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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930454/chemical-bypass-of-general-base-catalysis-in-hedgehog-protein-cholesterolysis-using-a-hyper-nucleophilic-substrate
#1
Daniel Ciulla, Michael Jorgensen, Jose-Luis Giner, Brian P Callahan
Proteins in the hedgehog family undergo self-catalyzed endoproteolysis involving nucleophilic attack by a molecule of cholesterol. Recently, a conserved aspartate residue (D303, or D46) of hedgehog was identified as the general base that activates cholesterol during this unusual autoprocessing event; mutation of the catalyzing functional group (D303A) reduces activity by >104 fold. Here we report near total rescue of this ostensibly dead general base mutant by a synthetic substrate, 3ß-hydroperoxycholestane (3HPC) in which the sterol -OH group is replaced by the hyper nucleophilic -OOH group...
September 20, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922820/justifying-british-advertising-in-war-and-austerity-1939-51
#2
Philippa Haughton
Drawing together institutional papers, the trade- and national-press, and Mass-Observation documents, this article examines the changing ways that the Advertising Association justified commercial advertising from 1939 to 1951. It argues that the ability to repeatedly re-conceptualize the social and economic purposes of advertising was central to the industry's survival and revival during the years of war and austerity. This matters because the survival and revival of commercial advertising helps to explain the composition of the post-war mixed economy and the emergence of a consumer culture that became the 'golden age' of capitalism...
September 1, 2017: 20 Century British History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922581/the-crisis-of-patient-physician-trust-and-bioethics-lessons-and-inspirations-from-china
#3
Jing-Bao Nie, Lun Li, Grant Gillett, Joseph D Tucker, Arthur Kleinman
Trust is indispensable not only for interpersonal relationships and social life, but for good quality healthcare. As manifested in the increasing violence and tension in patient-physician relationships, China has been experiencing a widespread and profound crisis of patient-physician trust. And globally, the crisis of trust is an issue that every society, either developing or developed, has to face in one way or another. Yet, in spite of some pioneering works, the subject of patient-physician trust and mistrust - a crucial matter in healthcare especially because there are numerous ethical implications - has largely been marginalized in bioethics as a global discourse...
September 18, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920131/reversible-causes-in-cardiovascular-collapse-at-the-emergency-department-using-ultrasonography-revive-us
#4
Mui Teng Chua, Gene Wh Chan, Win Sen Kuan
INTRODUCTION: Ultrasonographic evaluation of patients in cardiac arrest is currently not protocolised in the advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) algorithm. Potentially reversible causes may be identified using bedside ultrasonography that is ubiquitous in most emergency departments (EDs). This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of sonographically detectable reversible causes of cardiac arrest by incorporating an ultrasonography protocol into the ACLS algorithm. Secondary objectives include rates of survival to hospital admission, hospital discharge, and 30-day mortality...
August 2017: Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914341/knee-joint-preservation-a-call-for-daily-practice-revival-of-realignment-surgery-and-osteotomies-around-the-knee
#5
EDITORIAL
Ronald J van Heerwaarden, Michael T Hirschmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 15, 2017: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912484/evaluation-of-therapeutic-potential-of-the-silver-silver-chloride-nanoparticles-synthesized-with-the-aqueous-leaf-extract-of-rumex-acetosa
#6
Sobha Kota, Pradeep Dumpala, Ratna Kumari Anantha, Mahendra Kumar Verma, Surendranath Kandepu
Silver nanoparticles were green synthesized with the aqueous leaf extract of the widely consumed green leafy vegetable, Rumex acetosa (sorrel) and the obtained silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were tested for their in vitro antioxidant potential, cytotoxicity against human osteosarcoma (HOS) cell lines and antibacterial effects against sixteen human pathogenic clinical isolates. Different analytical techniques viz. UV-vis, FTIR, XRD, SEM-EDX and TEM were employed to characterize the synthesized Ag NPs. Surface Plasmon spectra for the Ag NPs with brownish black color were centered approximately at 448 nm...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911078/revival-of-pi3k-inhibitors-in-non-hodgkin-s-lymphoma
#7
C L Batlevi, A Younes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904401/identification-of-genetically-important-individuals-of-the-rediscovered-floreana-gal%C3%A3-pagos-giant-tortoise-chelonoidis-elephantopus-provide-founders-for-species-restoration-program
#8
Joshua M Miller, Maud C Quinzin, Nikos Poulakakis, James P Gibbs, Luciano B Beheregaray, Ryan C Garrick, Michael A Russello, Claudio Ciofi, Danielle L Edwards, Elizabeth A Hunter, Washington Tapia, Danny Rueda, Jorge Carrión, Andrés A Valdivieso, Adalgisa Caccone
Species are being lost at an unprecedented rate due to human-driven environmental changes. The cases in which species declared extinct can be revived are rare. However, here we report that a remote volcano in the Galápagos Islands hosts many giant tortoises with high ancestry from a species previously declared as extinct: Chelonoidis elephantopus or the Floreana tortoise. Of 150 individuals with distinctive morphology sampled from the volcano, genetic analyses revealed that 65 had C. elephantopus ancestry and thirty-two were translocated from the volcano's slopes to a captive breeding center...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904326/intravenous-polymyxins-revival-with-puzzle
#9
Yun Yu, Aihua Fei, Zengbin Wu, Chengjin Gao, Shuming Pan
With the increasing incidence of multi-drug resistant strains, especially carbapenem resistant strains, polymyxsins (mainly colistin and polymyxin B) based regimens seem to be a revival as an effective treatment of last resort in these infections. Evidence from 47 clinical trials or case series we reviewed showed that polymyxins based regimens are effective and have less toxicity compared with previous trials. When used alone, the mortality of intravenous polymyxsins ranged from 0% to 74.3%, clinical response (cure and improvement) rate was 7-82...
2017: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895131/social-mobility-and-the-well-being-of-individuals
#10
Tak Wing Chan
Several papers published in recent years have revived interest in Sorokin's dissociative thesis: the view that intergenerational social mobility has detrimental effects on the social relationships and wellbeing of individuals. In this paper, I test the dissociative thesis using data from the British Household Panel Survey and Understanding Society. On a wide range of indicators that measure participation in civic associations, contact with parents, close personal relationships, social support, subjective wellbeing, etc...
September 12, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890456/a-figure-of-merit-quantifying-the-probability-of-a-nuclear-reactor-accident
#11
Thomas R Wellock
In recent decades, probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has become an essential tool in risk analysis and management in many industries and government agencies. The origins of PRA date to the 1975 publication of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) Reactor Safety Study led by MIT professor Norman Rasmussen. The "Rasmussen Report" inspired considerable political and scholarly disputes over the motives behind it and the value of its methods and numerical estimates of risk. The Report's controversies have overshadowed the deeper technical origins of risk assessment...
2017: Technology and Culture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886009/tau-mediated-iron-export-prevents-ferroptotic-damage-after-ischemic-stroke
#12
Q-Z Tuo, P Lei, K A Jackman, X-L Li, H Xiong, X-L Li, Z-Y Liuyang, L Roisman, S-T Zhang, S Ayton, Q Wang, P J Crouch, K Ganio, X-C Wang, L Pei, P A Adlard, Y-M Lu, R Cappai, J-Z Wang, R Liu, A I Bush
Functional failure of tau contributes to age-dependent, iron-mediated neurotoxicity, and as iron accumulates in ischemic stroke tissue, we hypothesized that tau failure may exaggerate ischemia-reperfusion-related toxicity. Indeed, unilateral, transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) suppressed hemispheric tau and increased iron levels in young (3-month-old) mice and rats. Wild-type mice were protected by iron-targeted interventions: ceruloplasmin and amyloid precursor protein ectodomain, as well as ferroptosis inhibitors...
September 8, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885911/renal-denervation-what-happened-and-why
#13
REVIEW
Mehdi H Shishehbor, Tarek A Hammad, George Thomas
Despite promising results in initial trials, renal denervation failed to achieve its efficacy end points as a treatment for resistant hypertension in the SYMPLICITY HTN-3 trial, the largest trial of this treatment to date (N Engl J Med 2014; 370:1393-1401). Is renal denervation dead, or will future trials and newer technology revive it?
September 2017: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876538/mikl%C3%A3-s-bodanszky-award-lecture-advances-in-the-selective-targeting-of-protein-phosphatase-1-and-phosphatase-2a-with-peptides
#14
REVIEW
Maja Köhn
Protein phosphatase-1 and phosphatase-2A are two ubiquitously expressed enzymes known to catalyze the majority of dephosphorylation reactions on serine and threonine inside cells. They play roles in most cellular processes and are tightly regulated by regulatory subunits in holoenzymes. Their misregulation and malfunction contribute to disease development and progression, such as in cancer, diabetes, viral infections, and neurological as well as heart diseases. Therefore, targeting these phosphatases for therapeutic use would be highly desirable; however, their complex regulation and high conservation of the active site have been major hurdles for selectively targeting them in the past...
October 2017: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862451/cation-effect-on-hot-carrier-cooling-in-halide-perovskite-materials
#15
Mohamed E Madjet, Golibjon R Berdiyorov, Fedwa El-Mellouhi, Fahhad H Alharbi, Alexey V Akimov, Sabre Kais
Organic-inorganic lead-halide perovskites have received a revival of interest in the past few years as a promising class of materials for photovoltaic applications. Despite recent extensive research, the role of cations in defining the high photovoltaic performance of these materials is not fully understood. Here, we conduct nonadiabatic molecular dynamics simulations to study and compare nonradiative hot carrier relaxation in three lead-halide perovskite materials: CH3NH3PbI3, HC(NH2)2PbI3, and CsPbI3. It is found that the relaxation of hot carriers to the band edges occurs on the ultrafast time scale and displays a strong quantitative dependence on the nature of the cations...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860532/revealing-the-mystery-of-metabolic-adaptations-using-a-genome-scale-model-of-leishmania-infantum
#16
Abhishek Subramanian, Ram Rup Sarkar
Human macrophage phagolysosome and sandfly midgut provide antagonistic ecological niches for Leishmania parasites to survive and proliferate. Parasites optimize their metabolism to utilize the available inadequate resources by adapting to those environments. Lately, a number of metabolomics studies have revived the interest to understand metabolic strategies utilized by the Leishmania parasite for optimal survival within its hosts. For the first time, we propose a reconstructed genome-scale metabolic model for Leishmania infantum JPCM5, the analyses of which not only captures observations reported by metabolomics studies in other Leishmania species but also divulges novel features of the L...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859347/a-hospital-based-committee-of-moral-philosophy-to-revive-ethics
#17
Margaux Illy, Pierre Le Coz, Jean-Louis Mege
The Méditerranée Infection Foundation's primary goal is supporting a research hospital for the treatment of infectious diseases in Marseille. The main objective of this innovative center is to understand the mechanisms of contagion and face them. The Foundation will include a committee on moral philosophy that will accompany and supervise biomedical research. This is not a conventional ethics committee, frequently giving rise to a board's bureaucratic excesses, which might slow down creative biomedical clinical research without necessarily restricting abuses...
August 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843039/tnf-tnf-inducers-and-tnfr2-agonists-a-new-path-to-type-1-diabetes-treatment
#18
REVIEW
Denise L Faustman
BACKGROUND: In the past decade, interest in the century-old tuberculosis vaccine, bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), has been revived for potential new therapeutic uses in type 1 diabetes and other forms of autoimmunity. METHODS: Diverse clinical trials are now proving the value of BCG in prevention and treatment of type 1 diabetes, in the treatment of new onset multiple sclerosis and other immune conditions. BCG contains the avirulent tuberculosis strain Mycobacterium bovis, a vaccine originally developed for tuberculosis prevention...
August 26, 2017: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841747/-psychotherapy-quo-vadis
#19
Gunther Meinlschmidt, Marion Tegethoff
Background: The science and practice of psychotherapy is continuously developing. The goal of this article is to describe new impulses, guiding current advancements in the field. Methods: This paper provides a selective narrative review, synthesizing and condensing relevant literature identified through various sources, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and "Web of Science", as well as citation tracking, to elaborate key developments in the field of psychotherapy Results: We describe several dynamics: 1) Following up the so-called "third wave of cognitive behavioral therapy", new interventions arise that have at their core fostering interpersonal virtues, such as compassion, forgiveness, and gratitude; 2) Based on technological quantum leaps, new interventions arise that exploit current developments in the field of new media, information, and communication technologies, as well as brain imaging, such as digital interventions for mental disorders and new forms of neurofeedback; 3) Inspired by the field of positive psychology, there is a revival of the promotion of strength and resilience in therapeutic contexts; 4) In light of the new paradigm "precision medicine", the issue of differential and adaptive indication of psychotherapy, addressed with new methods, regains relevance and drives a new field of "precision psychotherapy"...
August 2017: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838621/ki-67-and-the-chromosome-periphery-compartment-in-mitosis
#20
REVIEW
Daniel G Booth, William C Earnshaw
The chromosome periphery is a complex network of proteins and RNA molecules (many derived from nucleoli) that covers the outer surface of chromosomes and whose function remains mysterious. Although it was first described over 130 years ago, technological advances and the recent discovery that Ki-67 acts as an organiser of this region have allowed the chromosome periphery to be dissected in previously unattainable detail, leading to a revival of interest in this obscure chromosomal compartment. Here, we review the most recent advances into the composition, structure and function of the chromosome periphery, discuss possible roles of Ki-67 during mitosis and consider why this structure is likely to remain the focus of ongoing attention in the future...
August 21, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
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