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Narges Abdali, Jerry Matthew Parks, Keith Haynes, Julie L Chaney, Adam T Green, David Wolloscheck, John K Walker, Valentin V Rybenkov, Jerome Yves Baudry, Jeremy C Smith, Helen I Zgurskaya
Antibiotic resistance is a major threat to human welfare. Inhibitors of multidrug efflux pumps (EPIs) are promising alternative therapeutics that could revive activities of antibiotics and reduce bacterial virulence. Identification of new druggable sites for inhibition is critical for development of effective EPIs, especially in light of constantly emerging resistance. Here, we describe EPIs that interact with periplasmic membrane fusion proteins, critical components of efflux pumps that are responsible for the activation of the transporter and the recruitment of the outer-membrane channel...
October 21, 2016: ACS Infectious Diseases
Katja Nagler, Antonina O Krawczyk, Anne De Jong, Kazimierz Madela, Tamara Hoffmann, Michael Laue, Oscar P Kuipers, Erhard Bremer, Ralf Moeller
In its natural habitat, the soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis often has to cope with fluctuating osmolality and nutrient availability. Upon nutrient depletion it can form dormant spores, which can revive to form vegetative cells when nutrients become available again. While the effects of salt stress on spore germination have been analyzed previously, detailed knowledge on the salt stress response during the subsequent outgrowth phase is lacking. In this study, we investigated the changes in gene expression during B...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Kevin Forton, Yoshiki Motoji, Gael Deboeck, Vitalie Faoro, Robert Naeije
There has been revival of in interest in exercise testing of the pulmonary circulation for the diagnosis of pulmonary vascular disease, but there still is uncertainty about body position and the most relevant measurements. Doppler echocardiography pulmonary hemodynamic measurements were performed at progressively increased workload in 26 healthy adult volunteers in supine, semi-recumbent and upright positions which were randomly assigned at 24 hours intervals. Mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) was estimated from the maximum tricuspid regurgitation jet velocity...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Felix Neumaier, Mario Paterno, Serdar Alpdogan, Etienne E Tevoufouet, Toni Schneider, Jürgen Hescheler, Walid Albanna
Brain surgery to promote behavioural or affective changes in men remains one of the most controversial topics at the interface of medicine, psychiatry, neuroscience and bioethics. Rapid expansion of neuropsychiatric deep brain stimulation has recently revived the field and warrants a careful appraisal of its two sides, namely the promise to help severely devastated patients on the one hand and the dangers of premature application without appropriate justification on the other. Here, we reconstruct the vivid history of the field and examine its present status to delineate the progression from crude free-hand operations into a multi-disciplinary treatment of last resort...
October 13, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Ting Y Yeh
Unlike Ff-like coliphages, certain filamentous Inoviridae phages integrate their genomes into the host chromosome and enter a prophage state in their infectious cycle. This lysogenic life cycle was first reported for Xanthomonas citri Cf phage. However, except for the X. citri phages Cf and XacF1, complete genome sequence information about lysogenic Xanthomonas phages is not available to date. A proviral sequence of Xf109 phage was identified in the genome of Xanthomonas oryzae, the rice bacterial blight pathogen, and revived as infectious virions to lysogenize its host de novo...
October 14, 2016: Archives of Virology
M Bitter, V Milner
The periodically kicked rotor is a paradigm system for studying quantum effects on classically chaotic dynamics. The wave function of the quantum rotor localizes in angular momentum space, similarly to Anderson localization of the electronic wave function in disordered solids. Here, we observe dynamical localization in a system of true quantum rotors by subjecting nitrogen molecules to periodic sequences of femtosecond pulses. Exponential distribution of the molecular angular momentum-the hallmark of dynamical localization-is measured directly by means of coherent Raman scattering...
September 30, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Andrzej Górski, Ryszard Międzybrodzki, Beata Weber-Dąbrowska, Wojciech Fortuna, Sławomir Letkiewicz, Paweł Rogóż, Ewa Jończyk-Matysiak, Krystyna Dąbrowska, Joanna Majewska, Jan Borysowski
Antimicrobial resistance is considered to be one of the greatest challenges of medicine and our civilization. Lack of progress in developing new anti-bacterial agents has greatly revived interest in using phage therapy to combat antibiotic-resistant infections. Although a number of clinical trials are underway and more are planned, the realistic perspective of registration of phage preparations and their entering the health market and significantly contributing to the current antimicrobial crisis is rather remote...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
P Goossens, C Martineau-Corcos, F Saïdi, J A Martens, F Taulelle
Nafion proton exchange membranes (PEMs) for fuel cell applications are extensively studied and commercially applied, but their unique proton conduction capabilities are still somewhat unexplained. For studying proton dynamics in situ, molecular level spectroscopic techniques have been of limited utility so far. By solid-state (1)H and (19)F double resonance nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy using the recently revived multiple contact cross-polarization (MC-CP) pulse sequence along with double-quantum (1)H-(1)H filtering, high resolution proton populations distinct from the dominant water resonance were observed in Nafion for the first time...
October 7, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Zhenzhao Jia, Caizhen Li, Xinqi Li, Junren Shi, Zhimin Liao, Dapeng Yu, Xiaosong Wu
Discovery of Weyl semimetals has revived interest in Weyl fermions which has not been observed in high energy experiments. It now becomes possible to study, in solids, their exotic properties. Extensive photoemission spectroscopy and electrical resistivity experiments have been carried out. However, many other properties remain unexplored. Here we show the thermoelectric signature of the chiral anomaly of Weyl fermions in Cd3As2 under a magnetic field. We observe a strong quadratic suppression of the thermopower when the magnetic field is parallel to the temperature gradient...
October 10, 2016: Nature Communications
Thomas G McKenzie, Qiang Fu, Mineto Uchiyama, Kotaro Satoh, Jiangtao Xu, Cyrille Boyer, Masami Kamigaito, Greg G Qiao
Recent developments in polymerization reactions utilizing thiocarbonylthio compounds have highlighted the surprising versatility of these unique molecules. The increasing popularity of reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) radical polymerization as a means of producing well-defined, 'controlled' synthetic polymers is largely due to its simplicity of implementation and the availability of a wide range of compatible reagents. However, novel modes of thiocarbonylthio activation can expand the technique beyond the traditional system (i...
September 2016: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Alex Baumgartner, Douglas Anthony
The autopsy has long been a fundamental aspect of medical practice and research. However, in the last 50 years, the proportion of deaths for which an autopsy is performed has decreased dramatically. Here we examine some of the reasons for the decline of the autopsy, as well as several interventions that have been proposed to revive it. We also present autopsy utilization data from the Lifespan system, which mirrors nationwide trends. [Full article available at].
October 4, 2016: Rhode Island Medical Journal
P Msellati, A Touré, M S Sow, K Cécé, B Taverne, A Desclaux, M Barry, J-F Etard, E Delaporte
Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic that spread in West Africa from the end of 2013 to early 2016 has reached more people than all past epidemics. Beyond care management of acute phase ill patients and measures for the control of the epidemic, the outcome of Ebola survivors became an important question as their number increased and raised new issues. A multidisciplinary prospective cohort of survivors in Guinea has been launched by IRD UMI 233 and Donka National Hospital, Conakry, Guinea, to assess the longterm clinical, psychological, sociological, immunological, and viral outcomes potentially related to EVD...
October 3, 2016: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
Filip K Malinowski, Frederico Martins, Peter D Nissen, Edwin Barnes, Łukasz Cywiński, Mark S Rudner, Saeed Fallahi, Geoffrey C Gardner, Michael J Manfra, Charles M Marcus, Ferdinand Kuemmeth
Electron spins in gate-defined quantum dots provide a promising platform for quantum computation. In particular, spin-based quantum computing in gallium arsenide takes advantage of the high quality of semiconducting materials, reliability in fabricating arrays of quantum dots and accurate qubit operations. However, the effective magnetic noise arising from the hyperfine interaction with uncontrolled nuclear spins in the host lattice constitutes a major source of decoherence. Low-frequency nuclear noise, responsible for fast (10 ns) inhomogeneous dephasing, can be removed by echo techniques...
October 3, 2016: Nature Nanotechnology
Alistair J Gunn, Abbot R Laptook, Nicola J Robertson, John D Barks, Marianne Thoresen, Guido Wassink, Laura Bennet
Acute post-asphyxial encephalopathy around the time of birth remains a major cause of death and disability. The possibility that hypothermia may be able to prevent or lessen asphyxial brain injury is a "dream revisited". In this review, a historical perspective is provided from the first reported use of therapeutic hypothermia for brain injuries in antiquity, to the present day. The first uncontrolled trials of cooling for resuscitation were reported more than 50 years ago. The seminal insight that led to the modern revival of studies of neuroprotection was that after profound asphyxia, many brain cells show initial recovery from the insult during a short "latent" phase, typically lasting approximately 6 h, only to die hours to days later after a "secondary" deterioration characterized by seizures, cytotoxic edema, and progressive failure of cerebral oxidative metabolism...
September 27, 2016: Pediatric Research
Wilma C Hazeleger, Wilma F Jacobs-Reitsma, Heidy M W den Besten
Campylobacter is well recognized as the leading cause of bacterial foodborne diarrheal disease worldwide, and is routinely found in meat originating from poultry, sheep, pigs, and cattle. Effective monitoring of Campylobacter contamination is dependent on the availability of reliable detection methods. The method of the International Organization for Standardization for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in food (ISO 10272-1:2006) recommends the use of Bolton broth (BB) as selective enrichment medium, including a pre-enrichment step of 4-6 h at 37°C to revive sublethally damaged cells prior to incubation for 2 days at 41...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Stephanie L Olson, Christopher T Reinhard, Timothy W Lyons
Pervasive anoxia in the subsurface ocean during the Proterozoic may have allowed large fluxes of biogenic CH4 to the atmosphere, enhancing the climatic significance of CH4 early in Earth's history. Indeed, the assumption of elevated pCH4 during the Proterozoic underlies most models for both anomalous climatic stasis during the mid-Proterozoic and extreme climate perturbation during the Neoproterozoic; however, the geologic record cannot directly constrain atmospheric CH4 levels and attendant radiative forcing...
October 11, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
J Salvaing, N Peynot, M N Bedhane, S Veniel, E Pellier, C Boulesteix, N Beaujean, N Daniel, V Duranthon
STUDY QUESTION: In comparison to in vivo development, how do different conditions of in vitro culture ('one step' versus 'sequential medium') impact DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation in preimplantation embryos? SUMMARY ANSWER: Using rabbit as a model, we show that DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation are both affected by in vitro culture of preimplantation embryos and the effect observed depends on the culture medium used. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Correct regulation of DNA methylation is essential for embryonic development and DNA hydroxymethylation appears more and more to be a key player...
September 22, 2016: Human Reproduction
Thibaud Mathis, Michael Housset, Chiara Eandi, Fanny Beguier, Sara Touhami, Sacha Reichman, Sebastien Augustin, Pauline Gondouin, José-Alain Sahel, Laurent Kodjikian, Olivier Goureau, Xavier Guillonneau, Florian Sennlaub
Orthodenticle homeobox 2 (OTX2) controls essential, homeostatic retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) genes in the adult. Using cocultures of human CD14(+) blood monocytes (Mos) and primary porcine RPE cells and a fully humanized system using human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived RPE cells, we show that activated Mos markedly inhibit RPEOTX2 expression and resist elimination in contact with the immunosuppressive RPE. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that TNF-α, secreted from activated Mos, mediates the downregulation of OTX2 and essential RPE genes of the visual cycle among others...
September 22, 2016: Aging Cell
Hayuta Gurevich
Early developmental trauma is imprinted in the psyche by survival fragmentation and dissociation. Traumatized patients need the analyst to be actively involved and allow for regression to dependence in order to strengthen, create and construct their psychic functioning and structure so that environmental failures will be contained and not rupture continuity of being. I suggest that Ferenczi's and Winnicott's ideas about regression to dependence in analysis are fundamental contributions to these quests, and that Ferenczi set the foundation, which Winnicott further explored and developed...
September 16, 2016: American Journal of Psychoanalysis
Ran Damari, Shimshon Kallush, Sharly Fleischer
We experimentally study the optical- and terahertz-induced rotational dynamics of asymmetric molecules in the gas phase. Terahertz and optical fields are identified as two distinct control handles over asymmetric molecules, as they couple to the rotational degrees of freedom via the molecular dipole and polarizability selectively. The distinction between those two rotational handles is highlighted by different types of quantum revivals observed in long-duration (>100  ps) field-free rotational evolution...
September 2, 2016: Physical Review Letters
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