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equine tendon

Riccardo Paolo Lia, Yasen Mutafchiev, Vincenzo Veneziano, Alessio Giannelli, Francesca Abramo, Mario Santoro, Maria Stefania Latrofa, Cinzia Cantacessi, Coralie Martin, Domenico Otranto, Andrea Bertuglia, Barbara Riccio
Equids can be infected by a range of skin-dwelling filarial nematodes, including four species of the genus Onchocerca. Current literature on equine onchocercosis is fragmentary and often limited to isolated case reports. The present study aimed to describe a clinical case of equine onchocercosis caused by Onchocerca boehmi (Supperer, 1953) (syn. Elaeophora boehmi) in an 8-year-old gelding Belgian show jumper from northern Italy. The horse was presented with a firm and painless mass on the proximal third of the right metacarpal region...
October 19, 2016: Parasitology Research
Alexandra Scharf, Shannon P Holmes, Merrilee Thoresen, Jennifer Mumaw, Alaina Stumpf, John Peroni
Ultrasound-guided intralesional injection of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is held as the benchmark for cell delivery in tendonitis. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the immediate cell distribution following intralesional injection of MSCs. Unilateral superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) lesions were created in the forelimb of six horses and injected with 10 × 10(6) MSCs labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs) under ultrasound guidance. Assays were performed to confirm that there were no significant changes in cell viability, proliferation, migration, or trilineage differentiation due to the presence of SPIOs...
2016: Stem Cells International
E R Garvican, M Salavati, R K W Smith, J Dudhia
AIM: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of normal synovial fluid (SF) on exposed endogenous tendon-derived cells (TDC) and engrafted mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) within the tendon extracellular matrix. METHODS: Explants from equine superficial digital flexor (extra-synovial) and deep digital flexor tendons (DDFT) from the compressed, intra-synovial and the tensile, extra-synovial regions were cultured in allogeneic or autologous SF-media. Human hamstring explants were cultured in allogeneic SF...
October 11, 2016: Connective Tissue Research
Mathieu Spriet, Pablo Espinosa, Andre Z Kyme, Pavel Stepanov, Val Zavarzin, Stephen Schaeffer, Scott A Katzman, Larry D Galuppo, David Beylin
Positron emission tomography (PET) is a highly sensitive, noninvasive imaging technique for quantifying biological functions of tissues. However, at the time of this study, PET imaging applications had not been reported in the horse. The aim of this exploratory study was to determine whether a portable high-resolution PET scanner could be used to image the equine distal limb. Images of the front feet and fetlocks of three research horses, with known lesions localized to the distal front limbs, were acquired under general anesthesia after administration of (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18) F-FDG), with doses ranging from 1...
October 4, 2016: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
Janina Burk, Amelie Plenge, Walter Brehm, Sandra Heller, Bastian Pfeiffer, Cornelia Kasper
Tendon and ligament pathologies are still a therapeutic challenge, due to the difficulty in restoring the complex extracellular matrix architecture and biomechanical strength. While progress is being made in cell-based therapies and tissue engineering approaches, comprehensive understanding of the fate of progenitor cells in tendon healing is still lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of decellularized tendon matrix and moderate cyclic stretching as natural stimuli which could potentially direct tenogenic fate...
2016: Stem Cells International
William K Grier, Ehiremen M Iyoha, Brendan A C Harley
Orthopedic injuries, particularly those involving tendons and ligaments, are some of the most commonly treated musculoskeletal ailments, but are associated with high costs and poor outcomes. A significant barrier in the design of biomaterials for tendon tissue engineering is the rapid de-differentiation observed for primary tenocytes once removed from the tendon body. Herein, we evaluate the use of an anisotropic collagen-glycosaminoglycan (CG) scaffold as a tendon regeneration platform. We report the effects of structural properties of the scaffold (pore size, collagen fiber crosslinking density) on resultant tenocyte bioactivity, viability, and gene expression...
August 29, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Florian Geburek, Moritz Gaus, Hans T M van Schie, Karl Rohn, Peter M Stadler
BACKGROUND: Regenerative and anti-inflammatory effects on tendinopathies have been attributed to blood-derived biologicals. To date the evidence for the efficacy of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) treatment of naturally occurring equine tendinopathies is limited. The purpose of this placebo-controlled clinical trial was to describe the effect of a single treatment of equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) disease with PRP on clinical and ultrasonographic parameters. Twenty horses with naturally occurring tendinopathies of forelimb SDFTs were randomly assigned to the PRP-treated group (n = 10) or control group (n = 10) after clinical and ultrasonographic examination...
2016: BMC Veterinary Research
Katja F Duesterdieck-Zellmer, Maureen K Larson, Thomas K Plant, Andrea Sundholm-Tepper, Mark E Payton
OBJECTIVE To measure penetration efficiencies of low-level laser light energy through equine skin and to determine the fraction of laser energy absorbed by equine digital flexor tendons (superficial [SDFT] and deep [DDFT]). SAMPLE Samples of skin, SDFTs, and DDFTs from 1 metacarpal area of each of 19 equine cadavers. PROCEDURES A therapeutic laser with wavelength capabilities of 800 and 970 nm was used. The percentage of energy penetration for each wavelength was determined through skin before and after clipping and then shaving of hair, through shaved skin over SDFTs, and through shaved skin, SDFTs, and DDFTs (positioned in anatomically correct orientation)...
September 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Daria L DiGiovanni, Nathalie Rademacher, Laura M Riggs, Rebecca A Baumruck, Lorrie Gaschen
Palmar/plantar annular desmitis is a common disease that may be associated with adhesions and structures affecting the flexor tendons, which requires tenoscopy to diagnose. The purpose of this descriptive study was to develop a dynamic sonographic technique for evaluating the motion of normal equine flexor tendons in relation to the palmar/plantar annular ligament and to compare findings with horses previously diagnosed with palmar/plantar annular desmitis. Ten healthy adult horses were examined prospectively and the images of four horses diagnosed with palmar/plantar annular desmitis were retrospectively evaluated...
August 26, 2016: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
A Jiménez-Martín, F J Santos-Yubero, F J Najarro-Cid, S Navarro-Martínez, M Zurera-Carmona, S Pérez-Hidalgo
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Rotator cuff re-ruptures appear in 38-65% of cases. In order to reduce this rate, many studies have been performed using different types of biomaterial for purely mechanical aims (re-inforce the suture) and/or biological agents (growth factor transporterts). The aim of this study is to review 22 cases treated with xenografts and analyse various current alternatives. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A descriptive and retrospective study was conducted using the variables of age, sex, laterality, time of surgery, involvement in MRI, number of anchors, and final mobility results on the Constant and the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) validated scales...
September 2016: Revista Española de Cirugía Ortopédica y Traumatología
Sharath Sundararaj, Paul Slusarewicz, Matt Brown, Thomas Hedman
The most common mode of surgical repair of ruptured tendons and ligaments involves the use of sutures for reattachment. However, there is a high incidence of rerupture and repair failure due to pulling out of the suture material from the damaged connective tissue. The main goal of this research was to achieve a localized delivery of crosslinking agent genipin (GP) from rapid-release biodegradable coatings on sutures, for strengthening the repair of ruptured connective tissue. Our hypothesis is that GP released from the suture coating will lead to exogenous crosslinking of native connective tissue resulting in beneficial effects on clinically relevant mechanical parameters such as tear resistance, tissue strength, and energy required to rupture the tissue (toughness)...
July 19, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Sushmitha Durgam, Brooke Schuster, Anna Cymerman, Allison Stewart, Matthew Stewart
Preplating, a technique used to separate rapidly adherent fibroblasts from the less-adherent progenitor cells, has been used successfully to isolate skeletal muscle-derived stem cells. The objective of this study was to determine if preplating could also be applied to enrich tendon-derived progenitor cells (TDPCs) before monolayer expansion. Cell suspensions obtained by collagenase digestion of equine lateral digital extensor tendon were serially transferred into adherent plates every 12 h for 4 days. TDPC fractions obtained from initial (TPP0), third (TPP3), and seventh (TPP7) preplate were passaged twice and used for subsequent analyses...
August 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
E D Aldrich, L R Goodrich, M K Monahan, J D Conway, A Valdés-Martínez
BACKGROUND: Injury to the tendons and ligaments of the equine stifle is a common cause of lameness in horses. Individual radiographic localisation of each tendon and ligament of the stifle has not been previously reported and demonstrated in multiple radiographic projections. OBJECTIVE: To create a series of radiographs identifying the origins and/or insertions of the tendons and ligaments of the equine stifle. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive study of radiographic anatomy...
July 10, 2016: Equine Veterinary Journal
Janina Burk, Dagmar Berner, Walter Brehm, Aline Hillmann, Carolin Horstmeier, Christoph Josten, Felicitas Paebst, Giacomo Rossi, Susanna Schubert, Annette B Ahrberg
Tendon disease has been treated with multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) in the equine large animal model with promising success. The aim of this study was to gain more insight into the fate and biodistribution of MSC after local application into tendon lesions by long term cell tracking in this large animal model. Superficial digital flexor tendon lesions were induced in all limbs in 6 horses and injected with 10x10(6) Molday ION Rhodamine B(TM)-labeled MSC suspended in serum or serum alone. Follow-up was performed using low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), flow cytometry and histology...
July 7, 2016: Cell Transplantation
M Bottagisio, A F Pellegata, F Boschetti, M Ferroni, M Moretti, A B Lovati
Tendon ruptures and/or large losses remain to be a great clinical challenge and often require full replacement of the damaged tissue. The use of auto- and allografts or engineered scaffolds is an established approach to restore severe tendon injuries. However, these grafts are commonly related to scarce biocompatibility, site morbidity, chronic inflammation and poor biomechanical properties. Recently, the decellularisation techniques of allo- or xenografts using specific detergents have been studied and have been found to generate biocompatible substitutes that resemble the native tissue...
2016: European Cells & Materials
D J Griffon, J Cho, J R Wagner, C Charavaryamath, J Wei, A Wagoner Johnson
Chitosan opens new perspectives in regenerative medicine as it enhances the properties of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) through formation of spheroids. Hypoxia has also been proposed to enhance stemness and survival of MSCs after in vivo implantation. These characteristics are relevant to the development of an off-the-shelf source of allogenic cells for regenerative therapy of tendinopathies. Umbilical cord-derived MSCs (UCM-MSCs) offer an abundant source of immature and immunoprivileged stem cells. In this study, equine UCM-MSCs (eqUCM-MSCs) conditioned for 3 and 7 days on chitosan films at 5% oxygen were compared to eqUCM-MSCs under standard conditions...
2016: Stem Cells International
Rachel K Choi, Margaret M Smith, Joshua H Martin, Jillian L Clarke, Andrew J Dart, Christopher B Little, Elizabeth C Clarke
Both mechanical and structural properties of tendon change after injury however the causal relationship between these properties is presently unclear. This study aimed to determine the extent of biomechanical change in post-injury tendon pathology and whether the sulphated glycosaminoglycans (glycosaminoglycans) present are a causal factor in these changes. Equine superficial digital flexor tendons (SDF tendons) were surgically-injured in vivo (n=6 injured, n=6 control). Six weeks later they were harvested and regionally dissected into twelve regions around the lesion (equal medial/lateral, proximal/distal)...
June 6, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
C J Bodaan, C B Riley, E Engeli
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the likelihood of successful arthrocentesis of the equine elbow joint using the caudolateral approach and to determine if the deep branch of the radial nerve (DBRN) varies in its proximity to the site of centesis. Methylene blue (MB) was injected into 71 elbow joint specimens immediately caudal to the lateral collateral ligament using a 3.8-cm needle advanced to its hub. The elbow joints were dissected, staining of the synovial structures assessed and the proximity of DBRN to the site of centesis evaluated...
August 13, 2016: Veterinary Record
Kaveh Haddadi, Hamid Reza Ganjeh Qazvini
Disk fragment relocation is commonly limited to the anterior epidural space, although posterior epidural movement of a sequestrated disk piece to the posterior epidural space is infrequent. We present an uncommon case of dorsal extradural sequestration of lumbar disk herniation. A 77-year-old man presented with severe leg pain, low back pain, and urinary incontinence. Deep tendon reflexes were inattentive at the knee and ankle, and the motor power in terms of ankle dorsiflexion and great toe dorsiflexion was 2/5 in both lower limbs...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Case Reports
R E Edmonds, E R Garvican, R K W Smith, J Dudhia
REASON FOR PERFORMING STUDY: To provide evidence to support recommendations regarding the co-administration of drugs with mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy. OBJECTIVES: To determine the influence of sedatives, local anaesthetic and corticosteroids on MSC viability and proliferation, in comparison to somatic cells derived from tendon (TDCs). STUDY DESIGN: In vitro cell culture. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MSCs (n = 3) and TDCs (n = 2) were cultured in media containing a clinically relevant dose range of xylazine, romifidine, detomidine and butorphanol, mepivacaine, methylprednisolone, or triamcinolone acetonide...
May 10, 2016: Equine Veterinary Journal
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