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Maria Cecília de Souza Minayo
This article analyzes the origin of the primary arguments that underpin the qualitative approach, covering the birthplace of comprehensive and dialectical thought in Germany, its expansion into other countries such as France and the United States, and its spread into Latin America. The historical journey of the text starts with the development of modern science, examining the first empirical works in the Chicago School and the subsequent period of ostracism of qualitative research. The text also evidences a revival of comprehensive theoretical and empirical perspectives from the 1960s onwards, accompanying the cultural movement that came to question the great theoretical narratives and give rise to reflections on subjectivity...
October 2017: Salud Colectiva
Parisa Farzanehfar
Parkinson's Disease (PD) motor symptoms are caused by loss of dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) of the midbrain. Dopamine cell replacement therapy (DA CRT), either by cell transplantation or endogenous repair, has been a potential treatment to replace dead cells and improve PD motor symptoms. Adult midbrain and striatum have been studied for many years to find evidence of neurogenesis. Although the literature is controversial, recent research has revived the possibility of neurogenesis here...
January 12, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Avinash C Tripathi, Savita Upadhyay, Sarvesh Paliwal, Shailendra K Saraf
This review aims to be a comprehensive, authoritative, critical, and readable review of general interest to the medicinal chemistry community because it focuses on the pharmacological, chemical, structural and computational aspects of diverse chemical categories as monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). Monoamine oxidases (MAOs), namely MAO-A and MAO-B represent an enormously valuable class of neuronal enzymes embodying neurobiological origin and functions, serving as potential therapeutic target in neuronal pharmacotherapy, and hence we have coined the term "Neurozymes" which is being introduced for the first time ever...
January 4, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Anneli Cassel, Michael D Kopelman
Forgetting has been researched for over a century. This literature highlighted how forgetting rates can vary dependent on factors in the design and method. Recent interest in forgetting revived with evidence suggesting that seizures experienced almost immediately after matched learning could accelerate forgetting. This was followed by a growth in forgetting studies in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), including a subset of those with transient epileptic amnesia (TEA). These patients have been described as expressing concerns about memory, yet often perform within 'normal' ranges on standard neuropsychological memory assessments...
December 26, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Shanyu Zhao, Wim J Malfait, Natalia Guerrero Alburquerque, Matthias M Koebel, Gustav Nyström
Biopolymer aerogels were among the first produced aerogels (1932), but have then faded into the background. The last decade has witnessed a tremendous revival in biopolymer and biopolymer-composite aerogel research, motivated by sustainability arguments, unique and tunable properties, and ease of functionalization. Biopolymer aerogels have great potential for classical aerogel applications such as thermal insulation, as well as emerging applications in filtration, oil-water separation, CO2 capture, catalysis, and medicine...
January 5, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Valentin Demidov, Azusa Maeda, Mitsuro Sugita, Victoria Madge, Siddharth Sadanand, Costel Flueraru, I Alex Vitkin
Radiation therapy (RT) is widely used for cancer treatment, alone or in combination with other therapies. Recent RT advances have revived interest in delivering higher dose in fewer fractions, which may invoke both cellular and microvascular damage mechanisms. Microvasculature may thus be a potentially sensitive functional biomarker of RT early response, especially for such emerging RT treatments. However it is difficult to measure directly and non-invasively, and its time course, dose dependencies, and overall importance in tumor control are unclear...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Dae-Gi Kim
Although the healthcare system of the Yuan Dynasty followed that of the Song Dynasty, there are certain differences between these two dynasties in terms of practices. Including appointing 'Yihus' in 'Zhusehuji' and setting up 'Guanyitijusi' to oversee Yihus, the Yuan Dynasty developed an effective management system for their physicians and, soon after the coronation of Khubilai, built 'Yixue (Medical school)' all over its territories in order to establish an organized and substantial medical training system...
December 2017: Ŭi Sahak
Caroline Perrenoud, Friedrich Stiefel, Céline Bourquin
OBJECTIVE: The Swiss Medical Board (SMB) has recently revived the controversy over mammography screening by recommending to stop the introduction of new systematic mammography screening programs. This study aimed to examine the Swiss media coverage of the release of the SMB report. METHODS: The dataset consisted of 25 newspaper and "medical magazine" articles, and TV/radio interviews. The analytic approach was based on argumentation theory. RESULTS: Authority and community arguments were the most frequent types of arguments...
December 29, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
Rasmus S L Hansen, Stefan Vogl
Sterile neutrinos produced through oscillations are a well motivated dark matter candidate, but recent constraints from observations have ruled out most of the parameter space. We analyze the impact of new interactions on the evolution of keV sterile neutrino dark matter in the early Universe. Based on general considerations we find a mechanism which thermalizes the sterile neutrinos after an initial production by oscillations. The thermalization of sterile neutrinos is accompanied by dark entropy production which increases the yield of dark matter and leads to a lower characteristic momentum...
December 22, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Arthur E Weis
The resurrection approach is a powerful tool for estimating phenotypic evolution in response to global change. Ancestral generations, revived from dormant propagules, are grown side by side with descendent generations in the same environment. Phenotypic differences between the generations can be attributed to genetic change over time. Project Baseline was established to capitalize on this potential in flowering plants. Project participants collected, froze, and stored seed from 10 or more natural populations of 61 North American plant species...
January 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Steven J Franks, Elena Hamann, Arthur E Weis
The resurrection approach of reviving ancestors from stored propagules and comparing them with descendants under common conditions has emerged as a powerful method of detecting and characterizing contemporary evolution. As climatic and other environmental conditions continue to change at a rapid pace, this approach is becoming particularly useful for predicting and monitoring evolutionary responses. We evaluate this approach, explain the advantages and limitations, suggest best practices for implementation, review studies in which this approach has been used, and explore how it can be incorporated into conservation and management efforts...
January 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Alper Mutlu, Stephanie Trauth, Marika Ziesack, Katja Nagler, Jan-Philip Bergeest, Karl Rohr, Nils Becker, Thomas Höfer, Ilka B Bischofs
Some bacteria, such as Bacillus subtilis, withstand starvation by forming dormant spores that revive when nutrients become available. Although sporulation and spore revival jointly determine survival in fluctuating environments, the relationship between them has been unclear. Here we show that these two processes are linked by a phenotypic "memory" that arises from a carry-over of molecules from the vegetative cell into the spore. By imaging life histories of individual B. subtilis cells using fluorescent reporters, we demonstrate that sporulation timing controls nutrient-induced spore revival...
January 4, 2018: Nature Communications
Tom Scott-Smith
Inspired by de Laet and Mol's classic article on the Zimbabwean Bush Pump and Peter Redfield's revival of fluidity as a central characteristic of humanitarian design, this paper argues that many humanitarian technologies are characterized not so much by fluidity as by stickiness. Sticky technologies lie somewhere between fluid technologies and Latourian immutable mobiles: They work precisely because they are mobile and not overly adaptable, yet they retain some flexibility by reaching out to shape and be shaped by their users...
December 1, 2017: Social Studies of Science
Leor Roseman, Lysia Demetriou, Matthew B Wall, David J Nutt, Robin L Carhart-Harris
Recent evidence indicates that psilocybin with psychological support may be effective for treating depression. Some studies have found that patients with depression show heightened amygdala responses to fearful faces and there is reliable evidence that treatment with SSRIs attenuates amygdala responses (Ma, 2015). We hypothesised that amygdala responses to emotional faces would be altered post-treatment with psilocybin. In this open-label study, 20 individuals diagnosed with moderate to severe, treatment-resistant depression, underwent two separate dosing sessions with psilocybin...
December 27, 2017: Neuropharmacology
Alberto Morganti, Giuseppe Mancia
Resistant hypertension (RH) can be diagnosed if blood pressure (BP) is not controlled with the combination of three antihypertensive drugs, including a diuretic, all at effective doses. Patients affected by this condition exhibit a marked increase in the risk of cardiovascular and renal morbid and fatal events. They also exhibit an increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system which is likely to importantly contribute at the renal and other vascular levels to the hypertensive state. Almost 10years ago renal denervation (RDN) by radiofrequency thermal energy delivery to the walls of the renal arteries was proposed for the treatment of RH...
December 27, 2017: European Journal of Internal Medicine
Felix M Fuchs, Marina Raguse, Marcel Fiebrandt, Kazimierz Madela, Peter Awakowicz, Michael Laue, Katharina Stapelmann, Ralf Moeller
Plasma sterilization is a promising alternative to conventional sterilization methods for industrial, clinical, and spaceflight purposes. Low pressure plasma (LPP) discharges contain a broad spectrum of active species, which lead to rapid microbial inactivation. To study the efficiency and mechanisms of sterilization by LPP, we use spores of the test organism Bacillus subtilis because of their extraordinary resistance against conventional sterilization procedures. We describe the production of B. subtilis spore monolayers, the sterilization process by low pressure plasma in a double inductively coupled plasma reactor, the characterization of spore morphology using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the analysis of germination and outgrowth of spores by live cell microscopy...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
David B Huang, William O'Riordan, J Scott Overcash, Barry Heller, Faisal Amin, Thomas M File, Mark H Wilcox, Antoni Torres, Matthew Dryden, Thomas L Holland, Patrick McLeroth, Rajesh Shukla, G Ralph Corey
Background: Our objective in this study was to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of iclaprim compared with vancomycin for the treatment of patients with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs). Methods: REVIVE-1 was a phase 3, 600-patient, double-blinded, randomized (1:1), active-controlled trial among patients with ABSSSI that compared the safety and efficacy of iclaprim 80 mg fixed dose with vancomycin 15 mg/kg, both administered intravenously every 12 hours for 5-14 days...
December 21, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Wei Quan Toh, Xipeng Tan, Ayan Bhowmik, Erjia Liu, Shu Beng Tor
Orthopedic implants first started out as an all-metal hip joint replacement. However, poor design and machinability as well as unsatisfactory surface finish subjected the all-metal joint replacement to being superseded by a polyethylene bearing. Continued improvement in manufacturing techniques together with the reality that polyethylene wear debris can cause hazardous reactions in the human body has brought about the revival of metal-on-metal (MOM) hip joints in recent years. This has also led to a relatively new research area that links tribology and corrosion together...
December 26, 2017: Materials
Karin van Es
Increasingly media are asserting themselves as live. In television, this has been an important strategy and recently it has been employed by new media platforms such as Facebook, Periscope and Snapchat. This commentary explains the revival of live media by exploring the meaning and operations of the concept and argues the continued relevance of the concept for the study of social media. Traditionally, there have been three main approaches to the live in academic writing (i.e. liveness as ontology, as phenomenology and as rhetoric): each has its particular shortcoming...
November 2017: Media Cult Soc
Yinxia Yan, Yongming Du, Gefei Wang, Kangsheng Li
The nucleolus is a stress sensor associated with cell cycle progression and a central hub for the replication of pathogenic RNA viruses. However, the role of nucleolus in influenza A virus infection has not been well studied. Here we show that the interaction between NS1 protein of influenza A/Shantou/602/06 (H3N2) and nucleolin, a ubiquitous protein of nucleolus repressed RNA Pol I-dependent transcription via establishing hyper-methylation in the UCE of rRNA gene promoter. NS1 expressed cells showed significant association of ribosomal proteins with MDM2, and p53 accumulation, suggesting induced nucleolar stress...
December 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
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