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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899062/scleraxis-is-essential-for-tendon-differentiation-by-equine-embryonic-stem-cells-and-in-equine-fetal-tenocytes
#1
Emma Bavin, Francesca Atkinson, Tom Barsby, Debbie Guest
The transcription factor scleraxis is required for tendon development and is upregulated during embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation into tenocytes. However, its role beyond early embryonic development is not defined. We utilised a short hairpin RNA to knockdown scleraxis expression in ESCs, adult and fetal tenocytes. No effect on growth or morphology was observed in 2D cultures. However, scleraxis knockdown in fetal tenocytes significantly reduced COL1A1, COMP and SOX9 gene expression. Scleraxis knockdown in adult tenocytes had no effect on the expression of these genes...
November 29, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898852/horse-species-symposium-biomechanics-of-the-exercising-horse
#2
Hilary M Clayton
In spite of having large height and body mass, horses are cursorial animals with an extensive gait repertoire and considerable athletic abilities. The limbs have evolved so that the heavy musculature is confined to the proximal limbs while the distal limbs are light in weight with a single functional digit and long, lightweight tendons to move and support the distal joints. These adaptations reduce the moment of inertia and decrease the energy expended to protract and retract the limbs during locomotion. There is a division of labor between the forelimbs, which have a pillar-like construction specialized for weight bearing, and the hind limbs, in which the more angulated joints provide leverage for the generation of propulsion...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881695/application-of-sonoelastography-for-evaluating-the-stiffness-of-equine-superficial-digital-flexor-tendon-during-healing
#3
N Tamura, T Kuroda, Y Kotoyori, K Fukuda, T Nukada, T Kato, A Kuwano, Y Kasashima
Sonoelastography can assess the inner stiffness of tissues. Sonoelastographic evaluation of injured equine superficial digital flexor tendons (SDFTs) is considered to be useful for assessing the stiffness of a lesion even during late-stage rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the sonoelastographic appearance of injured SDFTs over time from the onset of the injury. Eighteen horses were classified into three groups according to the length of time from injury onset: group A, within two weeks after injury; group B, approximately five months after injury; and group C, approximately nine months after injury...
November 23, 2016: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834918/identification-of-novel-equine-equus-caballus-tendon-markers-using-rna-sequencing
#4
Jan M Kuemmerle, Felix Theiss, Michal J Okoniewski, Fabienne A Weber, Sonja Hemmi, Ali Mirsaidi, Peter J Richards, Paolo Cinelli
Although several tendon-selective genes exist, they are also expressed in other musculoskeletal tissues. As cell and tissue engineering is reliant on specific molecular markers to discriminate between cell types, tendon-specific genes need to be identified. In order to accomplish this, we have used RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to compare gene expression between tendon, bone, cartilage and ligament from horses. We identified several tendon-selective gene markers, and established eyes absent homolog 2 (EYA2) and a G-protein regulated inducer of neurite outgrowth 3 (GPRIN3) as specific tendon markers using RT-qPCR...
November 10, 2016: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810203/magic-angle-effect-on-low-field-magnetic-resonance-images-in-the-superficial-digital-flexor-tendon-in-the-equine-proximal-pastern-region
#5
C E Sherlock, T S Mair
Recognition of artefacts is an essential component of the accurate interpretation of diagnostic images. This study aimed to investigate the presence of magic angle effect in the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) in the equine proximal pastern region. The proximal pastern of four cadaver limbs was imaged using a 0.27 Tesla magnet with high-resolution sequences that are commonly utilised in clinical equine practice. The limbs were imaged in a neutral position and positions that simulated the horse 'leaning in', 'leaning out' and having internal and external rotation of the distal limb...
November 2016: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793082/dwarfism-with-joint-laxity-in-friesian-horses-is-associated-with-a-splice-site-mutation-in-b4galt7
#6
Peter A Leegwater, Manon Vos-Loohuis, Bart J Ducro, Iris J Boegheim, Frank G van Steenbeek, Isaac J Nijman, Glen R Monroe, John W M Bastiaansen, Bert W Dibbits, Leanne H van de Goor, Ids Hellinga, Willem Back, Anouk Schurink
BACKGROUND: Inbreeding and population bottlenecks in the ancestry of Friesian horses has led to health issues such as dwarfism. The limbs of dwarfs are short and the ribs are protruding inwards at the costochondral junction, while the head and back appear normal. A striking feature of the condition is the flexor tendon laxity that leads to hyperextension of the fetlock joints. The growth plates of dwarfs display disorganized and thickened chondrocyte columns. The aim of this study was to identify the gene defect that causes the recessively inherited trait in Friesian horses to understand the disease process at the molecular level...
October 28, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761717/filarial-infection-caused-by-onchocerca-boehmi-supperer-1953-in-a-horse-from-italy
#7
Riccardo Paolo Lia, Yasen Mutafchiev, Vincenzo Veneziano, Alessio Giannelli, Francesca Abramo, Mario Santoro, Maria Stefania Latrofa, Cinzia Cantacessi, Coralie Martin, Domenico Otranto, Andrea Bertuglia, Barbara Riccio
Equids can be infected by a range of skin-dwelling filarial nematodes, including four species of the genus Onchocerca. Current literature on equine onchocercosis is fragmentary and often limited to isolated case reports. The present study aimed to describe a clinical case of equine onchocercosis caused by Onchocerca boehmi (Supperer, 1953) (syn. Elaeophora boehmi) in an 8-year-old gelding Belgian show jumper from northern Italy. The horse was presented with a firm and painless mass on the proximal third of the right metacarpal region...
October 19, 2016: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746821/mri-based-assessment-of-intralesional-delivery-of-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-a-model-of-equine-tendonitis
#8
Alexandra Scharf, Shannon P Holmes, Merrilee Thoresen, Jennifer Mumaw, Alaina Stumpf, John Peroni
Ultrasound-guided intralesional injection of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is held as the benchmark for cell delivery in tendonitis. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the immediate cell distribution following intralesional injection of MSCs. Unilateral superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) lesions were created in the forelimb of six horses and injected with 10 × 10(6) MSCs labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs) under ultrasound guidance. Assays were performed to confirm that there were no significant changes in cell viability, proliferation, migration, or trilineage differentiation due to the presence of SPIOs...
2016: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726447/exposure-of-a-tendon-extracellular-matrix-to-synovial-fluid-triggers-endogenous-and-engrafted-cell-death-a-mechanism-for-failed-healing-of-intrathecal-tendon-injuries
#9
Elaine R Garvican, Mazdak Salavati, Roger K W Smith, Jayesh Dudhia
AIM: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of normal synovial fluid (SF) on exposed endogenous tendon-derived cells (TDCs) and engrafted mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) within the tendon extracellular matrix. METHODS: Explants from equine superficial digital flexor (extra-synovial) and deep digital flexor tendons (DDFTs) from the compressed, intra-synovial and the tensile, extra-synovial regions were cultured in allogeneic or autologous SF-media...
October 11, 2016: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699910/positron-emission-tomography-of-the-equine-distal-limb-exploratory-study
#10
Mathieu Spriet, Pablo Espinosa, Andre Z Kyme, Pavel Stepanov, Val Zavarzin, Stephen Schaeffer, Scott A Katzman, Larry D Galuppo, David Beylin
Positron emission tomography (PET) is a highly sensitive, noninvasive imaging technique for quantifying biological functions of tissues. However, at the time of this study, PET imaging applications had not been reported in the horse. The aim of this exploratory study was to determine whether a portable high-resolution PET scanner could be used to image the equine distal limb. Images of the front feet and fetlocks of three research horses, with known lesions localized to the distal front limbs, were acquired under general anesthesia after administration of (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18) F-FDG), with doses ranging from 1...
October 4, 2016: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630718/induction-of-tenogenic-differentiation-mediated-by-extracellular-tendon-matrix-and-short-term-cyclic-stretching
#11
Janina Burk, Amelie Plenge, Walter Brehm, Sandra Heller, Bastian Pfeiffer, Cornelia Kasper
Tendon and ligament pathologies are still a therapeutic challenge, due to the difficulty in restoring the complex extracellular matrix architecture and biomechanical strength. While progress is being made in cell-based therapies and tissue engineering approaches, comprehensive understanding of the fate of progenitor cells in tendon healing is still lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of decellularized tendon matrix and moderate cyclic stretching as natural stimuli which could potentially direct tenogenic fate...
2016: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614271/the-influence-of-pore-size-and-stiffness-on-tenocyte-bioactivity-and-transcriptomic-stability-in-collagen-gag-scaffolds
#12
William K Grier, Ehiremen M Iyoha, Brendan A C Harley
Orthopedic injuries, particularly those involving tendons and ligaments, are some of the most commonly treated musculoskeletal ailments, but are associated with high costs and poor outcomes. A significant barrier in the design of biomaterials for tendon tissue engineering is the rapid de-differentiation observed for primary tenocytes once removed from the tendon body. Herein, we evaluate the use of an anisotropic collagen-glycosaminoglycan (CG) scaffold as a tendon regeneration platform. We report the effects of structural properties of the scaffold (pore size, collagen fiber crosslinking density) on resultant tenocyte bioactivity, viability, and gene expression...
August 29, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604193/effect-of-intralesional-platelet-rich-plasma-prp-treatment-on-clinical-and-ultrasonographic-parameters-in-equine-naturally-occurring-superficial-digital-flexor-tendinopathies-a-randomized-prospective-controlled-clinical-trial
#13
Florian Geburek, Moritz Gaus, Hans T M van Schie, Karl Rohn, Peter M Stadler
BACKGROUND: Regenerative and anti-inflammatory effects on tendinopathies have been attributed to blood-derived biologicals. To date the evidence for the efficacy of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) treatment of naturally occurring equine tendinopathies is limited. The purpose of this placebo-controlled clinical trial was to describe the effect of a single treatment of equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) disease with PRP on clinical and ultrasonographic parameters. Twenty horses with naturally occurring tendinopathies of forelimb SDFTs were randomly assigned to the PRP-treated group (n = 10) or control group (n = 10) after clinical and ultrasonographic examination...
2016: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27580111/ex-vivo-penetration-of-low-level-laser-light-through-equine-skin-and-flexor-tendons
#14
Katja F Duesterdieck-Zellmer, Maureen K Larson, Thomas K Plant, Andrea Sundholm-Tepper, Mark E Payton
OBJECTIVE To measure penetration efficiencies of low-level laser light energy through equine skin and to determine the fraction of laser energy absorbed by equine digital flexor tendons (superficial [SDFT] and deep [DDFT]). SAMPLE Samples of skin, SDFTs, and DDFTs from 1 metacarpal area of each of 19 equine cadavers. PROCEDURES A therapeutic laser with wavelength capabilities of 800 and 970 nm was used. The percentage of energy penetration for each wavelength was determined through skin before and after clipping and then shaving of hair, through shaved skin over SDFTs, and through shaved skin, SDFTs, and DDFTs (positioned in anatomically correct orientation)...
September 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27561594/dynamic-sonography-of-the-equine-metacarpo-tarso-phalangeal-digital-flexor-tendon-sheath
#15
Daria L DiGiovanni, Nathalie Rademacher, Laura M Riggs, Rebecca A Baumruck, Lorrie Gaschen
Palmar/plantar annular desmitis is a common disease that may be associated with adhesions and structures affecting the flexor tendons, which requires tenoscopy to diagnose. The purpose of this descriptive study was to develop a dynamic sonographic technique for evaluating the motion of normal equine flexor tendons in relation to the palmar/plantar annular ligament and to compare findings with horses previously diagnosed with palmar/plantar annular desmitis. Ten healthy adult horses were examined prospectively and the images of four horses diagnosed with palmar/plantar annular desmitis were retrospectively evaluated...
November 2016: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27453346/use-of-grafts-in-rotator-cuff-re-rupture
#16
A Jiménez-Martín, F J Santos-Yubero, F J Najarro-Cid, S Navarro-Martínez, M Zurera-Carmona, S Pérez-Hidalgo
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Rotator cuff re-ruptures appear in 38-65% of cases. In order to reduce this rate, many studies have been performed using different types of biomaterial for purely mechanical aims (re-inforce the suture) and/or biological agents (growth factor transporterts). The aim of this study is to review 22 cases treated with xenografts and analyse various current alternatives. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A descriptive and retrospective study was conducted using the variables of age, sex, laterality, time of surgery, involvement in MRI, number of anchors, and final mobility results on the Constant and the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) validated scales...
September 2016: Revista Española de Cirugía Ortopédica y Traumatología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27432081/genipin-crosslinker-releasing-sutures-for-improving-the-mechanical-repair-strength-of-damaged-connective-tissue
#17
Sharath Sundararaj, Paul Slusarewicz, Matt Brown, Thomas Hedman
The most common mode of surgical repair of ruptured tendons and ligaments involves the use of sutures for reattachment. However, there is a high incidence of rerupture and repair failure due to pulling out of the suture material from the damaged connective tissue. The main goal of this research was to achieve a localized delivery of crosslinking agent genipin (GP) from rapid-release biodegradable coatings on sutures, for strengthening the repair of ruptured connective tissue. Our hypothesis is that GP released from the suture coating will lead to exogenous crosslinking of native connective tissue resulting in beneficial effects on clinically relevant mechanical parameters such as tear resistance, tissue strength, and energy required to rupture the tissue (toughness)...
July 19, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27406327/differential-adhesion-selection-for-enrichment-of-tendon-derived-progenitor-cells-during-in-vitro-culture
#18
Sushmitha Durgam, Brooke Schuster, Anna Cymerman, Allison Stewart, Matthew Stewart
Preplating, a technique used to separate rapidly adherent fibroblasts from the less-adherent progenitor cells, has been used successfully to isolate skeletal muscle-derived stem cells. The objective of this study was to determine if preplating could also be applied to enrich tendon-derived progenitor cells (TDPCs) before monolayer expansion. Cell suspensions obtained by collagenase digestion of equine lateral digital extensor tendon were serially transferred into adherent plates every 12 h for 4 days. TDPC fractions obtained from initial (TPP0), third (TPP3), and seventh (TPP7) preplate were passaged twice and used for subsequent analyses...
August 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27397866/radiographic-localisation-of-the-entheses-of-the-equine-stifle
#19
E D Aldrich, L R Goodrich, M K Monahan, J D Conway, A Valdés-Martínez
BACKGROUND: Injury to the tendons and ligaments of the equine stifle is a common cause of lameness in horses. Individual radiographic localisation of each tendon and ligament of the stifle has not been previously reported and demonstrated in multiple radiographic projections. OBJECTIVE: To create a series of radiographs identifying the origins and/or insertions of the tendons and ligaments of the equine stifle. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive study of radiographic anatomy...
July 10, 2016: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27392888/long-term-cell-tracking-following-local-injection-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-in-the-equine-model-of-induced-tendon-disease
#20
Janina Burk, Dagmar Berner, Walter Brehm, Aline Hillmann, Carolin Horstmeier, Christoph Josten, Felicitas Paebst, Giacomo Rossi, Susanna Schubert, Annette B Ahrberg
Tendon disease has been treated with multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) in the equine large animal model with promising success. The aim of this study was to gain more insight into the fate and biodistribution of MSC after local application into tendon lesions by long term cell tracking in this large animal model. Superficial digital flexor tendon lesions were induced in all limbs in 6 horses and injected with 10x10(6) Molday ION Rhodamine B(TM)-labeled MSC suspended in serum or serum alone. Follow-up was performed using low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), flow cytometry and histology...
July 7, 2016: Cell Transplantation
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