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Hollie Hathaway, Scarlet Milo, J Mark Sutton, Toby A Jenkins
Antibiotics have been the cornerstone of clinical management of bacterial infection since their discovery in the early 20th century. However, their widespread and often indiscriminate use has now led to reports of multidrug resistance becoming globally commonplace. Bacteriophage therapy has undergone a recent revival in battle against pathogenic bacteria, as the self-replicating and co-evolutionary features of these predatory virions offer several advantages over conventional therapeutic agents. In particular, the use of targeted bacteriophage therapy from specialized delivery platforms has shown particular promise owing to the control of delivery location, administration conditions and dosage of the therapeutic cargo...
July 2017: Therapeutic Delivery
Qaed Dhariwal, Parvez Inamdar, Pankush Arora, Ashok Shyam
INTRODUCTION: Simultaneous radius and ulna fractures are common in adults and generally osteosynthesis with plating is the treatment of choice. Nailing of such fractures is infrequently advocated. We present our unique technique of radius ulna nailing in adults to achieve closed reduction and early predictable union with minimal or no complications. CASE REPORT: Case 1: 22 year old male with midshaft both bones forearm fracture was treated with stacked nailing. Two 2...
January 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
Japheth Awuletey Opintan, Mercy Jemima Newman
BACKGROUND: Blood stream infections (BSI) are critical medical conditions with high morbidity and mortality. There is paucity of information on BSI from surveillance studies in Ghana. AIM: This study sought to demonstrate how useful BSI data can be gleaned from population-based surveillance, especially from resource-limited settings. METHODS: Data from a nationwide surveillance of antimicrobial drug resistance (AMR) in Ghana were extracted and analyzed...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Azhar Ali, Yixi Chen, Venkata Vasiraju, Sreeram Vaddiraju
Research on thermoelectrics has seen a huge resurgence since the early 1990s. The ability of tuning a material's electrical and thermal transport behavior upon nanostructuring has led to this revival. Nevertheless, thermoelectric performances of nanowires and related materials lag far behind those achieved with thin-film superlattices and quantum dot-based materials. This is despite the fact that nanowires offer many distinct advantages in enhancing the thermoelectric performances of materials. The simplicity of the strategy is the first and foremost advantage...
June 19, 2017: Nanotechnology
Alexandra G Rosati
What are the origins of intelligent behavior? The demands associated with living in complex social groups have been the favored explanation for the evolution of primate cognition in general and human cognition in particular. However, recent comparative research indicates that ecological variation can also shape cognitive abilities. I synthesize the emerging evidence that 'foraging cognition' - skills used to exploit food resources, including spatial memory, decision-making, and inhibitory control - varies adaptively across primates...
June 15, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Aditya F Arif, Ratna Balgis, Takashi Ogi, Ferry Iskandar, Akihiro Kinoshita, Keitaro Nakamura, Kikuo Okuyama
Despite the strong recent revival of Magnéli phase TiOx as a promising conductive material, synthesis of Magnéli phase TiOx nanoparticles has been a challenge because of the heavy sintering nature of TiO2 at elevated temperatures. We have successfully synthesized chain-structured Magnéli phases TiOx with diameters under 30 nm using a thermal-induced plasma process. The synthesized nanoparticles consisted of a mixture of several Magnéli phases. A post-synthesis heat-treatment was performed to reduce the electrical resistivity without changing the particle morphology...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
Alexandra Witze
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 7, 2017: Nature
Saini Setua, Sheema Khan, Kyle Doxtater, Murali M Yallapu, Meena Jaggi, Subhash C Chauhan
Emergence of the role of MicroRNA-145 (miR-145) as a tumor suppressor in pancreatic cancer, offers its potential for novel therapeutic interventions. Our recently published studies demonstrate clinical significance of miR-145 in pancreatic cancer and suggest that the dysregulation of miR-145 in human pancreatic tumors draws in parallel with the aberrant expression of an oncogenic mucin, MUC13. These studies also present a novel therapeutic strategy of restoring the downregulated levels of miR-145 in pancreatic cancer via nanoparticle mediated efficient delivery system...
March 2017: Journal of Nature and Science
Martin Bock, Alexander Treffer, Ruediger Grunwald
Self-imaging of ultrashort-pulsed nondiffracting needle beams, i.e., fringe-free Bessel beams, is analyzed. In contrast to the classical diffractive Talbot effect, pulse revivals with minimum spectral and temporal distortion are obtained. Robustness is further enhanced by self-reconstruction. The high-fidelity pulse transfer enables spatial and temporal multiplexing in free space without the need for a nonlinear medium, even at pulse durations down to the few-cycle range.
June 15, 2017: Optics Letters
Mathias Jaschhof
The taxonomy of Catochini, Strobliellini and Acoenoniini, three species-poor tribes of the subfamily Micromyinae, is reviewed on the basis of new material from Europe and Japan. In the Catochini, the genus Anocha Pritchard stat. rev. is revived from synonymy with Catocha Haliday and shown to include eight species, five of which are new: Anocha glabra sp. nov. (Sweden), A. grytsjoenensis sp. nov. (Sweden), A. japonica sp. nov. (Japan), A. moraviensis sp. nov. (Czech Republic), and A. vernalis sp. nov. (Sweden)...
April 5, 2017: Zootaxa
Ivan F N Hung, Kwok-Yung Yuen
Intradermal influenza vaccination has been studied for more than 80 years. The revived interest in this strategy of vaccination is a result of the innovative technologies in needle design allowing more precise injection and making the device easier to use. Furthermore, clinical trials on these novel devices have demonstrated significant dose sparing effects, improved immunogenicity and very few adverse effects. This review compares intradermal vaccination with various devices with subcutaneous and intramuscular vaccination...
June 12, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Sudharsana Sundarrajan, Sajitha Lulu, Mohanapriya Arumugam
OBJECTIVE: Psoriasis is a chronic immune-mediated disorder of the skin. The disease manifests itself with red or silvery scaly plaques distributing over the lower back, scalp, and extensor aspects of limbs. Several medications are available for the treatment of psoriasis; however, high rates of remission and side-effects still persist as a major concern. Siddha, one of the traditional systems of Indian medicine offers cure to many dermatological conditions, including psoriasis. The oil prepared from the leaves of Wrightia tinctoria is prescribed by many healers for the treatment of psoriasis...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
Thomas Wichmann, Hagai Bergman, Mahlon R DeLong
Studies in non-human primates (NHPs) have led to major advances in our understanding of the function of the basal ganglia and of the pathophysiologic mechanisms of hypokinetic movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease and hyperkinetic disorders such as chorea and dystonia. Since the brains of NHPs are anatomically very close to those of humans, disease states and the effects of medical and surgical approaches, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS), can be more faithfully modeled in NHPs than in other species...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
Satish V Khadilkar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Alessio D'Addona, Nicola Maffulli, Silvestro Formisano, Donato Rosa
Pain and functional limitation are frequent in symptomatic tendinopathy. The essential lesion of tendinopathy is a failed healing response. Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in a failed healing response during the early stages of pathogenesis of tendinopathy would help to develop new and effective treatments. The role of inflammation in the development of tendon pathologies has been revived during the last few years, in particular during the first phases of tendinopathies, when "early tendinopathy" may not be clinically evident...
June 6, 2017: Surgeon: Journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland
Asmita Shukla, Sanjay Shukla, Michael D Annable, Alan W Hodges
Stormwater detention areas (SDAs) play an important role in treating end-of-the-farm runoff in phosphorous (P) limited agroecosystems. Phosphorus transport from the SDAs, including those through subsurface pathways, are not well understood. The prevailing understanding of these systems assumes that biogeochemical processes play the primary treatment role and that subsurface losses can be neglected. Water and P fluxes from a SDA located in a row-crop farm were measured for two years (2009-2011) to assess the SDA's role in reducing downstream P loads...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
J Zhang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 12, 2017: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
Eric J Rubin
New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 376, Issue 23, Page 2292-2294, June 2017.
June 8, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
Naranamangalam R Jagannathan, Uma Sharma
Metabolic alterations are known to occur with oncogenesis and tumor progression. During malignant transformation, the metabolism of cells and tissues is altered. Cancer metabolism can be studied using advanced technologies that detect both metabolites and metabolic activities. Identification, characterization, and quantification of metabolites (metabolomics) are important for metabolic analysis and are usually done by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or by mass spectrometry. In contrast to the magnetic resonance imaging that is used to monitor the tumor morphology during progression of the disease and during therapy, in vivo NMR spectroscopy is used to study and monitor tumor metabolism of cells/tissues by detection of various biochemicals or metabolites involved in various metabolic pathways...
June 7, 2017: Metabolites
Alexander Masters, Dominic Nutt
Many potential therapeutic agents are discarded before they are tested in humans. These are not quack medications. They are drugs and other interventions that have been developed by responsible scientists in respectable companies or universities and are often backed up by publications in peer-reviewed journals. These possible treatments might ease suffering and prolong the lives of innumerable patients, yet they have been put aside. In this paper, we outline a novel mechanism-the Plutocratic Proposal-to revive such neglected research and fund early phase clinical trials...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
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