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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685993/osteoblast-differentiation-of-equine-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#1
Arabella Baird, Timothy Lindsay, Alice Everett, Valentine Iyemere, Yasmin Z Paterson, Alyce McClellan, Frances M D Henson, Deborah J Guest
Bone fractures occur in horses following traumatic and non-traumatic (bone overloading) events. They can be difficult to treat due to the need for the horse to bear weight on all legs during the healing period. Regenerative medicine to improve fracture union and recovery could significantly improve horse welfare.Equine induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have previously been derived. Here we show that equine iPSCs cultured for 21 days in osteogenic induction media on an OsteoAssay surface upregulate the expression of osteoblast associated genes and proteins, including COL1A1 , SPARC , SPP1 , IBSP , RUNX2 and BGALP We also demonstrate that iPSC-osteoblasts are able to produce a mineralised matrix with both calcium and hydroxyapatite deposition...
April 23, 2018: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618647/identification-of-the-rna-pseudoknot-within-the-3-end-of-prrsv-genome-as-pathogen-associated-molecular-pattern-to-activate-antiviral-signaling-via-rig-i-and-tlr3
#2
Sha Xie, Xin-Xin Chen, Songlin Qiao, Rui Li, Yangang Sun, Shuangfei Xia, Lin-Jian Wang, Xuegang Luo, Ruiguang Deng, En-Min Zhou, Gai-Ping Zhang
Once infected by viruses, cells can detect pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) on viral nucleic acid by host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to initiate the antiviral response. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the causative agent of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), characterized by reproductive failure in sows and respiratory diseases in pigs of different ages. To date, the sensing mechanism of PRRSV has not been elucidated. Here, we reported that the pseudoknot region residing in the 3' untranslated regions (UTR) of PRRSV genome, which has been proposed to regulate RNA synthesis and virus replication, was sensed as non-self by retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and Toll like receptor (TLR3) and strongly induced type I IFNs and interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs)...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615127/inflammatory-licensed-equine-mscs-are-chondroprotective-and-exhibit-enhanced-immunomodulation-in-an-inflammatory-environment
#3
Jennifer M Cassano, Lauren V Schnabel, Margaret B Goodale, Lisa A Fortier
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory licensed mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the ability to promote functional tissue repair. This study specifically sought to understand how the recipient tissue environment reciprocally affects MSC function. Inflammatory polarized macrophages, modeling an injured tissue environment, were exposed to licensed MSCs, and the resultant effects of MSC immunomodulation and functionality of the MSC secretome on chondrocyte homeostasis were studied. METHODS: Inflammatory licensed MSCs were generated through priming with either IFN-γ or polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C)...
April 3, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608232/cytokine-induced-interleukin-1-receptor-antagonist-protein-expression-in-genetically-engineered-equine-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-osteoarthritis-treatment
#4
Simone Gabner, Reinhard Ertl, Karsten Velde, Matthias Renner, Florien Jenner, Monika Egerbacher, Juraj Hlavaty
BACKGROUND: A combination of tissue engineering methods employing MSCs together with gene transfer takes the advantage of both innovative strategies and highlights a new approach to target osteoarthritis (OA) and other cartilage defects. Furthermore, the development of systems allowing tunable transgene expression, regulated by natural disease-induced substances is highly desirable. METHODS: Bone marrow-derived equine MSCs were transduced with a lentiviral vector expressing interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) gene under control of an inducible NFkB-responsive promoter and the IL-1Ra production upon pro-inflammatory cytokine stimulation (TNFα, IL-1β) was analysed...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Gene Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601969/concepts-and-challenges-in-the-use-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-as-a-treatment-for-cartilage-damage-in-the-horse
#5
REVIEW
Mohammed Zayed, Steve Adair, Tena Ursini, James Schumacher, Nabil Misk, Madhu Dhar
Osteoarthritis (OA), the most common form of joint disease affecting humans and horses, is characterized by the advance and decline of cartilage and loss of function of the affected joint. The progression of OA is steadily accompanied with biochemical events, which interfere with the cytokines and proteolytic enzymes responsible for progress of the disease. Recently, regenerative therapies have been used with an assumption that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess the potential to prevent the advancement of cartilage damage and potentially regenerate the injured tissue with an ultimate goal of preventing OA...
March 20, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587733/culture-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-derived-from-equine-synovial-membrane-in-alginate-hydrogel-microcapsules
#6
Vitor Hugo Santos, João Pedro Hübbe Pfeifer, Jaqueline Brandão de Souza, Betsabéia Heloisa Gentilha Milani, Rogério Antonio de Oliveira, Marjorie Golim Assis, Elenice Deffune, Andrei Moroz, Ana Liz Garcia Alves
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 27, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566772/platelet-lysate-as-a-novel-serum-free-media-supplement-for-the-culture-of-equine-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#7
Maria C Naskou, Scarlett M Sumner, Anna Chocallo, Hannah Kemelmakher, Merrilee Thoresen, Ian Copland, Jacques Galipeau, John F Peroni
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) produced for clinical purposes rely on culture media containing fetal bovine serum (FBS) which is xenogeneic and has the potential to significantly alter the MSC phenotype, rendering these cells immunogenic. As a result of bovine-derived exogenous proteins expressed on the cell surface, MSCs may be recognized by the host immune system as non-self and be rejected. Platelet lysate (PL) may obviate some of these concerns and shows promising results in human medicine as a possible alternative to FBS...
March 22, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562867/cortical-neurons-derived-from-equine-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-are-susceptible-to-neurotropic-flavivirus-infection-and-replication-an-in-vitro-model-for-equine-neuropathic-diseases
#8
Patrick R J Fortuna, Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Dmitry A Ovchinnikov, Ernst Jurgen Wolvetang, Deanne Jeanette Whitworth
Horses are susceptible to a number of neurotropic viruses, including West Nile virus (WNV), which is a pathogen of global significance in both horses and humans. However, there are no in vitro models with which to study infectious neuropathic diseases in the horse. In an effort to redress this we have generated neurons from equine induced pluripotent stem cells (equiPSCs) that express a range of cortical neuron-specific markers, in addition to the membrane-bound ligand Ephrin B3, which plays an important role in axon guidance as well as functioning as the receptor through which henipaviruses, such as Hendra virus, enter mammalian neurons...
March 21, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535784/stem-cells-for-cartilage-repair-preclinical-studies-and-insights-in-translational-animal-models-and-outcome-measures
#9
REVIEW
Melissa Lo Monaco, Greet Merckx, Jessica Ratajczak, Pascal Gervois, Petra Hilkens, Peter Clegg, Annelies Bronckaers, Jean-Michel Vandeweerd, Ivo Lambrichts
Due to the restricted intrinsic capacity of resident chondrocytes to regenerate the lost cartilage postinjury, stem cell-based therapies have been proposed as a novel therapeutic approach for cartilage repair. Moreover, stem cell-based therapies using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been used successfully in preclinical and clinical settings. Despite these promising reports, the exact mechanisms underlying stem cell-mediated cartilage repair remain uncertain. Stem cells can contribute to cartilage repair via chondrogenic differentiation, via immunomodulation, or by the production of paracrine factors and extracellular vesicles...
2018: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508214/wharton-s-jelly-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-comparing-human-and-horse
#10
Barbara Merlo, Gabriella Teti, Eleonora Mazzotti, Laura Ingrà, Viviana Salvatore, Marina Buzzi, Giorgia Cerqueni, Manuela Dicarlo, Aliai Lanci, Carolina Castagnetti, Eleonora Iacono
Wharton's jelly (WJ) is an important source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) both in human and other animals. The aim of this study was to compare human and equine WJMSCs. Human and equine WJMSCs were isolated and cultured using the same protocols and culture media. Cells were characterized by analysing morphology, growth rate, migration and adhesion capability, immunophenotype, differentiation potential and ultrastructure. Results showed that human and equine WJMSCs have similar ultrastructural details connected with intense synthetic and metabolic activity, but differ in growth, migration, adhesion capability and differentiation potential...
March 5, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485180/progenitor-cells-in-auricular-cartilage-demonstrate-cartilage-forming-capacity-in-3d-hydrogel-culture
#11
I A Otto, R Levato, W R Webb, I M Khan, C C Breugem, J Malda
Paramount for the generation of auricular structures of clinically-relevant size is the acquisition of a large number of cells maintaining an elastic cartilage phenotype, which is the key in producing a tissue capable of withstanding forces subjected to the auricle. Current regenerative medicine strategies utilize chondrocytes from various locations or mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). However, the quality of neo-tissues resulting from these cell types is inadequate due to inefficient chondrogenic differentiation and endochondral ossification, respectively...
February 27, 2018: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478385/a-comparison-of-bone-marrow-and-cord-blood-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-cartilage-self-assembly
#12
Jamie Lynn White, Naomi J Walker, Jerry C Hu, Dori Borjesson, Kyriacos A Athanasiou
Joint injury is a common cause of premature retirement for the human and equine athlete alike. Implantation of engineered cartilage offers the potential to increase the success rate of surgical intervention and hasten recovery times. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a particularly attractive cell source for cartilage engineering. While bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) have been most extensively characterized for musculoskeletal tissue engineering, studies suggest cord blood MSCs (CB-MSCs) may elicit a more robust chondrogenic phenotype...
February 25, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454522/genetic-and-subunit-vaccines-based-on-the-stem-domain-of-the-equine-influenza-hemagglutinin-provide-homosubtypic-protection-against-heterologous-strains
#13
Lorena Itatí Ibañez, Cecilia Andrea Caldevilla, Yesica Paredes Rojas, Nora Mattion
H3N8 influenza virus strains have been associated with infectious disease in equine populations throughout the world. Although current vaccines for equine influenza stimulate a protective humoral immune response against the surface glycoproteins, disease in vaccinated horses has been frequently reported, probably due to poor induction of cross-reactive antibodies against non-matching strains. This work describes the performance of a recombinant protein vaccine expressed in prokaryotic cells (ΔHAp) and of a genetic vaccine (ΔHAe), both based on the conserved stem region of influenza hemagglutinin (HA) derived from A/equine/Argentina/1/93 (H3N8) virus...
February 15, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439436/chondrogenic-differentiation-of-defined-equine-mesenchymal-stem-cells-derived-from-umbilical-cord-blood-for-use-in-cartilage-repair-therapy
#14
Mélanie Desancé, Romain Contentin, Lélia Bertoni, Tangni Gomez-Leduc, Thomas Branly, Sandrine Jacquet, Jean-Marc Betsch, Agnès Batho, Florence Legendre, Fabrice Audigié, Philippe Galéra, Magali Demoor
Cartilage engineering is a new strategy for the treatment of cartilage damage due to osteoarthritis or trauma in humans. Racehorses are exposed to the same type of cartilage damage and the anatomical, cellular, and biochemical properties of their cartilage are comparable to those of human cartilage, making the horse an excellent model for the development of cartilage engineering. Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiated into chondrocytes with chondrogenic factors in a biomaterial appears to be a promising therapeutic approach for direct implantation and cartilage repair...
February 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421480/advanced-nutritional-and-stem-cells-approaches-to-prevent-equine-metabolic-syndrome
#15
REVIEW
Krzysztof Marycz, Izabela Michalak, Katarzyna Kornicka
Horses metabolic disorders have become an important problem of modern veterinary medicine. Pathological obesity, insulin resistance and predisposition toward laminitis are associated with Equine Metabolic Syndrome (EMS). Based on pathogenesis of EMS, dietary and cell therapy management may significantly reduce development of that disorder. Special attention has been paid to the diet supplementation with high bioavailability minerals and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) which increase insulin sensitivity. In nutrition, there is a great interests in natural algae enriched in biosorption process with micro and macroelements...
January 31, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389887/improvement-of-the-chondrocyte-specific-phenotype-upon-equine-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cell-differentiation-influence-of-culture-time-transforming-growth-factors-and-type-i-collagen-sirnas-on-the-differentiation-index
#16
Thomas Branly, Romain Contentin, Mélanie Desancé, Thibaud Jacquel, Lélia Bertoni, Sandrine Jacquet, Frédéric Mallein-Gerin, Jean-Marie Denoix, Fabrice Audigié, Magali Demoor, Philippe Galéra
Articular cartilage is a tissue characterized by its poor intrinsic capacity for self-repair. This tissue is frequently altered upon trauma or in osteoarthritis (OA), a degenerative disease that is currently incurable. Similar musculoskeletal disorders also affect horses and OA incurs considerable economic loss for the equine sector. In the view to develop new therapies for humans and horses, significant progress in tissue engineering has led to the emergence of new generations of cartilage therapy. Matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte implantation is an advanced 3D cell-based therapy that holds promise for cartilage repair...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342064/minimally-manipulated-bone-marrow-concentrate-compared-with-microfracture-treatment-of-full-thickness-chondral-defects-a-one-year-study-in-an-equine-model
#17
Constance R Chu, Lisa A Fortier, Ashley Williams, Karin A Payne, Taralyn M McCarrel, Megan E Bowers, Diego Jaramillo
BACKGROUND: Microfracture is commonly performed for cartilage repair but usually results in fibrocartilage. Microfracture augmented by autologous bone marrow concentrate (BMC) was previously shown to yield structurally superior cartilage repairs in an equine model compared with microfracture alone. The current study was performed to test the hypothesis that autologous BMC without concomitant microfracture improves cartilage repair compared with microfracture alone. METHODS: Autologous sternal bone marrow aspirate (BMA) was concentrated using a commercial system...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329028/equine-allogeneic-chondrogenic-induced-mesenchymal-stem-cells-a-gcp-target-animal-safety-and-biodistribution-study
#18
S Y Broeckx, J H Spaas, K Chiers, L Duchateau, L Van Hecke, L Van Brantegem, M Dumoulin, A M Martens, F Pille
The safety of the intra-articular use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is scarcely reported. Therefore, the goal of this study was to investigate the safety of a single intra-articular injection with allogeneic chondrogenic induced MSCs combined with equine plasma (=the investigational product: IVP) compared to a saline (0.9% NaCl) placebo control (=control product: CP). Sixteen healthy experimental horses were randomly assigned to receive a single intra-articular injection with either the IVP (n=8) or the CP (n=8) in the left metacarpophalangeal joint...
April 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287161/evaluation-of-equine-synovial-derived-extracellular-matrix-scaffolds-seeded-with-equine-synovial-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#19
Nathalie A Reisbig, Hayam A Hussein, Erin Pinnell, Alicia L Bertone
OBJECTIVE To create a bioactive synovium scaffold by infusing decellularized synovial-derived extracellular matrix (synECM) with synovial-derived mesenchymal stem cells (synMSCs). SAMPLE Synovium from the femoropatellar and medial femorotibial joints of equine cadavers. PROCEDURES The synMSCs were cultured in monolayer and not treated or cotransduced to enhance expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and human bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2. The synECM was decellularized with 0.1% peracetic acid and then seeded with synMSCs (0...
January 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249319/innate-immune-responses-of-equine-monocytes-cultured-in-equine-platelet-lysate
#20
Maria C Naskou, Natalie A Norton, Ian B Copland, Jacques Galipeau, John F Peroni
Platelet lysate (PL) has been extensively used for the laboratory expansion of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in order to avoid fetal bovine serum (FBS) which has been associated with immune-mediated host reactions and transmission of bovine-origin microbial contaminants. Before suggesting the routine use of PL for MSC culture, we wanted to further investigate whether PL alone might trigger inflammatory responses when exposed to reactive white blood cells such as monocytes. Our objectives were to evaluate the inflammatory profile of equine monocytes cultured with equine PL (ePL) and to determine if ePL can modulate the expression of inflammatory cytokines in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated monocytes...
January 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
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