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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729807/observation-of-crack-growth-in-a-polycrystalline-ferroelectric-by-synchrotron-x-ray-diffraction
#1
J E Huber, F Hofmann, S Barhli, T J Marrow, C Hildersley
Pre-cracked samples of unpoled, polycrystalline, soft ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate were subjected to electrical and mechanical loading whilst using synchrotron X-ray diffraction to map strain-fields. Clear evidence is found of switching around the crack tip and development of a crack-wake. A J-integral estimate based on strain-field data provided a sensitive measure of strain changes during loading. Electrical loading did not cause crack advance or crack-tip switching; this provides evidence for electrically permeable crack models...
November 2017: Scripta Materialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729526/high-performance-surface-modified-tio2-silicone-nanocomposite
#2
Pei Huang, Han-Qiao Shi, Hong-Mei Xiao, Yuan-Qing Li, Ning Hu, Shao-Yun Fu
The mismatch of refractive index (RI) between light emitting diode (LED) chips and packaging resins severely lowers the lighting emitting efficacy of LED. The RI can be enhanced by the introduction of high RI nanoparticles but meanwhile it is a great challenge to maintain the high transparency for resins due to the agglomeration of nanoparticles. In this work, a facile strategy is proposed to fabricate silicone nanocomposites with a high transparency (>88%, less than 2% decrease relative to pure silicone resin), largely enhanced RI (an increase from 1...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729511/an-organic-inorganic-perovskite-ferroelectric-with-large-piezoelectric-response
#3
Yu-Meng You, Wei-Qiang Liao, Dewei Zhao, Heng-Yun Ye, Yi Zhang, Qionghua Zhou, Xianghong Niu, Jinlan Wang, Peng-Fei Li, Da-Wei Fu, Zheming Wang, Song Gao, Kunlun Yang, Jun-Ming Liu, Jiangyu Li, Yanfa Yan, Ren-Gen Xiong
Molecular piezoelectrics are highly desirable for their easy and environment-friendly processing, light weight, low processing temperature, and mechanical flexibility. However, although 136 years have passed since the discovery in 1880 of the piezoelectric effect, molecular piezoelectrics with a piezoelectric coefficient d33 comparable with piezoceramics such as barium titanate (BTO; ~190 picocoulombs per newton) have not been found. We show that trimethylchloromethyl ammonium trichloromanganese(II), an organic-inorganic perovskite ferroelectric crystal processed from aqueous solution, has a large d33 of 185 picocoulombs per newton and a high phase-transition temperature of 406 kelvin (K) (16 K above that of BTO)...
July 21, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727932/laboratory-studies-of-methane-and-its-relationship-to-prebiotic-chemistry
#4
Kensei Kobayashi, Wolf D Geppert, Nathalie Carrasco, Nils G Holm, Olivier Mousis, Maria Elisabetta Palumbo, J Hunter Waite, Naoki Watanabe, Lucy M Ziurys
To examine how prebiotic chemical evolution took place on Earth prior to the emergence of life, laboratory experiments have been conducted since the 1950s. Methane has been one of the key molecules in these investigations. In earlier studies, strongly reducing gas mixtures containing methane and ammonia were used to simulate possible reactions in the primitive atmosphere of Earth, producing amino acids and other organic compounds. Since Earth's early atmosphere is now considered to be less reducing, the contribution of extraterrestrial organics to chemical evolution has taken on an important role...
July 20, 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724901/real-time-and-label-free-chemical-sensor-on-a-chip-using-monolithic-si-on-batio3-mid-infrared-waveguides
#5
Tiening Jin, Leigang Li, Bruce Zhang, Hao-Yu Greg Lin, Haiyan Wang, Pao Tai Lin
Chip-scale chemical detection is demonstrated by using mid-Infrared (mid-IR) photonic circuits consisting of amorphous silicon (a-Si) waveguides on an epitaxial barium titanate (BaTiO3, BTO) thin film. The highly c-axis oriented BTO film was grown by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method and it exhibits a broad transparent window from λ = 2.5 μm up to 7 μm. The waveguide structure was fabricated by the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process and a sharp fundamental waveguide mode has been observed...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708541/total-ionizing-dose-effects-on-piezoelectric-thin-film-cantilevers-with-oxide-electrodes
#6
Ryan Q Rudy, Kyle M Grove, Manuel Rivas, Jonathon Guerrier, Cory Cress, Robert R Benoit, Jacob L Jones, Evan Glaser, Steven Brewer, Nazanin Bassiri-Gharb, Ronald G Polcawich
This paper reports on the ionizing radiation effects in lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) with varied top electrode material and bias condition during radiation. A technique to characterize the piezoelectric performance of films unclamped from the substrate is described, and used to demonstrate the effects of radiation on the material's electromechanical behavior. Both platinum and iridium oxide top electrodes were examined, and iridium oxide appears to significantly mitigate radiation-induced damage that is observed in platinum top electrode samples...
July 2017: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702656/polarization-landscape-effects-in-soft-x-ray-induced-surface-chemical-decomposition-of-lead-zirco-titanate-evidenced-by-photoelectron-spectromicroscopy
#7
Laura E Abramiuc, Liviu C Tănase, Alexei Barinov, Nicoleta G Apostol, Cristina Chirilă, Lucian Trupină, Lucian Pintilie, Cristian M Teodorescu
The stability of thin films of lead zirco-titanate (PZT) under intense soft X-ray beams is investigated by time-resolved photoelectron spectromicroscopy with a lateral resolution below 1 micrometer. Surface dissociation is observed when samples are irradiated with intense (5 × 10(23) photons per s per m(2)) soft X-rays, with promotion of reduced lead on the surface. On areas exhibiting outwards polarization (P((+))), the reduced lead is formed at the expense of P((+))-PZT. On areas presenting co-existing P((+)) states with areas without out-of-plane polarization (P((0))), the reduced lead is formed at the expense of the P((0))-PZT component, while the P((+))-PZT remains constant...
July 12, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692962/bilinear-convolutional-neural-networks-for-fine-grained-visual-recognition
#8
Tsung-Yu Lin, Aruni RoyChowdhury, Subhransu Maji
We present a simple and effective architecture for fine-grained recognition called Bilinear Convolutional Neural Networks (B-CNNs). These networks represent an image as a pooled outer product of features derived from two CNNs and capture localized feature interactions in a translationally invariant manner. B-CNNs are related to orderless texture representations built on deep features but can be trained in an end-to-end manner. Our most accurate model obtains 84.1%, 79.4%, 84.5% and 91.3% per-image accuracy on the Caltech-UCSD birds [66], NABirds [63], FGVC aircraft [42], and Stanford cars [33] dataset respectively and runs at 30 frames-per-second on a NVIDIA Titan X GPU...
July 4, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690965/fabrication-of-hierarchically-porous-tio2-nanofibers-by-microemulsion-electrospinning-and-their-application-as-anode-material-for-lithium-ion-batteries
#9
Jin Zhang, Yibing Cai, Xuebin Hou, Xiaofei Song, Pengfei Lv, Huimin Zhou, Qufu Wei
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanofibers have been widely applied in various fields including photocatalysis, energy storage and solar cells due to the advantages of low cost, high abundance and nontoxicity. However, the low conductivity of ions and bulk electrons hinder its rapid development in lithium-ion batteries (LIB). In order to improve the electrochemical performances of TiO2 nanomaterials as anode for LIB, hierarchically porous TiO2 nanofibers with different tetrabutyl titanate (TBT)/paraffin oil ratios were prepared as anode for LIB via a versatile single-nozzle microemulsion electrospinning (ME-ES) method followed by calcining...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686008/highly-efficient-co2-electrolysis-on-cathodes-with-exsolved-alkaline-earth-oxide-nanostructures
#10
Lingting Ye, Changchang Pan, Minyi Zhang, Chunsen Li, Fanglin Chen, Lizhen Gan, Kui Xie
Solid oxide CO2 electrolyser has the potential to provide storage solutions for intermittent renewable energy sources as well as reducing greenhouse gas emissions. One of the key challenges remains poor adsorption and activity towards CO2 reduction on the electrolyser cathode at typical operating conditions. Here we show a novel approach in tailoring a perovskite titanate (La,Sr)TiO3+δ cathode surface, by in situ growing SrO nano-islands from the host material through control of perovskite non-stoichiometry...
July 7, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683538/titanate-nanotubes-decorated-graphene-oxide-nanocomposites-preparation-flame-retardancy-and-photodegradation
#11
Bin Sang, Zhi-Wei Li, Xiao-Hong Li, Lai-Gui Yu, Zhi-Jun Zhang
Most polymers exhibit high flammability and poor degradability, which restrict their applications and causes serious environmental problem like "white pollution." Thus, titanate nanotubes (TNTs) were adopted to decorate graphene oxide (GO) by a facile solution method to afford TNTs/GO nanocomposites with potential in improving the flame retardancy and photodegradability of flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Results show that the as-prepared TNTs/GO can effectively improve the thermal stability and flame retardancy than TNTs and GO, especially, the peak heat release rate and total heat release were reduced by 20 and 29% with only 2...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672271/the-fabrication-and-characterization-of-barium-titanate-akermanite-nano-bio-ceramic-with-a-suitable-piezoelectric-coefficient-for-bone-defect-recovery
#12
H Shokrollahi, F Salimi, A Doostmohammadi
In recent years, due to the controllable mechanical properties and degradation rate, calcium silicates such as akermanite (Ca2MgSi2O7) with Ca-Mg and Si- containing bio-ceramics have received much more attention. In addition, the piezoelectric effect plays an important role in bone growth, remodeling and defect healing. To achieve our objective, the porous bioactive nano-composite with a suitable piezoelectric coefficient was fabricated by the freeze-casting technique from the barium titanate and nano-akermanite (BT/nAK) suspension...
June 22, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672204/nanoengineered-porous-chitosan-catio3-hybrid-scaffolds-for-accelerating-schwann-cells-growth-in-peripheral-nerve-regeneration
#13
Guicai Li, Qinzhi Xiao, Ryan McNaughton, Lei Han, Luzhong Zhang, Yaling Wang, Yumin Yang
To further improve the property of promoting peripheral nerve regeneration of chitosan materials, CaTiO3 nanoparticles with various concentrations were synthesized in chitosan (CS) solution and formed to porous CS/CaTiO3 hybrid scaffolds. The properties including morphology, wettability, porosity, crystallization intensity and surface charges were characterized, respectively. The influence of the porous CS/CaTiO3 hybrid scaffolds on Schwann cells growth was evaluated. The results showed that the CaTiO3 hybridized CS scaffolds possessed homogeneous nanoparticles distribution with concentration-dependent effect...
June 22, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667944/cavity-resonator-for-dielectric-measurements-of-high-%C3%AE%C2%B5-low-loss-materials-demonstrated-with-barium-strontium-zirconium-titanate-ceramics
#14
Quinn R Marksteiner, Michael B Treiman, Ching-Fong Chen, William B Haynes, M T Reiten, Dale Dalmas, Elias Pulliam
A resonant cavity method is presented which can measure loss tangents and dielectric constants for materials with dielectric constant from 150 to 10 000 and above. This practical and accurate technique is demonstrated by measuring barium strontium zirconium titanate bulk ferroelectric ceramic blocks. Above the Curie temperature, in the paraelectric state, barium strontium zirconium titanate has a sufficiently low loss that a series of resonant modes are supported in the cavity. At each mode frequency, the dielectric constant and loss tangent are obtained...
June 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657287/highly-conductive-solid-state-hybrid-electrolytes-operating-at-subzero-temperatures
#15
Taeyoung Kwon, Ilyoung Choi, Moon Jeong Park
We report a unique, highly conductive, dendrite-inhibited, solid-state polymer electrolyte platform that demonstrates excellent battery performance at subzero temperatures. A design based on functionalized inorganic nanoparticles with interconnected mesopores that contain surface nitrile groups is the key to this development. Solid-state hybrid polymer electrolytes based on succinonitrile (SN) electrolytes and porous nanoparticles were fabricated via a simple UV-curing process. SN electrolytes were effectively confined within the mesopores...
July 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652551/review-of-titanate-coupling-agents-and-their-application-for-dental-composite-fabrication
#16
Nidal Wanis Elshereksi, Mariyam Ghazali, Andanastuti Muchtar, Che Husna Azhari
Silane is a dominant coupler that is widely used in dentistry to promote adhesion among the components of dental composites. Silica-based fillers can be easily silanized because of their similarly ordered structure. However, silane is hydrolytically degraded in the aqueous oral environment and inefficiently bonds to non-silica fillers. Thus, the development of hydrolytically stable dental composites is an important objective in the research on dental materials. Titanate coupling agents (TCAs) exhibit satisfactory interfacial bonding, enhanced homogeneous filler dispersion, and improved mechanical properties of the composites...
June 23, 2017: Dental Materials Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646183/differences-in-nature-of-electrical-conductions-among-bi4ti3o12-based-ferroelectric-polycrystalline-ceramics
#17
Changbai Long, Qi Chang, Huiqing Fan
Bismuth titanate Bi4Ti3O12 (BiT), was one of the most promising lead-free high-temperature piezoelectric materials, due to high Curie temperature (675 °C) and large spontaneous polarization (50 µC/cm(2)); however, extensive studies had revealed that high leakage conductivity interferes with the poling process, hindering its practical applications. In this paper, an electrically insulating property was achieved by a low level Nb donor substitution to suppress a high level of holes associated with high oxygen vacancy concentration...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646181/surface-bioactivation-through-the-nanostructured-layer-on-titanium-modified-by-facile-hpt-treatment
#18
Zhijun Guo, Nan Jiang, Chen Chen, Songsong Zhu, Li Zhang, Yubao Li
Facile fabrication of nanostructured surface is of great importance for the use of titanium (Ti) implants in biomedical field. In this study, a low-cost and easy-to-operate method called HPT (hydrothermal & pressure) here has been developed and used to fabricate the expected nanostructured surface on Ti substrates. The effects of experimental parameters on the morphology of Ti surface were investigated and characterized. The results indicated that by altering the hydrothermal pressure, NaOH concentration and treating time, surface nanostructure like nanopetals or nanoflakes could be formed on the surface of Ti substrates...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643693/generation-mechanism-of-negative-permittivity-and-kramers-kronig-relations-in-batio-sub-3-sub-y-sub-3-sub-fe-sub-5-sub-o-sub-12-sub-multiferroic-composites
#19
Zhongyang Wang, Kai Sun, Peitao Xie, Yao Liu, Runhua Fan
Recently, negative parameters such as negative permittivity and negative permeability are attracting extensive attention for their unique electromagnetic properties. Usually, negative permittivity is well achieved by plasma oscillation of free electrons in conductor-insulator composites or metamaterials, while some attention has been drawn to attaining the negative permittivity in ceramics to reduce the dielectric loss. In this paper, negative permittivity in barium titanate and yttrium iron garnet composites was reported which was well fitted by Lorentz model...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635034/modular-transmit-receive-arrays-using-very-high-permittivity-dielectric-resonator-antennas
#20
Thomas P A O'Reilly, Thomas Ruytenberg, Andrew G Webb
PURPOSE: Dielectric resonator antenna (DRAs) are compact structures that exhibit low coupling between adjacent elements and therefore can be used as MRI transmit arrays. In this study, we use very high permittivity materials to construct modular flexible transceive arrays of a variable numbers of elements for operation at 7T. METHODS: DRAs were constructed using rectangular blocks of ceramic (lead zirconate titanate, εr  = 1070) with the transverse electric (TE)01 mode tuned to 298 MHz...
June 20, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
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