, Ethiopia, Nepal, South Africa, Australia and the United States of America. METHOD: We used portable measurement devices for assessing RF-EMF exposure in 94 outdoor microenvironments and 18 public transport vehicles. The measurements were taken either by walking with a backpack with the devices at the height of the head and a distance of 20-30 cm from the body, or driving a car with the devices mounted on its roof, which was 170-180 cm above the ground...
March 9, 2018: Environment International
Cesar Nombela
On November 21, 2017, Professor Julio R. Villanueva died in Salamanca. Born on April 27, 1928 in Villamayor, council of Piloña (Asturias), he lived almost to the age of 90. His was an accomplished life, full of endeavors and exciting works in the world of research and teaching, which earned him very broad recognition both in Spain and the international arena. Villanueva was undoubtedly the driving force of Fundamental Microbiology in Spain. His early steps came at a time when experimental biology was arriving at an important new age, using microbial systems for experimentation that lead to general conclusions about all living beings...
December 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
Altielys Casale Magnago, Maria Alice Neves, Rosa Mara Borges da Silveira
Fistulinella is a small genus of boletoid fungi in the subfamily Austroboletoideae in the order Boletales. In this paper, F. ruschii from the Atlantic Forest is proposed as new to science and F. campinaranae var. scrobiculata, known from the Brazilian Amazon forest, is recorded for the first time in the Atlantic Forest. Macro- and microscopic descriptions, molecular data (nuc rDNA ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and nuc 28S rDNA), photographs of the basidiomata, and scanning electron microscopy images of basidiospores are provided for both species...
February 23, 2018: Mycologia
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