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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646183/differences-in-nature-of-electrical-conductions-among-bi4ti3o12-based-ferroelectric-polycrystalline-ceramics
#1
Changbai Long, Qi Chang, Huiqing Fan
Bismuth titanate Bi4Ti3O12 (BiT), was one of the most promising lead-free high-temperature piezoelectric materials, due to high Curie temperature (675 °C) and large spontaneous polarization (50 µC/cm(2)); however, extensive studies had revealed that high leakage conductivity interferes with the poling process, hindering its practical applications. In this paper, an electrically insulating property was achieved by a low level Nb donor substitution to suppress a high level of holes associated with high oxygen vacancy concentration...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646181/surface-bioactivation-through-the-nanostructured-layer-on-titanium-modified-by-facile-hpt-treatment
#2
Zhijun Guo, Nan Jiang, Chen Chen, Songsong Zhu, Li Zhang, Yubao Li
Facile fabrication of nanostructured surface is of great importance for the use of titanium (Ti) implants in biomedical field. In this study, a low-cost and easy-to-operate method called HPT (hydrothermal & pressure) here has been developed and used to fabricate the expected nanostructured surface on Ti substrates. The effects of experimental parameters on the morphology of Ti surface were investigated and characterized. The results indicated that by altering the hydrothermal pressure, NaOH concentration and treating time, surface nanostructure like nanopetals or nanoflakes could be formed on the surface of Ti substrates...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643693/generation-mechanism-of-negative-permittivity-and-kramers-kronig-relations-in-batio-sub-3-sub-y-sub-3-sub-fe-sub-5-sub-o-sub-12-sub-multiferroic-composites
#3
Zhongyang Wang, Kai Sun, Peitao Xie, Yao Liu, Runhua Fan
Recently, negative parameters such as negative permittivity and negative permeability are attracting extensive attention for their unique electromagnetic properties. Usually, negative permittivity is well achieved by plasma oscillation of free electrons in conductor-insulator composites or metamaterials, while some attention has been drawn to attaining the negative permittivity in ceramics to reduce the dielectric loss. In this paper, negative permittivity in barium titanate and yttrium iron garnet composites was reported which was well fitted by Lorentz model...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631476/room-temperature-rutile-tio2-nanoparticle-formation-on-protonated-layered-titanate-for-high-performance-heterojunction-creation
#4
Kanji Saito, Satoshi Tominaka, Shun Yoshihara, Koji Ohara, Yoshiyuki Sugahara, Yusuke Ide
We report a methodology for creating protonated layered titanate-rutile heterojunctions on the outer particle surface of protonated layered titanate by treating layered potassium titanate (K0.8Ti1.73Li0.27O4) with dilute HCl and then drying it at room temperature under reduced pressure. After Pt co-catalyst-loading, these protonated layered titanate-rutile heterojunctions showed higher photocatalytic H2 evolution activity from water under simulated solar light compared to that of Pt-loaded P25, the standard photocatalyst for this reaction...
June 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630922/flexible-ferroelectric-element-based-on-van-der-waals-heteroepitaxy
#5
Jie Jiang, Yugandhar Bitla, Chun-Wei Huang, Thi Hien Do, Heng-Jui Liu, Ying-Hui Hsieh, Chun-Hao Ma, Chi-Yuan Jang, Yu-Hong Lai, Po-Wen Chiu, Wen-Wei Wu, Yi-Chun Chen, Yi-Chun Zhou, Ying-Hao Chu
We present a promising technology for nonvolatile flexible electronic devices: A direct fabrication of epitaxial lead zirconium titanate (PZT) on flexible mica substrate via van der Waals epitaxy. These single-crystalline flexible ferroelectric PZT films not only retain their performance, reliability, and thermal stability comparable to those on rigid counterparts in tests of nonvolatile memory elements but also exhibit remarkable mechanical properties with robust operation in bent states (bending radii down to 2...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626359/noble-metal-modified-octahedral-anatase-titania-particles-with-enhanced-activity-for-decomposition-of-chemical-and-microbiological-pollutants
#6
Z Wei, M Endo, K Wang, E Charbit, A Markowska-Szczupak, B Ohtani, E Kowalska
Octahedral anatase particles (OAPs) were prepared by hydrothermal (HT) reaction of titanate nanowires (TNWs). OAPs were modified with noble metals (Au, Ag, Cu and Pt) by two photodeposition methods: in the absence and in the initial presence of oxygen in the system. Photocatalytic activities for oxidative decomposition of acetic acid and anaerobic dehydrogenation of methanol under UV/vis irradiation and for oxidation of 2-propanol under visible light irradiation were investigated. Antibacterial activities for bacteria (Escherichia coli) and fungi (Candida albicans) were investigated in the dark and under UV irradiation and/or visible light irradiation...
June 15, 2017: Chemical Engineering Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601013/atomic-resolution-elemental-mapping-using-energy-filtered-imaging-scanning-transmission-electron-microscopy-with-chromatic-aberration-correction
#7
F F Krause, A Rosenauer, J Barthel, J Mayer, K Urban, R E Dunin-Borkowski, H G Brown, B D Forbes, L J Allen
This paper addresses a novel approach to atomic resolution elemental mapping, demonstrating a method that produces elemental maps with a similar resolution to the established method of electron energy-loss spectroscopy in scanning transmission electron microscopy. Dubbed energy-filtered imaging scanning transmission electron microscopy (EFISTEM) this mode of imaging is, by the quantum mechanical principle of reciprocity, equivalent to tilting the probe in energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) through a cone and incoherently averaging the results...
June 2, 2017: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597657/coupled-lattice-polarization-and-ferromagnetism-in-multiferroic-nitio3-thin-films
#8
Tamas Varga, Timothy C Droubay, Libor Kovarik, Manjula I Nandasiri, Vaithiyalingam Shutthanandan, Dehong Hu, Bumsoo Kim, Seokwoo Jeon, Seungbum Hong, Yulan Li, Scott A Chambers
Polarization-induced weak ferromagnetism (WFM) was demonstrated a few years back in LiNbO3-type compounds, MTiO3 (M = Fe, Mn, Ni). Although the coexistence of ferroelectric polarization and ferromagnetism has been demonstrated in this rare multiferroic family before, first in bulk FeTiO3, then in thin-film NiTiO3, the coupling of the two order parameters has not been confirmed. Here, we report the stabilization of polar, ferromagnetic NiTiO3 by oxide epitaxy on a LiNbO3 substrate utilizing tensile strain and demonstrate the theoretically predicted coupling between its polarization and ferromagnetism by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism under applied fields...
June 23, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593944/non-ising-and-chiral-ferroelectric-domain-walls-revealed-by-nonlinear-optical-microscopy
#9
Salia Cherifi-Hertel, Hervé Bulou, Riccardo Hertel, Grégory Taupier, Kokou Dodzi Honorat Dorkenoo, Christian Andreas, Jill Guyonnet, Iaroslav Gaponenko, Katia Gallo, Patrycja Paruch
The properties of ferroelectric domain walls can significantly differ from those of their parent material. Elucidating their internal structure is essential for the design of advanced devices exploiting nanoscale ferroicity and such localized functional properties. Here, we probe the internal structure of 180° ferroelectric domain walls in lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films and lithium tantalate bulk crystals by means of second-harmonic generation microscopy. In both systems, we detect a pronounced second-harmonic signal at the walls...
June 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590468/the-influence-of-cation-ordering-oxygen-vacancy-distribution-and-proton-siting-on-observed-properties-in-ceramic-electrolytes-the-case-of-scandium-substituted-barium-titanate
#10
Nico Torino, Paul F Henry, Christopher S Knee, Tor Svendsen Bjørheim, Seikh M H Rahman, Emma Suard, Carlotta Giacobbe, Sten G Eriksson
The origin of the 2-order of magnitude difference in the proton conductivity of the hydrated forms of hexagonal and cubic oxygen deficient BaScxTi1-xO3-δ (x = 0.2 and x = 0.7) was probed using a combination of neutron diffraction and density functional theory techniques to support published X-ray diffraction, conductivity, thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry studies. Cation ordering is found in the 6H structure type (space group P63/mmc) adopted by BaSc0.2Ti0.8O3-δ with scandium preferentially substituting in the vertex sharing octahedra (2a crystallographic site) and avoiding the face-sharing octahedra (4f site)...
June 7, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586678/polar-oceans-in-a-changing-climate
#11
David K A Barnes, Geraint A Tarling
Most of Earth's surface is blue or white, but how much of each would depend on the time of observation. Our planet has been through phases of snowball (all frozen), greenhouse (all liquid seas) and icehouse (frozen and liquid). Even during current icehouse conditions, the extent of ice versus water has changed considerably between ice ages and interglacial periods. Water has been vital for life on Earth and has driven and been influenced by transitions between greenhouse and icehouse. However, neither the possession of water nor having liquid and frozen seas are unique to Earth (Figure 1)...
June 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585129/enhanced-biocompatibility-and-osseointegration-of-calcium-titanate-coating-on-titanium-screws-in-rabbit-femur
#12
Zi-Li Wang, Rong-Zhen He, Bin Tu, Xu Cao, Jin-Shen He, Han-Song Xia, Chi Liang, Min Zou, Song Wu, Zhen-Jun Wu, Kun Xiong
This study aimed to examine the biocompatibility of calcium titanate (CaTiO3) coating prepared by a simplified technique in an attempt to assess the potential of CaTiO3 coating as an alternative to current implant coating materials. CaTiO3-coated titanium screws were implanted with hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated or uncoated titanium screws into medial and lateral femoral condyles of 48 New Zealand white rabbits. Imaging, histomorphometric and biomechanical analyses were employed to evaluate the osseointegration and biocompatibility 12 weeks after the implantation...
June 2017: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580910/electron-bio-imaging-centre-ebic-the-uk-national-research-facility-for-biological-electron-microscopy
#13
Daniel K Clare, C Alistair Siebert, Corey Hecksel, Christoph Hagen, Valerie Mordhorst, Michael Grange, Alun W Ashton, Martin A Walsh, Kay Grünewald, Helen R Saibil, David I Stuart, Peijun Zhang
The recent resolution revolution in cryo-EM has led to a massive increase in demand for both time on high-end cryo-electron microscopes and access to cryo-electron microscopy expertise. In anticipation of this demand, eBIC was set up at Diamond Light Source in collaboration with Birkbeck College London and the University of Oxford, and funded by the Wellcome Trust, the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) and the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) to provide access to high-end equipment through peer review...
June 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580780/monolithic-mid-infrared-integrated-photonics-using-silicon-on-epitaxial-barium-titanate-thin-films
#14
Tiening Jin, Leigang Li, Bruce Zhang Bzhang Gmail Com Zhang, Hao-Yu Greg Lin, Haiyan Wang, Pao Lin
Broadband mid-Infrared (mid-IR) photonic circuits that integrate silicon waveguides and epitaxial barium titanate (BTO) thin films are demonstrated using the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process. The epitaxial BTO thin films are grown on lanthanum aluminate (LAO) substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique, where a broad infrared transmittance between λ = 2.5 µm to λ = 7 um is observed. The optical waveguiding direction is defined by the high refractive index amorphous Si (a-Si) ridge structure developed on the BTO layer...
June 5, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572719/multi-gpu-acceleration-of-branchless-distance-driven-projection-and-backprojection-for-clinical-helical-ct
#15
Ayan Mitra, David G Politte, Bruce R Whiting, Jeffrey F Williamson, Joseph A O'Sullivan
Model-based image reconstruction (MBIR) techniques have the potential to generate high quality images from noisy measurements and a small number of projections which can reduce the x-ray dose in patients. These MBIR techniques rely on projection and backprojection to refine an image estimate. One of the widely used projectors for these modern MBIR based technique is called branchless distance driven (DD) projection and backprojection. While this method produces superior quality images, the computational cost of iterative updates keeps it from being ubiquitous in clinical applications...
January 2017: Journal of Imaging Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561566/strontium-titanate-based-artificial-leaf-loaded-with-reduction-and-oxidation-cocatalysts-for-selective-co2-reduction-using-water-as-an-electron-donor
#16
Shusaku Shoji, Akira Yamaguchi, Etsuo Sakai, Masahiro Miyauchi
Thin film of SrTiO3 nanorods loaded with reduction and oxidation cocatalysts drove the selective reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) into carbon monoxide (CO), as well as caused the production of equivalent oxygen molecules through water oxidation under UV irradiation. The described film functioned as a free-standing plate without any bias potential application, similar to a natural leaf. The film was facilely fabricated by a simple hydrothermal and annealing treatment of a titanium substrate to produce the SrTiO3 nanorod film (STO film) followed by two steps of loading the reduction and oxidation cocatalysts onto the surface of the STO...
June 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553704/one-step-solvent-evaporation-assisted-3d-printing-of-piezoelectric-pvdf-nanocomposite-structures
#17
Sampada Bodkhe, Gabrielle Turcot, Frederick P Gosselin, Daniel Therriault
Development of a 3D printable material system possessing inherent piezoelectric properties to fabricate integrable sensors in a single-step printing process without poling is of importance to the creation of a wide variety of smart structures. Here, we study the effect of addition of barium titanate nanoparticles in nucleating piezoelectric β-polymorph in 3D printable polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and fabrication of the layer-by-layer and self-supporting piezoelectric structures on a micro- to millimeter scale by solvent evaporation-assisted 3D printing at room temperature...
June 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548100/hierarchically-structured-lithium-titanate-for-ultrafast-charging-in-long-life-high-capacity-batteries
#18
Mateusz Odziomek, Frédéric Chaput, Anna Rutkowska, Konrad Świerczek, Danuta Olszewska, Maciej Sitarz, Frédéric Lerouge, Stephane Parola
High-performance Li-ion batteries require materials with well-designed and controlled structures on nanometre and micrometre scales. Electrochemical properties can be enhanced by reducing crystallite size and by manipulating structure and morphology. Here we show a method for preparing hierarchically structured Li4Ti5O12 yielding nano- and microstructure well-suited for use in lithium-ion batteries. Scalable glycothermal synthesis yields well-crystallized primary 4-8 nm nanoparticles, assembled into porous secondary particles...
May 26, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545831/pre-post-evaluation-of-effects-of-a-titanium-dioxide-coating-on-environmental-contamination-of-an-intensive-care-unit-the-titanic-study
#19
B de Jong, A M Meeder, K W A C Koekkoek, M A Schouten, P Westers, A R H van Zanten
BACKGROUND: Among patients admitted to European hospitals or intensive care units (ICUs), 5.7% and 19.5% will encounter healthcare-associated infections (HAIs), respectively, and antimicrobial resistance is emerging. As hospital surfaces are contaminated with potentially pathogenic bacteria, environmental cleanliness is an essential aspect to reduce HAIs. AIM: To address the efficacy of a titanium dioxide coating in reducing the microbial colonization of environmental surfaces in an ICU...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543615/improved-image-quality-and-reduced-power-deposition-in-the-spine-at-3-t-using-extremely-high-permittivity-materials
#20
Kirsten Koolstra, Peter Börnert, Wyger Brink, Andrew Webb
PURPOSE: To explore the effect of using extremely high permittivity (εr ∼1,000) materials on image quality and power requirements of spine imaging at 3 T. THEORY AND METHODS: A linear array of high permittivity dielectric blocks made of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) was designed and characterized by electromagnetic simulations and experiments. Their effect on the transmit efficiency, receive sensitivity, power deposition, and diagnostic image quality was analyzed in vivo in 10 healthy volunteers...
May 22, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
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