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Carsten Richter, Matthias Zschornak, Dmitri Novikov, Erik Mehner, Melanie Nentwich, Juliane Hanzig, Semën Gorfman, Dirk C Meyer
Physical properties of crystalline materials often manifest themselves as atomic displacements either away from symmetry positions or driven by external fields. Especially the origin of multiferroic or magnetoelectric effects may be hard to ascertain as the related displacements can reach the detection limit. Here we present a resonant X-ray crystal structure analysis technique that shows enhanced sensitivity to minute atomic displacements. It is applied to a recently found crystalline modification of strontium titanate that forms in single crystals under electric field due to oxygen vacancy migration...
January 12, 2018: Nature Communications
Gergely Huszka, Martin A M Gijs
We report dielectric microsphere array-based optical super-resolution microscopy. A dielectric microsphere that is placed on a sample is known to generate a virtual image with resolution better than the optical diffraction limit. However, a limitation of such type of super-resolution microscopy is the restricted field-of-view, essentially limited to the central area of the microsphere-generated image. We overcame this limitation by scanning a micro-fabricated array of ordered microspheres over the sample using a customized algorithm that moved step-by-step a motorized stage, meanwhile the microscope-mounted camera was taking pictures at every step...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xiaodong Jian, Biao Lu, Dandan Li, Yingbang Yao, Tao Tao, Bo Liang, Jin-Hong Guo, Yi-Jiang Zeng, Jia-Le Chen, Sheng-Guo Lu
Barium zirconate titanate (Ba(ZrxTi1-x)O3-BZT) ceramics with Zr4+ content x of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 mol%, were prepared using a solid-state-reaction approach. The microstructures, morphologies, and electric properties were characterized using XRD, SEM and impedance analysis methods, respectively. The dielectric analyses indicate that the BZT bulk ceramics show characteristics of phase transition from a normal ferroelectric to a relaxor ferroelectric with the increasing Zr4+ ionic content. The electrocaloric effect (ECE) adiabatic temperature change decreases with the increasing Zr4+ content...
January 12, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Georgios Hatzichristodoulou
BACKGROUND: Correction of residual curvature during inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) implantation in patients with Peyronie's disease (PD) by plaque incision and grafting is a common approach. AIM: To present a novel technique for residual curvature correction during IPP implantation using collagen fleece (TachoSil, Baxter Healthcare Corp, Deerfield, IL, USA). METHODS: After the IPP (Titan Touch, Coloplast, Minneapolis, MN, USA) is placed, the implant is inflated maximally...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Markus Kratzer, Michael Lasnik, Sören Röhrig, Christian Teichert, Marco Deluca
Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) is one of the prominent materials used in polycrystalline piezoelectric devices. Since the ferroelectric domain orientation is the most important parameter affecting the electromechanical performance, analyzing the domain orientation distribution is of great importance for the development and understanding of improved piezoceramic devices. Here, vector piezoresponse force microscopy (vector-PFM) has been applied in order to reconstruct the ferroelectric domain orientation distribution function of polished sections of device-ready polycrystalline lead zirconate titanate (PZT) material...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tian-Fu Zhang, Xian-Xiong Huang, Xin-Gui Tang, Yan-Ping Jiang, Qiu-Xiang Liu, Biao Lu, Sheng-Guo Lu
The unique properties and great variety of relaxer ferroelectrics make them highly attractive in energy-storage and solid-state refrigeration technologies. In this work, lanthanum modified lead titanate ceramics are prepared and studied. The giant electrocaloric effect in lanthanum modified lead titanate ceramics is revealed for the first time. Large refrigeration efficiency (27.4) and high adiabatic temperature change (1.67 K) are achieved by indirect analysis. Direct measurements of electrocaloric effect show that reversible adiabatic temperature change is also about 1...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Abdulhakeem B Ajibike, Oluwagbemiga O Adeleye, Babatunde M Ilori, Damilola A Osinbowale, Omolola A Adeniyi, Samuel O Durosaro, Adeyinka J Sanda, Oluwafunmilayo A Adebambo, Ayotunde O Adebambo
In this study, the maternal genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationship and effect of natural selection on indigenous chickens from Nigeria were assessed. A total of 397-bp fragment of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop region of 171 indigenous chickens from four populations of Nigeria and four commercial egg line strains (two Anak titan, one Giriraja and one Yaffa) as out-groups were analysed. Thirty-one haplotypes (28 from Nigerian chickens and three from commercial strains) and 34 polymorphic sites were identified...
December 2017: Journal of Genetics
Mario A de Oliveira, Nelcileno V S Araujo, Rodolfo N da Silva, Tony I da Silva, Jayantha Epaarachchi
A considerable amount of research has focused on monitoring structural damage using Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) technologies, which has had recent advances. However, it is important to note the challenges and unresolved problems that disqualify currently developed monitoring systems. One of the frontline SHM technologies, the Electromechanical Impedance (EMI) technique, has shown its potential to overcome remaining problems and challenges. Unfortunately, the recently developed neural network algorithms have not shown significant improvements in the accuracy of rate and the required processing time...
January 8, 2018: Sensors
Sergej Repp, Ersan Harputlu, Seda Gurgen, Mike Castellano, Nora Kremer, Nils Pompe, Jakob Wörner, Anke Hoffmann, Ralf Thomann, Fatih M Emen, Stefan Weber, Kasim Ocakoglu, Emre Erdem
In this work, reduced graphene oxide (rGO) based electrode materials were developed to achieve a hybrid supercapacitor (SC) function. Therefore, several synthesis methods were developed to prepare a cost effective and environmentally friendly rGO. Additionally, to maintain the high surface area, spinel lithium titanate (sLTO) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized and deposited on the rGO surface to inhibit the restacking of the rGO layers on graphite. Furthermore, the adequate Fe-doping of sLTO increased the ionic conductivity and the intercalation capacity, which is necessary for a SC performance...
January 9, 2018: Nanoscale
Arian Ehterami, Mansure Kazemi, Bahareh Nazari, Payam Saraeian, Mahmoud Azami
It is well established that the piezoelectric effect plays an important physiological role in bone growth, remodeling and fracture healing. Barium titanate, as a well-known piezoelectric ceramic, is especially an attractive material as a scaffold for bone tissue engineering applications. In this regard, we tried to fabricate a highly porous barium titanate based scaffolds by foam replication method and polarize them by applying an external electric field. In order to enhance the mechanical and biological properties, polarized/non-polarized scaffolds were coated with gelatin and nanostructured HA and characterized for their morphologies, porosities, piezoelectric and mechanical properties...
December 30, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
T Rydén, J Heydorn Lagerlöf, J Hemmingsson, I Marin, J Svensson, M Båth, P Gjertsson, P Bernhardt
BACKGROUND: Full Monte Carlo (MC)-based SPECT reconstructions have a strong potential for correcting for image degrading factors, but the reconstruction times are long. The objective of this study was to develop a highly parallel Monte Carlo code for fast, ordered subset expectation maximum (OSEM) reconstructions of SPECT/CT images. The MC code was written in the Compute Unified Device Architecture language for a computer with four graphics processing units (GPUs) (GeForce GTX Titan X, Nvidia, USA)...
January 4, 2018: EJNMMI Physics
Yurong Yang, Charles Paillard, Bin Xu, Laurent Bellaiche
The present work reviews a series of recent first-principles studies devoted to the description of the interaction of light and strain in ferroelectric and multiferroic materials. Specifically, the modelling schemes used in these works to describe the so-called photostriction and elasto-optic effects are presented, in addition to the results and analysis provided by these ab-initio calculations. In particular, the large importance of the piezoelectric effect in the polar direction in the photostriction of ferroelectric materials is stressed out...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
P R Pansara, P Y Raval, N H Vasoya, S N Dolia, K B Modi
This communication presents a detailed study on a Fe3+ modified CaCu3Ti4O12 cubic perovskite system (CaCu3-xTi4-xFe2xO12 with x = 0.0-0.7) by performing X-ray powder diffractometry, DC SQUID magnetization and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. The first ever Mössbauer studies on the system supported the reported peculiarity of the structure. Mössbauer analysis for the compositions x = 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 suggest Fe3+ ions in two different environments. The site with larger quadrupole splitting corresponds to Fe3+ in the octahedral symmetry, while the site with lower chemical shift and quadrupole splitting belongs to Fe3+ in the square-planar (A'-) configuration...
January 3, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Gollapudi Sreenivasulu, Jitao Zhang, Ru Zhang, Maksym Popov, Vladimir Petrov, Gopalan Srinivasan
Ferromagnetic-ferroelectric nanocomposites are of interest for realizing strong strain-mediated coupling between electric and magnetic subsystems due to a high surface area-to-volume ratio. This report is on the synthesis of nickel ferrite (NFO)-barium titanate (BTO) core-shell nanofibers, magnetic field assisted assembly into superstructures, and studies on magneto-electric (ME) interactions. Electrospinning techniques were used to prepare coaxial fibers of 0.5-1.5 micron in diameter. The core-shell structure of annealed fibers was confirmed by electron microscopy and scanning probe microscopy...
December 23, 2017: Materials
Maximilian Bonta, Johannes Frank, Stefanie Taibl, Jürgen Fleig, Andreas Limbeck
Advanced materials such as complex metal oxides are used in a wide range of applications and have further promising perspectives in the form of thin films. The exact chemical composition essentially influences the electronic properties of these materials which makes correct assessment of their composition necessary. However, due to high chemical resistance and in the case of thin films low absolute analyte amounts, this procedure is in most cases not straightforward and extremely time-demanding. Commonly applied techniques either lack in ease of use (i...
February 13, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Xiuming Dou, Kun Ding, Baoquan Sun
Diamond anvil cell (DAC) technique is widely employed for the high pressure measurements in the field of physics, chemistry, and material research. The new designs of DAC and new techniques for applying pressure have been gradually developed. This paper introduces a piezoelectric driving DAC device to achieve tunable high pressure at low temperature down to 20 K by in situ continuous pressure tuning. The tuning range is about 2-4 GPa depending on the applied electric voltage to piezoelectric lead zirconic titanate ceramic stack...
December 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Jianqiang Qin, Zhenlong Zhang, Wenjia Shi, Yuefeng Liu, Huiping Gao, Yanli Mao
Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have attracted tremendous attentions due to its high performance and rapid efficiency promotion. Compact layer plays a crucial role in transferring electrons and blocking charge recombination between the perovskite layer and fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) in PSCs. In this study, compact TiO2 layers were synthesized by spin-coating method with three different titanium precursors, titanium diisopropoxide bis (acetylacetonate) (c-TTDB), titanium isopropoxide (c-TTIP), and tetrabutyl titanate (c-TBOT), respectively...
December 29, 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
Toshiki Miyazaki, Masaya Sueoka, Yuki Shirosaki, Nobuya Shinozaki, Takanobu Shiraishi
Hafnium (Hf) has attracted considerable attention as a component of biomedical titanium (Ti) alloys with low Young's moduli and/or shape-memory functionalities, because its cytotoxicity is as low as that of Ti. The drawback of metals is that their bone-bonding ability is generally low. It is known that apatite formation in the body is a prerequisite for bone-bonding. Although several chemical treatments have been proposed for preparing Ti for bone-bonding, there have been no similar investigations for Hf. In the present study, NaOH- and heat-treatments were applied to pure Hf and Ti-Hf alloys and their bone-bonding ability was assessed in vitro with the use of simulated body fluid (SBF)...
December 23, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
The Lancet Diabetes Endocrinology
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
A Rambabu, B Senthilkumar, K Sada, S B Krupanidhi, P Barpanda
Sodium-ion thin-film micro-batteries form a niche sector of energy storage devices. Sodium titanate, Na2Ti6O13 (NTO) thin films were deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) using solid-state synthesized polycrystalline Na2Ti6O13 compound. The phase-purity and crystallinity of NTO in bulk and thin-film forms were confirmed by Rietveld refinement. Electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy revealed the formation of uniform ∼100 nm thin film with roughness of ∼4 nm consisting of homogeneous nanoscale grains...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
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