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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548661/co-evolution-with-staphylococcus-aureus-leads-to-lipopolysaccharide-alterations-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#1
Mikael Tognon, Thilo Köhler, Bartosz G Gdaniec, Youai Hao, Joseph S Lam, Marie Beaume, Alexandre Luscher, Angus Buckling, Christian van Delden
Detrimental and beneficial interactions between co-colonizing bacteria may influence the course of infections. In cystic fibrosis (CF) airways, Staphylococcus aureus prevails in childhood, whereas Pseudomonas aeruginosa progressively predominates thereafter. While a range of interactions has been identified, it is unclear if these represent specific adaptations or correlated responses to other aspects of the environment. Here, we investigate how P. aeruginosa adapts to S. aureus by evolving P. aeruginosa in the presence and absence of S...
May 26, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546748/bronchiectasis-in-copd-patients-more-than-a-comorbidity
#2
Miguel Angel Martinez-Garcia, Marc Miravitlles
Computed tomography scan images have been used to identify different radiological COPD phenotypes based on the presence and severity of emphysema, bronchial wall thickening, and bronchiectasis. Bronchiectasis is defined as an abnormal dilation of the bronchi, usually as a result of chronic airway inflammation and/or infection. The prevalence of bronchiectasis in patients with COPD is high, especially in advanced stages. The identification of bronchiectasis in COPD has been defined as a different clinical COPD phenotype with greater symptomatic severity, more frequent chronic bronchial infection and exacerbations, and poor prognosis...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544679/sima-a-simplified-migration-assay-for-analyzing-neutrophil-migration
#3
Markus Weckmann, Tim Becker, Gyde Nissen, Martin Pech, Matthias V Kopp
In lung inflammation, neutrophils are the first leukocytes migrating to an inflammatory site, eliminating pathogens by multiple mechanisms. The term "migration" describes several stages of neutrophil movement to reach the site of inflammation, of which the passage of the interstitium and basal membrane of the airway are necessary to reach the site of bronchial inflammation. Currently, several methods exist (e.g., Boyden Chamber, under-agarose assay, or microfluidic systems) to assess neutrophil mobility. However, these methods do not allow for parameterization on single cell level, that is, the individual neutrophil pathway analysis is still considered challenging...
May 19, 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539439/contribution-of-human-lung-parenchyma-and-leukocyte-influx-to-oxidative-stress-and-immune-mediated-pathology-following-nipah-infection
#4
Olivier Escaffre, Tais B Saito, Terry L Juelich, Tetsuro Ikegami, Jennifer K Smith, David D Perez, Colm Atkins, Corri B Levine, Matthew B Huante, Rebecca J Nusbaum, Janice J Endsley, Alexander N Freiberg, Barry Rockx
Nipah virus (NiV) is a zoonotic emerging paramyxovirus that can cause a fatal respiratory illness or encephalitis in humans. Despite many efforts, the molecular mechanisms of NiV-induced acute lung injury (ALI) remain unclear. We previously showed that NiV replicates to high titers in human lung grafts in NOD scid gamma mice, resulting in a robust inflammatory response. Interestingly, these mice can undergo human immune system reconstitution by the Bone marrow, Liver, and Thymus (BLT) reconstitution method, in addition to lung tissue engraftment, giving altogether a realistic model to study human respiratory viral infections...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538077/monobloc-frontofacial-or-le-fort-iii-distraction-osteogenesis-in-syndromic-craniosynostosis-three-dimensional-evaluation-of-treatment-outcome-and-the-need-for-central-distraction
#5
Ching-Hsuan Hu, Chieh-Tsai Wu, Ellen Wen-Ching Ko, Philip Kuo-Ting Chen
BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to investigate the treatment effect, morphology, and volumetric outcomes of monobloc frontofacial or Le Fort III distraction osteogenesis in syndromic craniosynostosis by 3-dimensional evaluation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nine consecutive patients underwent monobloc frontofacial or Le Fort III distraction during 2003 to 2012 were included and evaluated. The patient's evaluation is a minimum of a 4-year follow-up. Pretreatment, post-treatment advancement, and relapse were quantified...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537249/airway-t-cells-protect-against-rsv-infection-in-the-absence-of-antibody
#6
E Kinnear, L Lambert, J U McDonald, H M Cheeseman, L J Caproni, J S Tregoning
Tissue resident memory T (Trm) cells act as sentinels and early responders to infection. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-specific Trm cells have been detected in the lungs after human RSV infection, but whether they have a protective role is unknown. To dissect the protective function of Trm cells, BALB/c mice were infected with RSV; infected mice developed antigen-specific CD8(+) Trm cells (CD103(+)/CD69(+)) in the lungs and airways. Intranasally transferring cells from the airways of previously infected animals to naïve animals reduced weight loss on infection in the recipient mice...
May 24, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536654/recent-advances-in-capsule-based-dry-powder-inhaler-technology
#7
REVIEW
Federico Lavorini, Massimo Pistolesi, Omar S Usmani
Pulmonary drug delivery is currently the focus of accelerated research and development because of the potential to produce maximum therapeutic benefit to patients by directly targeting drug to the site of pathology in the lungs. Among the available delivery options, the dry powder inhaler (DPI) is the preferred device for the treatment of an increasingly diverse range of diseases. However, because drug delivery from a DPI involves a complex interaction between the device and the patient, the engineering development of this medical technology is proving to be a great challenge...
2017: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533934/mortality-outcomes-in-trauma-patients-undergoing-prehospital-red-blood-cell-transfusion-a-systematic-literature-review
#8
REVIEW
Gregory S Huang, C Michael Dunham
The value of prehospital red blood cell (RBC) transfusion for trauma patients is controversial. The purposes of this literature review were to determine the mortality rate of trauma patients with hemodynamic instability and the benefit of prehospital RBC transfusion. A 30-year systematic literature review was performed in 2016. Eligible studies were combined for meta-analysis when tests for heterogeneity were insignificant. The synthesized mortality was 35.6% for systolic blood pressure ≤ 90 mmHg; 51.1% for ≤ 80 mmHg; and 63...
2017: International Journal of Burns and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528730/sir-charles-bell-unheralded-laryngologist
#9
Elliot Abemayor
INTRODUCTION: Sir Charles Bell is renowned and revered as an outstanding surgeon, anatomist, clinician and teacher and his many contributions to various medical fields have been amply described. What are less well-known are his contributions to the field of laryngology. METHODS: Selected clinical and physiological publications by Bell were examined that addressed issues related specifically to the airway or pharynx. These included both case reports and case series...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513831/avoidance-versus-use-of-neuromuscular-blocking-agents-for-improving-conditions-during-tracheal-intubation-or-direct-laryngoscopy-in-adults-and-adolescents
#10
REVIEW
Lars H Lundstrøm, Christophe Hv Duez, Anders K Nørskov, Charlotte V Rosenstock, Jakob L Thomsen, Ann Merete Møller, Søren Strande, Jørn Wetterslev
BACKGROUND: Tracheal intubation during induction of general anaesthesia is a vital procedure performed to secure a patient's airway. Several studies have identified difficult tracheal intubation (DTI) or failed tracheal intubation as one of the major contributors to anaesthesia-related mortality and morbidity. Use of neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBA) to facilitate tracheal intubation is a widely accepted practice. However, because of adverse effects, NMBA may be undesirable. Cohort studies have indicated that avoiding NMBA is an independent risk factor for difficult and failed tracheal intubation...
May 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513596/an-innate-defense-peptide-bpifa1-splunc1-restricts-influenza-a-virus-infection
#11
K M Akram, N A Moyo, G H Leeming, L Bingle, S Jasim, S Hussain, A Schorlemmer, A Kipar, P Digard, R A Tripp, R V Shohet, C D Bingle, J P Stewart
The airway epithelium secretes proteins that function in innate defense against infection. Bactericidal/permeability-increasing fold-containing family member A1 (BPIFA1) is secreted into airways and has a protective role during bacterial infections, but it is not known whether it also has an antiviral role. To determine a role in host defense against influenza A virus (IAV) infection and to find the underlying defense mechanism, we developed transgenic mouse models that are deficient in BPIFA1 and used these, in combination with in vitro three-dimensional mouse tracheal epithelial cell (mTEC) cultures, to investigate its antiviral properties...
May 17, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513594/regionally-compartmentalized-resident-memory-t-cells-mediate-naturally-acquired-protection-against-pneumococcal-pneumonia
#12
N Ms Smith, G A Wasserman, F T Coleman, K L Hilliard, K Yamamoto, E Lipsitz, R Malley, H Dooms, M R Jones, L J Quinton, J P Mizgerd
As children age, they become less susceptible to the diverse microbes causing pneumonia. These microbes are pathobionts that infect the respiratory tract multiple times during childhood, generating immunological memory. To elucidate mechanisms of such naturally acquired immune protection against pneumonia, we modeled a relevant immunological history in mice by infecting their airways with mismatched serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus). Previous pneumococcal infections provided protection against a heterotypic, highly virulent pneumococcus, as evidenced by reduced bacterial burdens and long-term sterilizing immunity...
May 17, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511807/does-the-novel-lateral-trauma-position-cause-more-motion-in-an-unstable-cervical-spine-injury-than-the-logroll-maneuver
#13
Per Kristian Hyldmo, MaryBeth Horodyski, Bryan P Conrad, Sindre Aslaksen, Jo Røislien, Mark Prasarn, Glenn R Rechtine, Eldar Søreide
OBJECTIVE: Prehospital personnel who lack advanced airway management training must rely on basic techniques when transporting unconscious trauma patients. The supine position is associated with a loss of airway patency when compared to lateral recumbent positions. Thus, an inherent conflict exists between securing an open airway using the recovery position and maintaining spinal immobilization in the supine position. The lateral trauma position is a novel technique that aims to combine airway management with spinal precautions...
May 8, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509774/the-role-of-the-anaesthesiologist-in-air-ambulance-medicine
#14
Stephen J M Sollid, Marius Rehn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The care administered on air ambulances has become increasing complex. This has led to a discussion among experts as to whether air ambulance travel should be manned by physicians. This review provides evidence in support of anaesthesiologists being the physician-leaders in air ambulance medicine, because of their training in advanced airway management, critical care, and resuscitation. RECENT FINDINGS: Successful prehospital care requires the ability to perform a complex set of advanced diagnostics and interventions...
May 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506358/-research-advances-in-noninvasive-high-frequency-oscillatory-ventilation-in-neonates
#15
Jia Huang, Lin Yuan, Chao Chen
Noninvasive ventilation is an important respiratory management technique for the treatment of mild or moderate respiratory failure in the neonatal intensive care unit. Its reasonable application can effectively avoid the use of invasive ventilation and related complications. Recent studies have found that noninvasive high-frequency oscillatory ventilation has the advantages of both nasal continuous positive airway pressure and high-frequency ventilation and can rapidly improve oxygenation, effectively remove carbon dioxide, and improve respiratory failure...
May 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504992/trends-in-perioperative-practice-and-resource-utilization-in-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea-undergoing-joint-arthroplasty
#16
Crispiana Cozowicz, Jashvant Poeran, Ashley Olson, Madhu Mazumdar, Eva E Mörwald, Stavros G Memtsoudis
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence associating obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with adverse perioperative outcomes has recently heightened the level of awareness among perioperative physicians. In particular, estimates projecting the high prevalence of this condition in the surgical population highlight the necessity of the development and adherence to "best clinical practices." In this context, a number of expert panels have generated recommendations in an effort to provide guidance for perioperative decision-making...
May 11, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502841/use-of-airway-epithelial-cell-culture-to-unravel-the-pathogenesis-and-study-treatment-in-obstructive-airway-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Tinne C J Mertens, Harry Karmouty-Quintana, Christian Taube, Pieter S Hiemstra
Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are considered as two distinct obstructive diseases. Both chronic diseases share a component of airway epithelial dysfunction. The airway epithelium is localized to deal with inhaled substances, and functions as a barrier preventing penetration of such substances into the body. In addition, the epithelium is involved in the regulation of both innate and adaptive immune responses following inhalation of particles, allergens and pathogens. Through triggering and inducing immune responses, airway epithelial cells contribute to the pathogenesis of both asthma and COPD...
May 11, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500875/upper-airway-changes-after-mandibular-setback-and-or-advancement-genioplasty-in-obese-patients
#18
Wen Du, Dongming He, Yiyao Wang, Hanghang Liu, Chuhang Liao, Wei Fei, En Luo
PURPOSE: Orthognathic surgeries, such as bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy (BSSO) and genioplasty, can influence the pharyngeal airway space (PAS) and this has been supported by previous studies. The purpose of this study was to assess changes of the PAS in patients with a high body mass index (BMI) likely to have narrow airways before and after setback BSSO with or without advancement genioplasty surgery by 3-dimensional computed tomography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-five adults with a BMI of at least 24...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495415/rhinovirus-from-bench-to-bedside
#19
REVIEW
Kelvin K W To, Cyril C Y Yip, Kwok-Yung Yuen
Rhinovirus has been neglected in the past because it was generally perceived as a respiratory virus only capable of causing mild common cold. Contemporary epidemiological studies using molecular assays have shown that rhinovirus is frequently detected in adult and pediatric patients with upper or lower respiratory tract infections. Severe pulmonary and extrapulmonary complications are increasingly recognized. Contrary to popular belief, some rhinoviruses can actually replicate well at 37 °C and infect the lower airway in humans...
May 8, 2017: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494887/preoperative-risk-stratification-of-critically-ill-patients
#20
Curtis C Copeland, Andrew Young, Tristan Grogan, Eilon Gabel, Anahat Dhillon, Vadim Gudzenko
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Risk assessment historically emphasized cardiac morbidity and mortality in elective, outpatient, non-cardiac surgery. However, critically ill patients increasingly present for therapeutic interventions. Our study investigated the relationship of American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class, revised cardiac risk index (RCRI), and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score with survival to discharge in critically ill patients with respiratory failure. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort analysis over a 21-month period...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
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