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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790429/effects-of-rapid-palatal-expansion-rpe-and-twin-block-mandibular-advancement-device-mad-on-pharyngeal-structures-in-class-ii-pediatric-patients-from-cluj-napoca-romania
#1
Ovidiu Dănuţ Rădescu, Horațiu Alexandru Colosi, Silviu Albu
OBJECTIVE: To compare cephalometric changes of pharyngeal structures after rapid palatal expansion (RPE) with those induced by a twin block mandibular advancement device (MAD) with palatal expansion capability. METHODS: This retrospective study investigated 55 Class II pediatric patients, divided into two groups: 29 patients treated with RPE and 26 patients treated with MAD. Lateral cephalometric measurements were compared before and after treatment. RESULTS: Changes in pharyngeal airway space were statistically significant in both groups (p < 0...
May 23, 2018: Cranio: the Journal of Craniomandibular Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789716/xct-slc7a11-mediated-metabolic-reprogramming-promotes-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-progression
#2
Xiangming Ji, Jun Qian, S M Jamshedur Rahman, Peter J Siska, Yong Zou, Bradford K Harris, Megan D Hoeksema, Irina A Trenary, Chen Heidi, Rosana Eisenberg, Jeffrey C Rathmell, Jamey D Young, Pierre P Massion
Many tumors increase uptake and dependence on glucose, cystine or glutamine. These basic observations on cancer cell metabolism have opened multiple new diagnostic and therapeutic avenues in cancer research. Recent studies demonstrated that smoking could induce the expression of xCT (SLC7A11) in oral cancer cells, suggesting that overexpression of xCT may support lung tumor progression. We hypothesized that overexpression of xCT occurs in lung cancer cells to satisfy the metabolic requirements for growth and survival...
May 23, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785103/chinese-version-of-the-severe-respiratory-insufficiency-questionnaire-for-patients-with-copd-receiving-long-term-oxygen-therapy
#3
Lili Guan, Jiawen Xu, Weiliang Wu, Jianhua Chen, Xiaoying Li, Bingpeng Guo, Yuqiong Yang, Yating Huo, Luqian Zhou, Rongchang Chen
Purpose: Patients with advanced-stage COPD often experience severe hypoxemia. Treatment with long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) may relieve patients' symptoms and increase survival. As COPD is incurable, improving patients' health-related quality of life is important. The Chinese version of the Severe Respiratory Insufficiency Questionnaire (SRI) is valid for patients with hypercapnic COPD undergoing noninvasive positive airway pressure ventilation at home. However, the reliability and validity of the Chinese SRI for patients with COPD undergoing LTOT have not been investigated...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770265/herniation-of-packing-material-into-a-bronchopleural-fistula-after-right-pneumonectomy-and-clagett-window
#4
Iclal Ocak, Gideon Bollino, Diane Strollo
Diagnosis of a bronchopleural fistula (BPF) can be challenging in patients after pneumonectomy and Clagett window. Herein, we present a case of pneumonectomy for advanced lung cancer complicated by a BPF. Herniation of packing material from the open-chest cavity into the fistula and airways on computed tomography was an important clue to making the diagnosis.
2018: Journal of Clinical Imaging Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757778/a-contemporary-analysis-of-medicolegal-issues-in-obstetric-anesthesia-between-2005-and-2015
#5
Vesela P Kovacheva, Ethan Y Brovman, Penny Greenberg, Ellen Song, Arvind Palanisamy, Richard D Urman
BACKGROUND: Detailed reviews of closed malpractice claims have provided insights into the most common events resulting in litigation and helped improve anesthesia care. In the past 10 years, there have been multiple safety advancements in the practice of obstetric anesthesia. We investigated the relationship among contributing factors, patient injuries, and legal outcome by analyzing a contemporary cohort of closed malpractice claims where obstetric anesthesiology was the principal defendant...
May 10, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750689/a-prospective-observational-study-of-technical-difficulty-with-glidescope-guided-tracheal-intubation-in-children
#6
Bin Zhang, Harshad G Gurnaney, Paul A Stricker, Jorge A Galvez, Rebecca S Isserman, John E Fiadjoe
BACKGROUND: The GlideScope Cobalt is one of the most commonly used videolaryngoscopes in pediatric anesthesia. Although visualization of the airway may be superior to direct laryngoscopy, users need to learn a new indirect way to insert the tracheal tube. Learning this indirect approach requires focused practice and instruction. Identifying the specific points during tube placement, during which clinicians struggle, would help with targeted education. We conducted this prospective observational study to determine the incidence and location of technical difficulties using the GlideScope, the success rates of various corrective maneuvers used, and the impact of technical difficulty on success rate...
May 9, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742703/nebulized-heparin-and-n-acetylcysteine-for-smoke-inhalational-injury-a-case-report
#7
Umair Ashraf, Bharat Bajantri, Gabriella Roa-Gomez, Sindhaghatta Venkatram, Amanda Cantin, Gilda Diaz-Fuentes
RATIONALE: Every year, ∼40,000 people suffer burn-related injuries in the United States. Despite recent advances, the odds of dying from exposure to fire, flames, or smoke are one in ∼1500. Smoke inhalation causes injury to the airways via a complex physiological process, and the treatment is mainly supportive. Many recent interventions aim to decrease the formation of fibrin casts, the main cause of airway damage in these patients. Among these, treatment with a combination of nebulized heparin and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has shown benefit...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729548/pepducins-as-a-potential-treatment-strategy-for-asthma-and-copd
#8
REVIEW
Reynold A Panettieri, Tonio Pera, Stephen B Liggett, Jeffrey L Benovic, Raymond B Penn
Current therapies to treat asthma and other airway diseases primarily include anti-inflammatory agents and bronchodilators. Anti-inflammatory agents target trafficking and resident immunocytes and structural cells, while bronchodilators act to prevent or reverse shortening of airway smooth muscle (ASM), the pivotal tissue regulating bronchomotor tone. Advances in our understanding of the biology of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and biased agonism offers unique opportunities to modulate GPCR function that include the use of pepducins and allosteric modulators...
May 2, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728508/small-molecule-mimetics-of-%C3%AE-helical-domain-of-irak2-attenuate-the-proinflammatory-effects-of-il-33-in-asthma-like-mouse-models
#9
Jinghong Li, Kunio Saruta, Justin P Dumouchel, Jenna M Magat, Joanna L Thomas, Dariush Ajami, Mitra Rebek, Julius Rebek, Timothy D Bigby
IL-33 and its receptor ST2 play important roles in airway inflammation and contribute to asthma onset and exacerbation. The IL-33/ST2 signaling pathway recruits adapter protein myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88) to transduce intracellular signaling. MyD88 forms a complex with IL-R-associated kinases (IRAKs), IRAK4 and IRAK2, called the Myddosome (MyD88-IRAK4-IRAK2). The myddosome subsequently activates downstream NF-κB and MAPKs p38 and JNK. We established an asthma-like mouse model by intratracheal administration of IL-33...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727727/it-takes-a-village-phagocytes-play-a-central-role-in-fungal-immunity
#10
REVIEW
Michael B Feldman, Jatin M Vyas, Michael K Mansour
Phagocytosis is an essential step in the innate immune response to invasive fungal infections. This process is carried out by a proverbial "village" of professional phagocytic cells, which have evolved efficient machinery to recognize and ingest pathogens, namely macrophages, neutrophils and dendritic cells. These innate immune cells drive early cytokine production, fungicidal activity, antigen presentation and activation of the adaptive immune system. Despite the development of antifungal agents with potent activity, the biological activity of professional phagocytic innate immune cells has proven indispensable in protecting a host from invasive fungal infections...
May 1, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724394/enhancing-our-understanding-of-computerised-adventitious-respiratory-sounds-in-different-copd-phases-and-healthy-people
#11
Ana Oliveira, João Rodrigues, Alda Marques
BACKGROUND: Timely diagnosis of acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) is challenging as it depends on patients' reports. AECOPD are characterised by increased airway obstruction, mucus and air trapping, which results in changes in lung acoustics. Thus, adventitious respiratory sounds (ARS) may be useful to detect/monitor AECOPD. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate computerised ARS changes during AECOPD. METHODS: 25 non-hospitalised patients with AECOPD (16♂, 70 [62...
May 2018: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723609/advanced-vs-basic-life-support-in-the-treatment-of-out-of-hospital-cardiopulmonary-arrest-in-the-resuscitation-outcomes-consortium
#12
Michael Christopher Kurz, Robert H Schmicker, Brian Leroux, Graham Nichol, Tom P Aufderheide, Sheldon Cheskes, Brian Grunau, Jamie Jasti, Peter Kudenchuk, Gary M Vilke, Jason Buick, Lynn Wittwer, Ritu Sahni, Ronald Straight, Henry E Wang
BACKGROUND: Prior observational studies suggest no additional benefit from advanced life support (ALS) when compared with providing basic life support (BLS) for patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). We compared the association of ALS care with OHCA outcomes using prospective clinical data from the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium (ROC). METHODS: Included were consecutive adults OHCA treated by participating emergency medical services (EMS) agencies between June 1, 2011, and June 30, 2015...
April 30, 2018: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722434/changes-in-hardness-and-resilience-of-i-gel-tm-cuffs-with-temperature-a-benchtop-study
#13
J Dingley, J Stephenson, V Allender, S Dawson, D Williams
The i-gelTM is a supraglottic airway with a gel-like thermoplastic cuff. It has been suggested that the seal around the larynx improves following insertion. Perhaps the most intuitive hypothesis proposed for this is that cuff softening occurs during warming from ambient to body temperature. We investigated this using a food industry texture analyser over a wide temperature range. Size 2 and 3 i-gels were secured to a platform within a temperature-controlled water bath, which was in turn mounted on a texture analyser test stand...
May 3, 2018: Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718738/treatment-of-severe-uncontrolled-eosinophilic-asthma-where-we-are-heading
#14
Jonathan A Bernstein, Reynold Panettieri
OBJECTIVE: We sought to highlight how our understanding of the pathophysiology of severe asthma has evolved over time and discuss the role of biomarkers in treatment advances and emerging new therapies. DATA SOURCES: Nonsystematic PubMed literature search. STUDY SELECTION: Articles were selected based on areas of relevance to the classification of asthma by endotype, with an emphasis on the evolution of current treatment guidelines for severe asthma...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708920/airway-management-in-a-patient-with-tracheal-disruption-due-to-penetrating-neck-trauma-with-hollow-point-ammunition-a-case-report
#15
Angela M Johnson, James L Hill, Dave J Zagorski, Joseph M McClain, Nicole C Maronian
Rapid sequence induction and intubation was performed for a patient in respiratory distress after a gunshot wound to the neck. Resistance was noted distal to vocal cords. With a bronchoscope unavailable, the endotracheal tube was advanced with a corkscrew maneuver. Subcutaneous emphysema had developed. The endotracheal tube was advanced into the right mainstem with adequate ventilation. Imaging illustrated tracheoesophageal injury. The patient was emergently explored. An intraluminal bullet was removed, lateral wall tracheal defect was repaired, and a tracheostomy was placed...
May 1, 2018: A&A practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707506/airway-stents
#16
Erik Folch, Colleen Keyes
Stents and tubes to maintain the patency of the airways are commonly used for malignant obstruction and are occasionally employed in benign disease. Malignant airway obstruction usually results from direct involvement of bronchogenic carcinoma, or by extension of carcinomas occurring in the esophagus or the thyroid. External compression from lymph nodes or metastatic disease from other organs can also cause central airway obstruction. Most malignant airway lesions are surgically inoperable due to advanced disease stage and require multimodality palliation, including stent placement...
March 2018: Annals of Cardiothoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707505/acute-airway-management
#17
Nikhil Panda, Dean M Donahue
Acute airway management has challenged clinicians for nearly four millennia. History underscores the discoveries of surgeons and anesthesiologists, whose advances in technology and surgical technique have transformed management algorithms from primarily surgical tracheostomy, to transoral endotracheal intubation under direct laryngoscopy. Despite this progress and a better understanding of airway anatomy, physiology and pathogenesis of disease, the acute airway, whether obstructed, traumatically disrupted, or externally compressed, remains a life-threatening challenge...
March 2018: Annals of Cardiothoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707503/surgical-anatomy-of-the-trachea
#18
Paul W Furlow, Douglas J Mathisen
Anatomy as the foundation of surgery is a concept no better exemplified than by the history of tracheal surgery. Incremental advancements in our understanding of the trachea's position, structure, blood supply and adjacent organs each allowed for stepwise improvements in the thoracic surgeon's ability to address upper airway disease. As such, the mastery of tracheal anatomy is fundamental to those clinicians responsible for treating such ailments. In this article, tracheal anatomy is reviewed and points critical to the thoracic surgeon are highlighted...
March 2018: Annals of Cardiothoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707206/recent-advances-in-biologic-therapy-of-asthma-and-the-role-in-therapy-of-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#19
REVIEW
Rohit Divekar, Devyani Lal
Great strides have been made in the last five years in understanding the pathology of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). CRS is now accepted to be the end-stage manifestation of inflammation resultant from various pathogenetic mechanisms. This has resulted in increasing recognition of distinct CRS endotypes. Such endotypes encompass a cluster of patients with similar pathogenic mechanisms that may have common therapeutic targets and responsiveness to interventions. The elucidation of mechanisms leading to the development of chronic upper (sino-nasal) airway inflammation has to some extent paralleled investigations of aberrant pathways operant in asthma...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701428/anaesthetic-management-in-a-duchennne-muscle-dystrophy-patient-for-treatment-of-recurrent-pneumothorax
#20
Sara Mota, Liuba Germanova, Joana Cortesão, Teresa Paiva
INTRODUCTION: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an x linked recessive disorder. Long term prognosis is ominous, with development of respiratory distress and cardiomyopathy in advanced stage of the disease and expected death in the teens-to-mid 20s due to respiratory or cardiac failure. Peri-operative management of this patients is challenging due to difficult airway anatomy (macroglossia, limited neck and mandibular mobility). Additionally, they are at risk of developing malignant hyperthermia, rhabdomyolysis and hyperkalemic cardiac arrest when exposed to halogenated inhalational anaesthetics and depolarizing muscle relaxants...
July 2017: Revista Portuguesa de Cirurgia Cardio-torácica e Vascular
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