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Benjamin Hommel, Liliane Mukaremera, Radames J B Cordero, Carolina Coelho, Christopher A Desjardins, Aude Sturny-Leclère, Guilhem Janbon, John R Perfect, James A Fraser, Arturo Casadevall, Christina A Cuomo, Françoise Dromer, Kirsten Nielsen, Alexandre Alanio
The pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans exhibits morphological changes in cell size during lung infection, producing both typical size 5 to 7 μm cells and large titan cells (> 10 μm and up to 100 μm). We found and optimized in vitro conditions that produce titan cells in order to identify the ancestry of titan cells, the environmental determinants, and the key gene regulators of titan cell formation. Titan cells generated in vitro harbor the main characteristics of titan cells produced in vivo including their large cell size (>10 μm), polyploidy with a single nucleus, large vacuole, dense capsule, and thick cell wall...
May 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Nuria Trevijano-Contador, Haroldo Cesar de Oliveira, Rocío García-Rodas, Suélen Andreia Rossi, Irene Llorente, Ángel Zaballos, Guilhem Janbon, Joaquín Ariño, Óscar Zaragoza
Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated pathogenic yeast that can change the size of the cells during infection. In particular, this process can occur by enlarging the size of the capsule without modifying the size of the cell body, or by increasing the diameter of the cell body, which is normally accompanied by an increase of the capsule too. This last process leads to the formation of cells of an abnormal enlarged size denominated titan cells. Previous works characterized titan cell formation during pulmonary infection but research on this topic has been hampered due to the difficulty to obtain them in vitro...
May 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Ivy M Dambuza, Thomas Drake, Ambre Chapuis, Xin Zhou, Joao Correia, Leanne Taylor-Smith, Nathalie LeGrave, Tim Rasmussen, Matthew C Fisher, Tihana Bicanic, Thomas S Harrison, Marcel Jaspars, Robin C May, Gordon D Brown, Raif Yuecel, Donna M MacCallum, Elizabeth R Ballou
Fungal cells change shape in response to environmental stimuli, and these morphogenic transitions drive pathogenesis and niche adaptation. For example, dimorphic fungi switch between yeast and hyphae in response to changing temperature. The basidiomycete Cryptococcus neoformans undergoes an unusual morphogenetic transition in the host lung from haploid yeast to large, highly polyploid cells termed Titan cells. Titan cells influence fungal interaction with host cells, including through increased drug resistance, altered cell size, and altered Pathogen Associated Molecular Pattern exposure...
May 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Shuli Fan, Shaoyu Zhao, Baoxin Qi, Qingzhao Kong
One of the major causes of damage to column-supported concrete structures, such as bridges and highways, are collisions from moving vehicles, such as cars and ships. It is essential to quantify the collision damage of the column so that appropriate actions can be taken to prevent catastrophic events. A widely used method to assess structural damage is through the root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) damage index established by the collected data; however, the RMSD index does not truly provide quantitative information about the structure...
May 17, 2018: Sensors
Yu Chen, Jiageng Xu, Shaoxiong Xie, Zhi Tan, Rui Nie, Zhongwei Guan, Qingyuan Wang, Jianguo Zhu
Taking Bismuth Titanate (Bi₄Ti₃O12 ) as a Aurivillius-type compound with m = 3 for example, the ion (W6+ /Cr3+ ) doping effect on the lattice distortion and interlayer mismatch of Bi₄Ti₃O12 structure were investigated by stress analysis, based on an elastic model. Since oxygen-octahedron rotates in the ab-plane, and inclines away from the c-axis, a lattice model for describing the status change of oxygen-octahedron was built according to the substituting mechanism of W6+ /Cr3+ for Ti4+ , which was used to investigate the variation of orthorhombic distortion degree ( a/b ) of Bi₄Ti₃O12 with the doping content...
May 17, 2018: Materials
Dong Zhang, Meizhu Chen, Quantao Liu, Jiuming Wan, Jinxuan Hu
Using phase change materials (PCMs) in building envelopes became a reliable method to improve indoor comfort and reduce buildings' energy consumption. This research developed molecular-bridged expanded graphite (EG)/polyethylene glycol (PEG) composite PCMs (m-EPs) to conserve energy in buildings. The m-EPs were prepared through a vacuum absorption technique, and a titanate coupling agent was used to build a molecular bridge between EG and PEG. SEM, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), the leakage test, microcalorimetry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were conducted to characterize the morphology, pore structure, absorbability, and modifying effects of the m-EPs...
May 16, 2018: Materials
Zeyang Yu, Lawrence Drzal
Graphene nanoplatelets (GnP) can be made into a thin 'paper' through vacuum filtration of GnP suspension. Electrodes were fabricated from the compressed GnP paper and then coating the surface with epoxy. The electrostatic actuator was constructed from two parallel-aligned composite papers fixed at the anode and a cathode connected to the ground. The two composite papers will separate when applying voltage. The GnP paper was further treated by making the porous GnP paper; adding 10wt% Cellulose nanocrystals or C750 (GnP with diameter around 1μm), or coated with barium titanate particles...
May 17, 2018: Nanotechnology
Floriana Craciun, Francesco Cordero, Bogdan S Vasile, Victor Fruth, Maria Zaharescu, Irina Atkinson, Roxana Trusca, Lucian Diamandescu, Liviu C Tanase, Pietro Galizia, Marin Cernea, Carmen Galassi
The formation of separate phases in crystalline materials is promoted by doping with elements with different valences and ionic radii. Control of the formation of separate phases in multiferroics is extremely important for their magnetic, ferroelectric and elastic properties, which are relevant for multifunctional applications. The ordering of dopants and incipient phase separation were studied in lead titanate-based multiferroics with the formula (Pb0.88Nd0.08)(Ti0.98-xFexMn0.02)O3 (x = 0.00, 0.03, 0.04, 0...
May 17, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Thivyah Munisparan, Evyan Chia Yan Yang, Ragul Paramasivam, Nuraina Anisa Dahlan, Janarthanan Pushpamalar
Ultrafine titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) nanowires were synthesised using a hydrothermal method with different volumes of ethylene glycol (EG) and annealing temperatures. It shows that sodium titanate nanowires synthesised using 5 and 10 ml EG, which annealed at 400°C produced TiO2 nanowires that correspond to a photochemically active phase, which is anatase. The influences of annealing temperatures (400-600°C) on the morphological arrangement of TiO2 nanowires were evident in the field emission scanning electron microscopy...
June 2018: IET Nanobiotechnology
Ashley Titan, Laura Graham, Amy Rosen, Kamal Itani, Laurel A Copeland, Hillary J Mull, Edith Burns, Joshua Richman, Stefan Kertesz, Tyler Wahl, Melanie Morris, Jeffery Whittle, Gordon Telford, Mark Wilson, Mary Hawn
INTRODUCTION: Homeless Veterans are vulnerable to poor care transitions, yet little research has examined their risk of readmission following inpatient surgery. This study investigates the predictors of surgical readmission among homeless relative to housed Veteran patients. METHODS: Inpatient general, vascular, and orthopedic surgeries occurring in the Veterans Health Administration from 2008 to 2014 were identified. Administrative International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes and Veterans Health Administration clinic stops were used to identify homeless patients...
June 2018: Medical Care
Hao Pan, Jing Ma, Ji Ma, Qinghua Zhang, Xiaozhi Liu, Bo Guan, Lin Gu, Xin Zhang, Yu-Jun Zhang, Liangliang Li, Yang Shen, Yuan-Hua Lin, Ce-Wen Nan
Developing high-performance film dielectrics for capacitive energy storage has been a great challenge for modern electrical devices. Despite good results obtained in lead titanate-based dielectrics, lead-free alternatives are strongly desirable due to environmental concerns. Here we demonstrate that giant energy densities of ~70 J cm-3 , together with high efficiency as well as excellent cycling and thermal stability, can be achieved in lead-free bismuth ferrite-strontium titanate solid-solution films through domain engineering...
May 8, 2018: Nature Communications
Tannaz Eslamparast, Aldo J Montano-Loza, Maitreyi Raman, Puneeta Tandon
Sarcopenia and obesity are two major health conditions with a growing prevalence in cirrhosis. The concordance of these two conditions, sarcopenic obesity, is associated with higher rates of mortality and impact on the metabolic profile and physical function than either condition alone. To date, there is little consensus surrounding the diagnostic criteria for sarcopenia, obesity or as a result, sarcopenic obesity in patients with cirrhosis. Cross-sectional imaging, although the most accurate diagnostic technique, has practical limitations for routine use in clinical practice...
May 8, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Robert R Benoit, Delaney M Jordan, Gabriel L Smith, Ronald G Polcawich, Sarah S Bedair, Daniel M Potrepka
Direct-write laser grayscale lithography has been used to facilitate a single-step patterning technique for multilayer lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films. A 2.55- -thick photoresist was patterned with a direct-write laser. The intensity of the laser was varied to create both tiered and sloped structures that are subsequently transferred into multilayer PZT(52/48) stacks using a single Ar ion-mill etch. Traditional processing requires a separate photolithography step and an ion mill etch for each layer of the substrate, which can be costly and time consuming...
May 2018: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Hengyang Mao, Minghui Qiu, Jiawei Bu, Xianfu Chen, Henk Verweij, Yiqun Fan
Ultrasound treatment coupled with membrane filtration has been utilized for membrane fouling control in water treatment; however, large-scale implementation of ultrasonic cleaning equipment appeared to be cost-prohibitive. In this study, a porous lead zirconate titanate (PZT) membrane is presented that enables in situ ultrasound (US) generation by application of an alternating voltage (AV), to mitigate fouling during oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion separation. We expect that this method is much more cost effective since it is more direct, avoiding build-up of fouling and the need to take the membrane off-line...
May 7, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jinhui Li, Koji Inukai, Yosuke Takahashi, Akihiro Tsuruta, Woosuck Shin
Thin BaTiO₃ (BT) coating layers are required in various multilayer ceramic technologies, and fine nanosized BT particles with good dispersion in solution are essential for this coating process. In this work, cubic and tetragonal phase monodispersed BT nanoparticles—which were referred to as LBT and HBT-PVP coated on their surface by polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) polymer—were prepared by low temperature synthesis (LTS) and hydrothermal method (HT) at 80 and 230 °C, respectively. They were applied for the thin film coating on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and Si wafer substrates by a simple bar coating...
May 1, 2018: Materials
Yusuke Ide, Wataru Shirae, Toshiaki Takei, Durai Mani, Joel Henzie
Efficient collection and safe disposal of toxic metals ions from aqueous solutions is critical for applications in environmental remediation. Although extensive efforts have been devoted to the synthesis of functional TiO2 materials, photocatalytic reduction (photoreduction) of aqueous metal ions into solid metals remains a challenge. We designed a TiO2 nanoparticle-decorated layered titanate (K2 Ti4 O9 ) material that retained the cation exchange ability of K2 Ti4 O9 but also possessed the enhanced charge separation efficiency of K2 Ti4 O9 ...
May 3, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Cheng Zeng, Fangxi Xie, Xianfeng Yang, Mietek Jaroniec, Lei Zhang, Shizhang Qiao
Confined transformation of assembled two-dimensional MXene (titanium carbide) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets was employed to prepare the free-standing films of the integrated ultrathin sodium titanate (NTO)/potassium titanate (KTO) nanosheets sandwiched between graphene layers. The ultrathin Ti-based nanosheets reduce the diffusion distance while rGO layers enhance conductivity. Incorporation of graphene into the titanate films produced efficient binder-free anodes for ion storage. The resulting NTO/rGO electrode for sodium ion batteries exhibited an excellent rate performance and long cycling stability characterized by reversible capacity of 72 mA h g-1 at 5 A g-1 after 10000 cycles...
May 2, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Catherine D Neish, Ralph D Lorenz, Elizabeth P Turtle, Jason W Barnes, Melissa G Trainer, Bryan Stiles, Randolph Kirk, Charles A Hibbitts, Michael J Malaska
Saturn's moon Titan has all the ingredients needed to produce "life as we know it." When exposed to liquid water, organic molecules analogous to those found on Titan produce a range of biomolecules such as amino acids. Titan thus provides a natural laboratory for studying the products of prebiotic chemistry. In this work, we examine the ideal locales to search for evidence of, or progression toward, life on Titan. We determine that the best sites to identify biological molecules are deposits of impact melt on the floors of large, fresh impact craters, specifically Sinlap, Selk, and Menrva craters...
May 2, 2018: Astrobiology
Kyle Fulle, Liurukara D Sanjeewa, Colin D McMillen, Joseph W Kolis
Reactions of rare-earth oxides with TiO2 were performed in high temperature (650-700 °C) hydrothermal fluids. Two different mineralizer fluids were examined, 20 M KOH and 30 M CsF, and their respective products analyzed. When concentrated KOH fluids were used, single crystals of a variety of new OH- containing species were isolated and structurally characterized: RE5Ti4O15(OH) (RE = La, Er) I, Sm3TiO5(OH)3 II and RE5Ti2O11(OH) (RE = Tm-Lu) III. La5Ti4O15(OH) I crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pnnm with unit cell dimensions of a = 30...
May 2, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Chuwen Lan, Di Zhu, Jiannan Gao, Bo Li, Zehua Gao
Terahertz (THz) all-dielectric metasurfaces made of high-index and low-loss resonators have attracted more and more attention due to their versatile properties. However, the all-dielectric metasurfaces in THz suffer from limited bandwidth and low tunability. Meanwhile, they are usually fabricated on flat and rigid substrates, and consequently their applications are restricted. Here, a simple approach is proposed and experimentally demonstrated to obtain a flexible and tunable THz all-dielectric metasurface...
April 30, 2018: Optics Express
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