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Isabella Zhang, Silvia C Formenti, Jonathan P S Knisely
The brain has long been considered an immunologically privileged site, and the role of immunotherapy in treating intracranial disease has only recently been revived-with preclinical evidence showing that the systemic immune system responds to immunotherapy for intracranial disease, and with clinical evidence demonstrating improved locoregional control and survival compared with historical outcomes when immune-directed therapies are combined with radiation. Pharmaceutical industry-supported multi-institutional drug efficacy studies routinely exclude patients with brain metastases, so current evidence for treatment of brain metastases using stereotactic radiosurgery combined with immunotherapy comes from single-institution studies...
March 15, 2018: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
Qinjian Jin, Chien Wang
The trends of both rainfall and circulation strength of the Indian summer monsoon has been reviving since 2002. Here, using observational data, we demonstrate a statistically significant greening over the Northwest Indian Subcontinent and a consequent decline in dust abundance due to the monsoon revival. The enhanced monsoonal rainfall causes an increase in soil moisture, which results in a significant greening in the Northwest Indian Subcontinent. These increases in rainfall, soil moisture, and vegetation together lead to a substantial reduction of the dust abundance in this region, especially the Thar Desert, as shown by a negative trend in satellite-retrieved aerosol optical depth...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Chao Zhang, Jiangui Liu, Jiali Shang, Huanjie Cai
Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a major crop in the Guanzhong Plain, China. Understanding its water status is important for irrigation planning. A few crop water indicators, such as the leaf equivalent water thickness (EWT: g cm-2 ), leaf water content (LWC: %) and canopy water content (CWC: kg m-2 ), have been estimated using remote sensing techniques for a wide range of crops, yet their suitability and utility for revealing winter wheat growth and soil moisture status have not been well studied. To bridge this knowledge gap, field-scale irrigation experiments were conducted over two consecutive years (2014 and 2015) to investigate relationships of crop water content with soil moisture and grain yield, and to assess the performance of four spectral process methods for retrieving these three crop water indicators...
March 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jade M S Delevaux, Robert Whittier, Kostantinos A Stamoulis, Leah L Bremer, Stacy Jupiter, Alan M Friedlander, Matthew Poti, Greg Guannel, Natalie Kurashima, Kawika B Winter, Robert Toonen, Eric Conklin, Chad Wiggins, Anders Knudby, Whitney Goodell, Kimberly Burnett, Susan Yee, Hla Htun, Kirsten L L Oleson, Tracy Wiegner, Tamara Ticktin
Declining natural resources have led to a cultural renaissance across the Pacific that seeks to revive customary ridge-to-reef management approaches to protect freshwater and restore abundant coral reef fisheries. Effective ridge-to-reef management requires improved understanding of land-sea linkages and decision-support tools to simultaneously evaluate the effects of terrestrial and marine drivers on coral reefs, mediated by anthropogenic activities. Although a few applications have linked the effects of land cover to coral reefs, these are too coarse in resolution to inform watershed-scale management for Pacific Islands...
2018: PloS One
Andrea Santucci, Claudio Cavallini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
Thomas L Holland, William O'Riordan, Alison McManus, Elliot Shin, Ali Borghei, Thomas M File, Mark H Wilcox, Antoni Torres, Matthew Dryden, Thomas Lodise, Toyoko Oguri, G Ralph Corey, Patrick McLeroth, Rajesh Shukla, David B Huang
Iclaprim is a novel diaminopyrimidine antibiotic that may be an effective and safe treatment for serious skin infections. The safety and effectiveness of iclaprim were assessed in a global Phase 3, double-blind, randomized, active-controlled trial. Six-hundred thirteen adults with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) suspected or confirmed to be due to Gram-positive pathogens were randomized to iclaprim (80 mg) or vancomycin (15mg/kg), both administered intravenously every 12 hours for 5 - 14 days...
March 12, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Jun-Seob Kim, Ryota Yamasaki, Sooyeon Song, Weiwei Zhang, Thomas K Wood
Since persister cells survive antibiotic treatments through dormancy and resuscitate to reconstitute infections, it is imperative to determine the rate at which these cells revive. Using two sets of Escherichia coli persister cells, those arising after antibiotic treatment at low levels and those generated at high levels by ceasing transcription via rifampicin pretreatment (shown to be bona fide persisters through eight sets of experiments), we used microscopy of single cells to determine that the resuscitation of dormant persisters is heterogeneous and includes cells that grow immediately...
March 12, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Anamika Sharma, Ashish Kumar, Shimaa A H Abdel Monaim, Yahya E Jad, Ayman El-Faham, Beatriz G de la Torre, Fernando Albericio
Active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) can be divided into two types, namely chemical and biological entities. Traditionally, the former has been associated with the so-called small molecules. The revival of peptides in pharmaceutical industry results from their importance in many biological roles. However, low metabolic stability and the lack of oral availability of most peptides is the main drawback for peptide to fulfill that paradigmatic situation. In this regard, efforts are being channeled into addressing this issue by introducing restrictions into the flexible peptide backbone, mainly through N-methyl amino acids (NMAAs) or development of small cyclic peptides...
March 12, 2018: Biopolymers
Nobuyuki Sakai, Shinzo Ota, Yasushi Matsumoto, Rei Kondo, Tetsu Satow, Michiya Kubo, Tomoyuki Tsumoto, Yukiko Enomoto, Taketo Kataoka, Hirotoshi Imamura, Kenichi Todo, Mikito Hayakawa, Hiroshi Yamagami, Kazunori Toyoda, Yasushi Ito, Kenji Sugiu, Yuji Matsumaru, Shinichi Yoshimura
REVIVE SE (REVIVE) is a closed-ended, self-expanding stent retriever used in the RIVER JAPAN study. We present our early experience with REVIVE for revascularization of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in patients who have failed or are ineligible for intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator treatment. This prospective, single-arm, non-randomized, multicenter registry study followed up patients undergoing mechanical thrombectomy with REVIVE for 90 days. The primary endpoint was a post-procedure Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (TICI) score ≥2a...
March 9, 2018: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
David R Walega, Zachary L McCormick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 5, 2018: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
David Barry Hipgrave, Lukman Hendro Laksmono, Gita Maya Koemarasakti, Robin Nandy, Budhi Setiawan, Lukas Hermawan, Deswanto Marbun
District team problem solving (DTPS) was developed by WHO in the 1980s to explicitly engage local stakeholders in decentralized planning and, in later iterations, budgeting of health services. It became WHO's global flagship approach to district-level health priority-setting and planning. DTPS entails multisectoral stakeholders (the team) using local data to prioritize and fund services, and should enhance capacity in management of decentralized healthcare. From the late 1990s, DTPS evolved through several phases in Indonesia...
March 5, 2018: Health Policy and Planning
Katherine Smith Fornili
The purpose of this column is to summarize important aspects of the racialized War on Drugs, including (a) the school-to-prison pipeline, (b) the for-profit prison system ("prison industrial complex"), (c) racialized mass incarceration, and (d) the disproportionately negative impact of the War on Drugs on families and communities of color. Analysis of critical race theory (CRT), the study of the relationships between race, racism, and power, will provide a cohesive framework for examining these four aspects...
January 2018: Journal of Addictions Nursing
Milind Sankhe, Omkar Churi
An analysis of the existing literature on lesioning for movement disorders was undertaken to review lesion therapy and its advances. Advances in imaging technology and electrophysiological techniques used for localization of brain structures and its functions, such as microelectrode recordings and macrostimulation, have greatly improved the ability to accurately identify the target nuclei such as the ventrointermediate nucleus (Vim), globus pallidus interna (GPi) and subthalamic nucleus (STN). Many important changes are happening in the understanding of lesion making...
March 2018: Neurology India
Ronen Nazarian, John T McElveen, Adrien A Eshraghi
The current advancements in otosclerosis therapy cannot be fully appreciated without studying the history, rediscovery, and modification of a once-forgotten procedure. The evolution of stapes surgery can be best summarized into 4 noteworthy eras: the preantibiotic era (which was forgotten and then rediscovered), the fenestration era (mainstreamed by Julius Lempert), the mobilization era (led by Samuel Rosen), and the modern stapedectomy era (revived and revolutionized by John Shea). Each era is unique with its own challenges and ingenious techniques to overcome what used to be among the leading causes of deafness...
April 2018: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
Walter Dempsey, Peter McCullagh
Survival studies often generate not only a survival time for each patient but also a sequence of health measurements at annual or semi-annual check-ups while the patient remains alive. Such a sequence of random length accompanied by a survival time is called a survival process. Robust health is ordinarily associated with longer survival, so the two parts of a survival process cannot be assumed independent. This paper is concerned with a general technique-reverse alignment-for constructing statistical models for survival processes, here termed revival models...
March 3, 2018: Lifetime Data Analysis
Daqian Yang, Huijie Jiang, Jingjing Lu, Yueying Lv, Ruiqi Baiyun, Siyu Li, Biying Liu, Zhanjun Lv, Zhigang Zhang
Lead, a pervasive environmental hazard worldwide, causes a wide range of physiological and biochemical destruction, including metabolic dysfunction. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) is a natural production with potential metabolic regulation in liver. This study was performed to investigate the protective role of GSPE against lead-induced metabolic dysfunction in liver and elucidate the potential molecular mechanism of this event. Wistar rats received GSPE (200 mg/kg) daily with or without lead acetate (PbA, 0...
March 1, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Ruut Veenhoven
Social Indicators Research covers many topics, which each have their own history. Happiness research is one of these included topics. Longstanding interest in happiness revived since the 1960s together with the emergence of the social indicator movement. Happiness became a prominent issue in the movement and the movement has fostered the development of happiness research in several ways.
2018: Social Indicators Research
Panos G Kalatzis, Daniel Castillo, Pantelis Katharios, Mathias Middelboe
A global distribution in marine, brackish, and freshwater ecosystems, in combination with high abundances and biomass, make vibrios key players in aquatic environments, as well as important pathogens for humans and marine animals. Incidents of Vibrio -associated diseases (vibriosis) in marine aquaculture are being increasingly reported on a global scale, due to the fast growth of the industry over the past few decades years. The administration of antibiotics has been the most commonly applied therapy used to control vibriosis outbreaks, giving rise to concerns about development and spreading of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the environment...
February 24, 2018: Antibiotics
Jessica E Salerno, Leonard S Weiss, David D Salcido
INTRODUCTION: Opioid-related overdoses have been steadily increasing over the past decade in the United States. Naloxone is used by first responders to revive overdose victims, but results may be improved by increasing access to and usage of naloxone by bystanders. Automated External Defibrillators (AEDs) are pervasive, recognizable, and publicly accessible. Co-locating naloxone kits with AEDs could increase public naloxone access and usage. However, the impact of co-locating naloxone kits with AEDs is not known...
March 1, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
Asit Kumar Sikary, Mahesh Kumar, Shivani Dhaka, Arulselvi Subramanian
Ilizarov process is used for the management of multiple fractures, polytrauma conditions, cosmetic limb lengthening, and fracture malunion. Complications associated with the process are nerve palsy, joint contracture, premature or delayed osseous consolidation, a nonunion and permanent stiffness of the joint, pin tract infection, edema, and transient paresthesia, etc. In our case, there was a fatal complication. A 25-year-old African lady underwent the Ilizarov procedure for femur lengthening in a hospital in New Delhi, India...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
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