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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790214/predictability-of-demographic-rates-based-on-phylogeny-and-biological-similarity
#1
Judy Che-Castaldo, Christian Che-Castaldo, Maile C Neel
Lack of demographic data for most of the world's threatened species is a widespread problem that precludes viability-based status assessments for species conservation. A commonly suggested solution is to use data from species that are closely related or biologically similar to the focal species. This approach assumes that similar species and populations of the same species would have similar demographic rates, an assumption that has yet to be thoroughly tested. In this study, we constructed a Bayesian hierarchical model to predict demographic rates (intrinsic rate of population growth, r; recruit survival; juvenile survival; adult survival; fecundity) based on biological traits and phylogenetic relatedness, using data for 425 plant species...
May 23, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789871/emergency-admissions-for-complicated-colonic-diverticulitis-are-increasing-a-nationwide-register-based-cohort-study
#2
Line Hupfeld, Hans-Christian Pommergaard, Jakob Burcharth, Jacob Rosenberg
BACKGROUND: Acute colonic diverticulitis is common in the Western world representing a growing burden on health care. We aimed to report the factual epidemiological and demographic characteristics in patients with acute diverticulitis in a large nationwide population. METHOD: We conducted a population-based cohort study from 2000 to 2012 on the complete Danish population, which included all patients with acute colonic diverticulitis. Data were composed through two national longitudinal registries...
May 22, 2018: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789595/endocide-induced-abnormal-growth-forms-of-invasive-giant-salvinia-salvinia-molesta
#3
Shiyou Li, Ping Wang, Zushang Su, Emily Lozano, Olivia LaMaster, Jason B Grogan, Yuhui Weng, Thomas Decker, John Findeisen, Monica McGarrity
Giant salvinia (Salvinia molesta) is one of the most noxious invasive species in the world. The fern is known to have primary, secondary, and tertiary growth forms, which are also commonly hypothesized as growth stages. The identification of these forms is primarily based on the size and folding status of the floating leaves. However, we identified 12 forms in the greenhouse and the field. Our experiments showed that the folding of floating leaves is a reversible trait dependent on water access. The floating leaves quickly fold in response to water shortage, reducing water loss and needs, decreasing growth, and avoiding trichome damage...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789481/concepts-and-methods-to-access-novel-antibiotics-from-actinomycetes
#4
REVIEW
Joachim J Hug, Chantal D Bader, Maja Remškar, Katarina Cirnski, Rolf Müller
Actinomycetes have been proven to be an excellent source of secondary metabolites for more than half a century. Exhibiting various bioactivities, they provide valuable approved drugs in clinical use. Most microorganisms are still untapped in terms of their capacity to produce secondary metabolites, since only a small fraction can be cultured in the laboratory. Thus, improving cultivation techniques to extend the range of secondary metabolite producers accessible under laboratory conditions is an important first step in prospecting underexplored sources for the isolation of novel antibiotics...
May 22, 2018: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786828/oral-contraceptives-for-pain-associated-with-endometriosis
#5
REVIEW
Julie Brown, Tineke J Crawford, Shree Datta, Andrew Prentice
BACKGROUND: Endometriosis is a common gynaecological condition which affects many women of reproductive age worldwide and is a major cause of pain and infertility. The combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP) is widely used to treat pain occurring as a result of endometriosis, although the evidence for its efficacy is limited. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness, safety and cost-effectiveness of oral contraceptive preparations in the treatment of painful symptoms ascribed to the diagnosis of laparoscopically proven endometriosis...
May 22, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785891/performance-and-carcass-characteristics-of-steers-fed-with-two-levels-of-metabolizable-energy-intake-during-summer-and-winter-season
#6
R A Arias, J P Keim, M Gandarillas, A Velásquez, C Alvarado-Gilis, T L Mader
Climate change is producing an increase on extreme weather events around the world such as flooding, drought and extreme ambient temperatures impacting animal production and animal welfare. At present, there is a lack of studies addressing the effects of climatic conditions associated with energy intake in finishing cattle in South American feed yards. Therefore, two experiments were conducted to assess the effects of environmental variables and level of metabolizable energy intake above maintenance requirements (MEI) on performance and carcass quality of steers...
May 22, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785319/a-multi-faceted-pandemic-a-review-of-the-state-of-knowledge-on-the-zika-virus
#7
REVIEW
Anneliese Depoux, Aline Philibert, Serge Rabier, Henri-Jean Philippe, Arnaud Fontanet, Antoine Flahault
While until recently the small and isolated Zika outbreaks in Eastern Asia and Pacific islands had been overlooked, the large-scale outbreak that started in Brazil in 2015 and the increase of microcephaly cases in the same place and time made media headlines. Considered as harmless until recently, Zika has given rise to an important global crisis that poses not only health challenges but also environmental, economical, social, and ethical challenges for states and people around the world. The main objective of this paper is to review the recent Zika outbreak by covering a broad range of disciplines and their interactions...
2018: Public Health Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784952/vanishing-river-ice-cover-in-the-lower-part-of-the-danube-basin-signs-of-a-changing-climate
#8
M Ionita, C -A Badaluta, P Scholz, S Chelcea
Many of the world's largest rivers in the extra tropics are covered with ice during the cold season, and in the Northern Hemisphere approximately 60% of the rivers experience significant seasonal effects of river ice. Here we present an observational data set of the ice cover regime for the lower part of the Danube River which spans over the period 1837-2016, and its the longest one on record over this area. The results in this study emphasize the strong impact of climate change on the occurrence of ice regime especially in the second part of the 20th century...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784798/stabilized-single-injection-inactivated-polio-vaccine-elicits-a-strong-neutralizing-immune-response
#9
Stephany Y Tzeng, Kevin J McHugh, Adam M Behrens, Sviatlana Rose, James L Sugarman, Shiran Ferber, Robert Langer, Ana Jaklenec
Vaccination in the developing world is hampered by limited patient access, which prevents individuals from receiving the multiple injections necessary for protective immunity. Here, we developed an injectable microparticle formulation of the inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) that releases multiple pulses of stable antigen over time. To accomplish this, we established an IPV stabilization strategy using cationic polymers for pH modulation to enhance traditional small-molecule-based stabilization methods. We investigated the mechanism of this strategy and showed that it was broadly applicable to all three antigens in IPV...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784056/biomarker-micrornas-for-prostate-cancer-metastasis-screened-with-a-network-vulnerability-analysis-model
#10
Yuxin Lin, Feifei Chen, Li Shen, Xiaoyu Tang, Cui Du, Zhandong Sun, Huijie Ding, Jiajia Chen, Bairong Shen
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa) is a fatal malignant tumor among males in the world and the metastasis is a leading cause for PCa death. Biomarkers are therefore urgently needed to detect PCa metastatic signature at the early time. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs with the potential to be biomarkers for disease prediction. In addition, computer-aided biomarker discovery is now becoming an attractive paradigm for precision diagnosis and prognosis of complex diseases. METHODS: In this study, we identified key microRNAs as biomarkers for predicting PCa metastasis based on network vulnerability analysis...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783966/perceptions-and-attitudes-toward-performing-risk-assessment-for-periodontal-disease-a-focus-group-exploration
#11
Thankam Thyvalikakath, Mei Song, Titus Schleyer
BACKGROUND: Currently, many risk assessment tools are available for clinicians to assess a patient's periodontal disease risk. Numerous studies demonstrate the potential of these tools to promote preventive management and reduce morbidity due to periodontal disease. Despite these promising results, solo and small group dental practices, where most people receive care, have not adopted risk assessment tools widely, primarily due to lack of studies in these settings. The objective of this study was to explore the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of dental providers in these settings toward risk-based care through focus groups...
May 21, 2018: BMC Oral Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782820/onchocerciasis-prevalence-human-migration-and-risks-for-onchocerciasis-elimination-in-the-upper-mouhoun-nakamb%C3%A3-and-nazinon-river-basins-in-burkina-faso
#12
Achille S Nikièma, Lassane Koala, Rory J Post, Alain B Paré, Claude Montant Kafando, François Drabo, Adrien M G Belem, Roch K Dabiré, Soungalo Traoré
Historically, the whole of Burkina Faso was considered to be endemic for onchocerciasis (except a small area in the far north of the country) with prevalence rates 60-80%, but all endemic areas were included in the World Health Organisation Onchocerciasis Control Programme, which operated a system of vector control by larviciding beginning in 1974. In Burkina Faso larviciding had been phased out by 1989 when it was considered that onchocerciasis had been reduced to levels below the transmission breakpoint (and any residual infections would disappear without further intervention)...
May 18, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782327/relation-of-white-matter-hyperintensities-and-motor-deficits-in-chronic-stroke
#13
Jarrod M Hicks, Edward Taub, Brent Womble, Ameen Barghi, Tyler Rickards, Victor W Mark, Gitendra Uswatte
BACKGROUND: Infarct size and location account for only a relatively small portion of post-stroke motor impairment, suggesting that other less obvious factors may be involved. OBJECTIVE: Examine the relationship between white matter hyperintensity (WMH) load among other factors and upper extremity motor deficit in patients with mild to moderate chronic stroke. METHODS: The magnetic resonance images of 28 patients were studied. WMH load was assessed as total WMH volume and WMH overlap with the corticospinal tract in the centrum semiovale...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780067/cultural-barriers-in-the-treatment-of-dyslipidemia-a-survey-of-japanese-physician-attitudes
#14
Shizuya Yamashita, Daisaku Masuda, Hidenori Arai, Yuji Matsuzawa
AIMS: To gain a more accurate understanding of the current real-world management of dyslipidemia in Japan, an online survey was conducted in a variety of physicians from five medical fields. METHODS: A web-based survey with online questionnaire was designed, and members of an on-line information service for physicians were invited to participate. The survey enrolled 500 physicians, 100 in each of five categories: cardiology; diabetes, metabolism and endocrinology; neurology/neurosurgery/stroke medicine; general internal medicine (hospitals ≥20 beds), and general internal medicine (self-employed practitioners at clinics or small hospitals ≤19 beds)...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778650/obesity-surgery-makes-patients-healthier-and-more-functional-real-world-results-from-the-united-kingdom-national-bariatric-surgery-registry
#15
Alexander Dimitri Miras, Kamocka Anna, Patel Darshan, Dexter Simon, Finlay Ian, Hopkins C James, Khan Omar, Reddy Marcus, Sedman Peter, Small Peter, Somers Shaw, Suzie Cro, Walton Peter, le Roux Carel W, Welbourn Richard
BACKGROUND: The National Bariatric Surgery Registry (NBSR) is the largest bespoke database in the field in the United Kingdom. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to analyze the NBSR to determine whether the effects of obesity surgery on associated co-morbidities observed in small, randomized controlled clinical trials could be replicated in a "real life" setting within U.K. healthcare. SETTING: United Kingdom. METHODS: All NBSR entries for operations between 2000 and 2015 with associated demographic and co-morbidity data were analyzed retrospectively...
February 15, 2018: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778476/glycation-of-whey-protein-with-dextrans-of-different-molar-mass-effect-on-immunoglobulin-e-binding-capacity-with-blood-sera-obtained-from-patients-with-cow-milk-protein-allergy
#16
Lei Xu, Yuansheng Gong, James E Gern, Shinya Ikeda, John A Lucey
A growing concern around the world is the number of people who are suffering from food protein allergies. One potential approach to decrease protein allergenicity is to block IgE-binding epitopes of the protein allergen by attachment of polysaccharides via the Maillard reaction (i.e., glycation). Protein glycation has been extensively studied to modify various functional properties. We wanted to examine whether glycates could reduce IgE binding in patients with cow milk protein allergy and to explore how the size (molar mass; MW ) of the polysaccharide affects this IgE-binding capacity...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776096/statistical-investigation-of-avalanches-of-three-dimensional-small-world-networks-and-their-boundary-and-bulk-cross-sections
#17
M N Najafi, H Dashti-Naserabadi
In many situations we are interested in the propagation of energy in some portions of a three-dimensional system with dilute long-range links. In this paper, a sandpile model is defined on the three-dimensional small-world network with real dissipative boundaries and the energy propagation is studied in three dimensions as well as the two-dimensional cross-sections. Two types of cross-sections are defined in the system, one in the bulk and another in the system boundary. The motivation of this is to make clear how the statistics of the avalanches in the bulk cross-section tend to the statistics of the dissipative avalanches, defined in the boundaries as the concentration of long-range links (α) increases...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776076/complex-network-view-of-evolving-manifolds
#18
Diamantino C da Silva, Ginestra Bianconi, Rui A da Costa, Sergey N Dorogovtsev, José F F Mendes
We study complex networks formed by triangulations and higher-dimensional simplicial complexes representing closed evolving manifolds. In particular, for triangulations, the set of possible transformations of these networks is restricted by the condition that at each step, all the faces must be triangles. Stochastic application of these operations leads to random networks with different architectures. We perform extensive numerical simulations and explore the geometries of growing and equilibrium complex networks generated by these transformations and their local structural properties...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773126/the-small-world-of-global-otolaryngology
#19
EDITORIAL
James E Saunders, Susan R Cordes, Mark E Zafereo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772730/at-the-crossroads-of-clinical-and-preclinical-research-for-muscular-dystrophy-are-we-closer-to-effective-treatment-for-patients
#20
REVIEW
Kinga I Gawlik
Among diseases affecting skeletal muscle, muscular dystrophy is one of the most devastating and complex disorders. The term 'muscular dystrophy' refers to a heterogeneous group of genetic diseases associated with a primary muscle defect that leads to progressive muscle wasting and consequent loss of muscle function. Muscular dystrophies are accompanied by numerous clinical complications and abnormalities in other tissues that cause extreme discomfort in everyday life. The fact that muscular dystrophy often takes its toll on babies and small children, and that many patients die at a young age, adds to the cruel character of the disease...
May 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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