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Roland Seidling, Lars J Lehmann, Manuel Lingner, Eckhard Mauermann, Udo Obertacke, Markus L R Schwarz
BACKGROUND: A lot of advantages can result in a high wettability as well as a nanostructure at a titanium surface on bone implants. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the osseointegrative potential of a titan plasma-sprayed (TPS) surface refinement by acid-etching with chromosulfuric acid. This results in a hyperhydrophilic surface with a nanostructure and an extreme high wetting rate. METHODS: In total, 72 dumbbell shape titan implants were inserted in the spongy bone of the femora of 18 Göttingen minipigs in a conservative gap model...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
Nongnuch Artrith, Wutthigrai Sailuam, Sukit Limpijumnong, Alexie M Kolpak
Water electrolysis is a key technology for the replacement of fossil fuels by environmentally friendly alternatives, but state-of-the-art water oxidation catalysts rely on rare elements such as Pt groups and other noble metals. In this article, we employ first-principles calculations to explore the potential of modified barium titanate (BaTiO3), an inexpensive perovskite oxide that can be synthesized from earth-abundant precursors, for the design of efficient water oxidation electrocatalysts. Our calculations identify Fe and Ni doping as a means to improve the electrical conductivity and to reduce the overpotential required for water oxidation over BaTiO3...
October 17, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Liviu Cristian Tănase, Nicoleta Georgiana Apostol, Laura Elena Abramiuc, Cristian Alexandru Tache, Luminița Hrib, Lucian Trupină, Lucian Pintilie, Cristian Mihail Teodorescu
Atomically clean lead zirco-titanate PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3 (001) layers exhibit a polarization oriented inwards P((-)), visible by a band bending of all core levels towards lower binding energies, whereas as introduced layers exhibit P((+)) polarization under air or in ultrahigh vacuum. The magnitude of the inwards polarization decreases when the temperature is increased at 700 K. CO adsorption on P((-)) polarized surfaces saturates at about one quarter of a monolayer of carbon, and occurs in both molecular (oxidized) and dissociated (reduced) states of carbon, with a large majority of reduced state...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Leonardo Triggiani, Ana B Muñoz-García, Angela Agostiano, Michele Pavone
Strontium titanate (SrTiO3, STO) is a prototypical perovskite oxide, widely exploited in many technological applications, from catalysis to energy conversion devices. In the context of solid-oxide fuel cells, STO has been recently applied as an epitaxial substrate for nano-sized layers of mixed ion-electron conductive catalysts with enhanced electrochemical performances. To extend the applications of such heterogeneous nano-cathodes in real devices, also the STO support should be active for both electron transport and oxide diffusion...
October 11, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
J Vargas, E Franken, C O S Sorzano, J Gomez-Blanco, R Schoenmakers, A J Koster, J M Carazo
Automatic or semiautomatic data collection approaches on a transmission electron microscope (TEM) for Single Particle Analysis, capable of acquiring large datasets composed of only high quality images, are of great importance to obtain 3D density maps with the highest resolution possible. Typically, this task is performed by an experienced microscopist, who manually decides to keep or discard images according to subjective criteria. Therefore, this methodology is slow, intensive in human work and subjective...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Structural Biology
Lawrence A Crosby, Robert M Kennedy, Bor-Rong Chen, Jianguo Wen, Kenneth R Poeppelmeier, Michael J Bedzyk, Laurence D Marks
The surface structure of (110) faceted strontium titanate nanoparticles synthesized via solvothermal method has been resolved using high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM). We demonstrate that the surface is a titania-rich structure containing tetrahedrally coordinated TiO4 units similar to the family of (n × 1) reconstructions observed on (110) surfaces of bulk crystalline strontium titanate. When compared with prior results for (001) terminated strontium titanate single crystals made with traditional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) sample preparation techniques, the results demonstrate that many models for oxide nanoparticles need to be revisited...
September 22, 2016: Nanoscale
Martin Civiš, Martin Ferus, Antonín Knížek, Petr Kubelík, Michal Kamas, Patrik Španěl, Ksenia Dryahina, Violetta Shestivska, Libor Juha, Petr Skřehot, Vojtěch Laitl, Svatopluk Civiš
Large-scale plasma was created in gas mixtures containing methane using high-power laser-induced dielectric breakdown (LIDB). The composition of the mixtures corresponded to a cometary and/or meteoritic impact into the early atmosphere of either Titan or Earth. A multiple-centimeter-sized fireball was created by focusing a single 100 J, 450 ps near-infrared laser pulse into the center of a 15 L gas cell. The excited reaction intermediates formed during the various stages of the LIDB plasma chemical evolution were investigated using optical emission spectroscopy (OES) with temporal resolution...
October 5, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Pablo Gonzalez Rodriguez, Huiyu Yuan, Karin J H van den Nieuwenhuijzen, Walter Lette, Dik J Schipper, Johan E Ten Elshof
The intercalation of different primary n-alkylamines in the structure of a layered titanate of the lepidocrocite type (H1.07Ti1.73O4) for application in high temperature solid lubrication is reported. The intercalation process of the amines was explored by means of in-situ small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), with variations in alkyl chain length (3 - 12 carbon atoms) and the ratio amine : titanate. The intercalation process was found to be completed within 5 min after mixing of the precursors in water at 80 °C...
October 7, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Kanji Saito, Misa Kozeni, Minoru Sohmiya, Kenji Komaguchi, Makoto Ogawa, Yoshiyuki Sugahara, Yusuke Ide
We report a simple, low-cost methodology for unprecedentedly enhancing the photocatalytic activity of layered inorganic semiconductors. A layered titanate with a lepidocrocite-type structure scarcely showed photocatalytic activity for a test reaction, the oxidative decomposition of formic acid in water into CO2, under simulated solar light, but it showed highly enhanced photocatalytic activity upon mixing with a much smaller amount (approximately 10 wt%) of commercially available TiO2 nanoparticles (P25) in water...
September 23, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Felix P Kuhn, Georg Spinner, Filippo Del Grande, Michael Wyss, Marco Piccirelli, Stefan Erni, Pascal Pfister, Michael Ho, Bert-Ram Sah, Lukas Filli, Dominik A Ettlin, Luigi M Gallo, Gustav Andreisek, Andrei Manoliu
OBJECTIVES: To qualitatively and quantitatively compare MR imaging of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) at 7.0 T using high-permittivity dielectric pads and 3.0 T using a clinical high-resolution protocol. METHODS: IRB approved study with written informed consent. 12 asymptomatic volunteers were imaged at 7.0T and 3.0T using 32-channel head coils. High-permittivity dielectric pads consisting of barium titanate in deuterated suspension were used for imaging at 7...
October 5, 2016: Dento Maxillo Facial Radiology
Takeya Mezaki, Yota Kuronuma, Itaru Oikawa, Atsunori Kamegawa, Hitoshi Takamura
The effect of Ca doping on the Li-ion conductivity and phase stability of the rock-salt-type LiBH4 phase emerging under high pressures in the range of gigapascals has been investigated. In situ electrochemical measurements under high pressure were performed using a cubic-anvil-type apparatus. Ca doping drastically enhanced the ionic conductivity of the rock-salt-type phase: the ionic conductivity of undoped and 5 mol %Ca-doped LiBH4 was 2.2 × 10(-4) and 1.4 × 10(-2) S·cm(-1) under 4.0 GPa at 220 °C, respectively...
October 17, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
Anand Bhattacharya, Brian Skinner, Guru Khalsa, Alexey V Suslov
When an electronic system is subjected to a sufficiently strong magnetic field that the cyclotron energy is much larger than the Fermi energy, the system enters the extreme quantum limit (EQL) and becomes susceptible to a number of instabilities. Bringing a three-dimensional electronic system deeply into the EQL can be difficult however, since it requires a small Fermi energy, large magnetic field, and low disorder. Here we present an experimental study of the EQL in lightly-doped single crystals of strontium titanate...
2016: Nature Communications
Laila Hubbert, Jacek Baranowski, Baz Delshad, Henrik Ahn
Following implantation of a continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (LVAD), left atrial pressure (LAP) monitoring allows for precise management of intravascular volume, inotropic therapy and pump speed. In this case series of 4 LVAD recipients we report the first clinical use of this wireless pressure sensor for long-term monitoring of LAP during LVAD support. A wireless microelectromechanical system (MEMS) pressure sensor, (Titan™, ISS Inc., Ypsilanti, MI, USA) was placed in the left atrium in four patients at the time of LVAD implantation...
September 22, 2016: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
J M D Coey, M Venkatesan, P Stamenov
SrTiO3 plays a central role in oxide electronics. It is the substrate of choice for functional oxide heterostructures based on perovskite-structure thin-film stacks, and its surface or interface with a polar oxide such as LaAlO3 can become a 2D conductor because of electronic reconstruction or the presence of oxygen defects. Inconsistent reports of magnetic order in SrTiO3 abound in the literature. Here, we report a systematic experimental study aimed at establishing how and when SrTiO3 can develop a magnetic moment at room temperature...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Thomas H Sharp, Frank G A Faas, Abraham J Koster, Piet Gros
Phase plates in cryo-electron tomography (cryoET) improve contrast, increasing the ability to discern separate molecules and molecular complexes in dense biomolecular environments. Here, we applied this new technology to the activation of the human complement system. Binding of C1 to antigen-antibody complexes initiates a cascade of proteolytic events that deposits molecules onto adjacent surfaces and terminates with the formation of membrane-attack-complex (MAC) pores in the targeted membranes. We imaged steps in this process using a Volta phase plate mounted on a Titan Krios equipped with a Falcon-II direct electron detector...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Structural Biology
Christian Hundt, Andreas Hildebrandt, Bertil Schmidt
BACKGROUND: Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) is a popular method to reveal significant dependencies between predefined sets of gene symbols and observed phenotypes by evaluating the deviation of gene expression values between cases and controls. An established measure of inter-class deviation, the enrichment score, is usually computed using a weighted running sum statistic over the whole set of gene symbols. Due to the lack of analytic expressions the significance of enrichment scores is determined using a non-parametric estimation of their null distribution by permuting the phenotype labels of the probed patients...
2016: BMC Bioinformatics
Changhai Zhang, Qingguo Chi, Jiufeng Dong, Yang Cui, Xuan Wang, Lizhu Liu, Qingquan Lei
We report enhancement of the dielectric permittivity of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) generated by depositing magnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles on the surface of barium titanate (BT) to fabricate BT-Fe3O4/PVDF composites. This process introduced an external magnetic field and the influences of external magnetic field on dielectric properties of composites were investigated systematically. The composites subjected to magnetic field treatment for 30 min at 60 °C exhibited the largest dielectric permittivity (385 at 100 Hz) when the BT-Fe3O4 concentration is approximately 33 vol...
2016: Scientific Reports
Ž Antić, S Kuzman, V Đorđević, M D Dramićanin, T Thundat
Here we report the synthesis and structural, morphological, and photoluminescence analysis of white- and blue-light-emitting Dy(3) (+) - and Tm(3) (+) -doped Gd2 Ti2 O7 nanophosphors. Single-phase cubic Gd2 Ti2 O7 nanopowders consist of compact, dense aggregates of nanoparticles with an average size of ~25 nm for Dy(3) (+) -doped and ~50 nm for Tm(3) (+) -doped samples. The photoluminescence results indicated that ultraviolet (UV) light excitation of the Dy(3) (+) -doped sample resulted in direct generation of white light, while a dominant yellow emission was obtained under blue-light excitation...
September 15, 2016: Luminescence: the Journal of Biological and Chemical Luminescence
LiDong Dai, Lei Wu, HePing Li, HaiYing Hu, YuKai Zhuang, KaiXiang Liu
The electrical transport properties of undoped and yttrium-doped strontium titanate (Sr(Ti1 - x Y x )O3 - δ , x  =  0, 0.02) under high pressure were investigated with in situ impedance spectroscopy measurements. A pressure-induced conductivity switching for undoped and 2 mole% Y-doped strontium titanate is observed at around ~10.0 and 7.0 GPa respectively, which are caused by a cubic to tetragonal I4/mcm phase transition. The decrease of the phase transition point of 2 mole% Y-doped strontium titanate can be attributed to larger Y(3+) atoms occupying the B-site and the creation of more oxygen vacancies, which lead to octahedra tilting and symmetry breaking...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Edith Pituskin, Mark Haykowsky, Margaret McNeely, John Mackey, Neil Chua, Ian Paterson
BACKGROUND: Cancer is the leading cause of premature death in Canada. In the last decade, important gains in cancer survival have been achieved by advances in adjuvant treatment. However, many oncologic treatments also result in cardiovascular "toxicity". Furthermore, cardiac risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus are known to contribute to the progression of cardiac damage and clinical cardiotoxicity. As such, for many survivors, the risk of death from cardiac disease exceeds that of recurrent cancer...
September 15, 2016: BMC Cancer
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