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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042858/expanding-the-role-of-thyroid-stimulating-hormone-in-skeletal-physiology
#1
REVIEW
Ramkumarie Baliram, Rauf Latif, Mone Zaidi, Terry F Davies
The dogma that thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) solely regulates the production of thyroid hormone from the thyroid gland has hampered research on its wider physiological roles. The action of pituitary TSH on the skeleton has now been well described; in particular, its action on osteoblasts and osteoclasts. It has also been recently discovered that the bone marrow microenvironment acts as an endocrine circuit with bone marrow-resident macrophages capable of producing a novel TSH-β subunit variant (TSH-βv), which may modulate skeletal physiology...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033895/autoimmune-thyroid-diseases-in-patients-treated-with-alemtuzumab-for-multiple-sclerosis-an-example-of-selective-anti-tsh-receptor-immune-response
#2
REVIEW
Mario Rotondi, Martina Molteni, Paola Leporati, Valentina Capelli, Michele Marinò, Luca Chiovato
Alemtuzumab, a humanized anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody, is approved for the treatment of active relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). Alemtuzumab induces a rapid and prolonged depletion of lymphocytes from the circulation, which results in a profound immuno-suppression status followed by an immune reconstitution phase. Secondary to reconstitution autoimmune diseases represent the most common side effect of Alemtuzumab treatment. Among them, Graves' disease (GD) is the most frequent one with an estimated prevalence ranging from 16...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987238/thyroid-stimulating-hormone-exhibits-the-impact-on-ldlr-ldl-c-via-up-regulating-hepatic-pcsk9-expression
#3
Yingyun Gong, Yizhe Ma, Zhengqin Ye, Zhenzhen Fu, Panpan Yang, Beibei Gao, Wen Guo, Dandan Hu, Jingya Ye, Shuai Ma, Fan Zhang, Li Zhou, Xinyu Xu, Zhong Li, Tao Yang, Hongwen Zhou
CONTEXT: Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) has received increasing attention as being closely associated with increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) level and higher atherosclerotic risks. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is known for increasing circulating LDL-c level by inducing LDL receptor degradation. However, whether TSH influences hepatic PCSK9 expression and LDL-c metabolism remains unclear. METHODS: First, the correlation between TSH and lipid profiles were investigated in euthyroid population and in subclinical hypothyroidism patients...
November 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942661/-etanercept-induced-subacute-thyroiditis-case-report-and-literature-review
#4
Zoltán Hella, László Hodinka, Piroska Turbucz, Gábor László Kovács
65 years old male patient received 4 mg/day methylprednisolone baseline therapy and 50 mg/week etanercept treatment for 5 years due to rheumatoid arthritis. The patient experienced pain in neck, and developed weakness, fever and dysphagia. He had normal blood count but accelerated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (88 mm/hour), elevated CRP (49.3 mg/l) and hyperthyroidism (TSH 0.006 mIU/l, fT4 27.22 pmol/l, fT3 5.61 pmol/l). The autoimmune origin could be excluded because of normal values of antibodies against thyreoidea peroxidase and TSH receptor...
October 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938449/tsh-igf-1-receptor-cross-talk-rapidly-activates-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinases-in-multiple-cell-types
#5
Christine C Krieger, Joseph D Perry, Sarah J Morgan, George J Kahaly, Marvin C Gershengorn
We previously showed that thyrotropin (TSH)/insulinlike growth factor (IGF)-1 receptor cross-talk appears to be involved in Graves' orbitopathy (GO) pathogenesis and upregulation of thyroid-specific genes in human thyrocytes. In orbital fibroblasts from GO patients, coadministration of TSH and IGF-1 induces synergistic increases in hyaluronan secretion. In human thyrocytes, TSH plus IGF-1 synergistically increased expression of the sodium-iodide symporter that appeared to involve ERK1/2 activation. However, the details of ERK1/2 activation were not known, nor was whether ERK1/2 was involved in this synergism in other cell types...
October 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938413/prenatal-diagnosis-of-resistance-to-thyroid-hormone-and-its-clinical-implications
#6
Theodora Pappa, João Anselmo, Sunnee Mamanasiri, Alexandra M Dumitrescu, Roy E Weiss, Samuel Refetoff
Context: Resistance to thyroid hormone beta (RTHβ) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by reduced sensitivity of target tissues to thyroid hormones (TH). Individuals with RTHβ have high TH levels usually due to mutations in the TH receptor beta (THRB) gene. The management of RTHβ during pregnancy is challenging as wild-type (WT) fetuses born to RTHβ mothers have low birth weight and suppressed postnatal TSH, due to intrauterine exposure to excess TH. Objective: To determine birth weight and postnatal TSH of WT fetuses carried by mothers with RTHβ whose fT4 levels were maintained below 20% the upper limit of normal (ULN)...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937611/hcg-biological-functions-and-clinical-applications
#7
REVIEW
Chinedu Nwabuobi, Sefa Arlier, Frederick Schatz, Ozlem Guzeloglu-Kayisli, Charles Joseph Lockwood, Umit Ali Kayisli
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is produced primarily by differentiated syncytiotrophoblasts, and represents a key embryonic signal that is essential for the maintenance of pregnancy. hCG can activate various signaling cascades including mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 2 (Smad2), protein kinase C (PKC), and/or protein kinase A (PKA) in several cells types by binding to luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor (LHCGR) or potentially by direct/indirect interaction with transforming growth factor beta receptor (TGFβR)...
September 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932413/a-clinician-s-guide-to-understanding-resistance-to-thyroid-hormone-due-to-receptor-mutations-in-the-tr%C3%AE-and-tr%C3%AE-isoforms
#8
Brijesh K Singh, Paul M Yen
There are two genes that express the major thyroid hormone receptor isoforms. Mutations in both these genes have given rise to Resistance to Thyroid Hormone (RTH) syndromes (RTHβ, RTHα) that can have variable phenotypes for mutations of the same receptor isoform as well as between the two receptor isoforms. In general, the relative tissue-specific distribution of TRβ and TRα determine RTH in different tissues for each form of RTH. These differences highlight some of the isoform-specific roles of each TR isoform...
2017: Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931076/ghrelin-mediated-inhibition-of-the-tsh-stimulated-function-of-differentiated-human-thyrocytes-ex-vivo
#9
Maria Barington, Marianne Møller Brorson, Jacob Hofman-Bang, Åse Krogh Rasmussen, Birgitte Holst, Ulla Feldt-Rasmussen
Ghrelin is a peptide hormone produced mainly in the gastrointestinal tract known to regulate several physiological functions including gut motility, adipose tissue accumulation and hunger sensation leading to increased bodyweight. Studies have found a correlation between the plasma levels of thyroid hormones and ghrelin, but an effect of ghrelin on the human thyroid has never been investigated even though ghrelin receptors are present in the thyroid. The present study shows a ghrelin-induced decrease in the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-induced production of thyroglobulin and mRNA expression of thyroperoxidase in a primary culture of human thyroid cells obtained from paranodular tissue...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912336/elevated-semaphorin-5a-in-patients-with-hashimoto-s-thyroiditis-a-case-control-study
#10
Yongping Liu, Shuo Wang, Qingling Guo, Yongze Li, Jing Qin, Na Zhao, Yushu Li, Zhongyan Shan, Weiping Teng
OBJECTIVE: Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is characterized by elevated specific auto-antibodies, including TgAb and TPOAb. Increasing evidence has demonstrated the essential role of Th17 cells in HT. However, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. Semaphorin 5A (Sema 5A) is involved in several autoimmune diseases through the regulation of immune cells. The aim of the present study was to explore the role of Sema 5A in HT. METHODS: We measured serum Sema 5A levels in HT (n = 92) and healthy controls (n = 111) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
November 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894619/immunological-reactivity-using-monoclonal-and-polyclonal-antibodies-of-autoimmune-thyroid-target-sites-with-dietary-proteins
#11
Datis Kharrazian, Martha Herbert, Aristo Vojdani
Many hypothyroid and autoimmune thyroid patients experience reactions with specific foods. Additionally, food interactions may play a role in a subset of individuals who have difficulty finding a suitable thyroid hormone dosage. Our study was designed to investigate the potential role of dietary protein immune reactivity with thyroid hormones and thyroid axis target sites. We identified immune reactivity between dietary proteins and target sites on the thyroid axis that includes thyroid hormones, thyroid receptors, enzymes, and transport proteins...
2017: Journal of Thyroid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883260/a-case-of-metastatic-follicular-thyroid-carcinoma-complicated-with-graves-disease-after-total-thyroidectomy
#12
Mariko Aoyama, Hiromitsu Takizawa, Mitsuhiro Tsuboi, Yasushi Nakagawa, Akira Tangoku
Thyroid cancer and Graves' disease may present simultaneously in one patient. The incidence of the development of hyperthyroidism from metastatic differentiated thyroid carcinoma is rare. We herein report a case of metastatic follicular carcinoma complicated with Graves' disease after total thyroidectomy. A 57-year-old woman underwent right hemithyroidectomy for follicular carcinoma. Metastatic lesions appeared in the lungs and skull two years after the first surgery, and remnant thyroidectomy was performed for radioactive iodine-131 (RAI) therapy, during which the TSH receptor antibody (TRAb) was found to be negative...
September 5, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874659/internalized-tsh-receptors-en-route-to-the-tgn-induce-local-gs-protein-signaling-and-gene-transcription
#13
Amod Godbole, Sandra Lyga, Martin J Lohse, Davide Calebiro
A new paradigm of G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling at intracellular sites has recently emerged, but the underlying mechanisms and functional consequences are insufficiently understood. Here, we show that upon internalization in thyroid cells, endogenous TSH receptors traffic retrogradely to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and activate endogenous Gs-proteins in the retromer-coated compartment that brings them to the TGN. Receptor internalization is associated with a late cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) response at the Golgi/TGN...
September 5, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874095/seasonal-rhythms-the-role-of-thyrotropin-and-thyroid-hormones
#14
Tomoya Nakayama, Takashi Yoshimura
BACKGROUND: Seasonal changes in various physiological events have been reported in humans, including metabolism, immune function, and mood. However, the molecular and endocrine basis of these seasonal changes remains unclear. SUMMARY: Animals that breed seasonally, such as Japanese quail and the Siberian hamster, have sophisticated seasonal mechanisms, and hence they provide excellent opportunities to understand the underlying processes. Functional genomic analysis in quail uncovered the photoperiodic signal transduction pathway, which regulates avian seasonal reproduction: a long-day stimulus induces secretion of thyrotropin (TSH) from the pars tuberalis (PT) of the anterior pituitary gland...
October 5, 2017: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855436/effects-of-sorafenib-and-an-adenylyl-cyclase-activator-on-in-vitro-growth-of-well-differentiated-thyroid-cancer-cells
#15
Aya Sawa, Tomohiro Chiba, Jun Ishii, Hiroyuki Yamamoto, Hisato Hara, Hiroshi Kamma
Well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas have driver mutations involving growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinases (RTKs) or their intracellular signaling pathway, that is, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Sorafenib is a multikinase inhibitor of RTKs and the MAPK pathway and has recently been used for the treatment of unresectable well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. In normal thyroid follicular cells, stimulation of the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor activates the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) pathway and promotes cell growth as well as hormonal secretion...
August 31, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805160/clinical-implications-of-immunoglobulin-g4-to-graves-ophthalmopathy
#16
Sung Hoon Yu, Jun Goo Kang, Chul Sik Kim, Sung-Hee Ihm, Moon Gi Choi, Hyung Joon Yoo, Seong Jin Lee
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to explore the relation of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) to clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients newly diagnosed with Graves' disease (GD) without or with Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) and to analyze association of IgG4 with development and grade of GO in GD patients. METHODS: Sixty-four GD patients and 64 sex- and age-matched euthyroid subjects were enrolled. Serum levels of thyroid hormones, thyroid autoantibodies, immunoglobulin G (IgG), and IgG4 were measured, and ophthalmological and ultrasonographical evaluation was performed...
September 2017: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782242/effects-of-hyper-and-hypothyroidism-on-the-development-and-proliferation-of-testicular-cells-in-prepubertal-rats
#17
Mohamed Babo Fadlalla, Quanwei Wei, Jaafar Sulieman Fedail, Asif Mehfooz, Dagan Mao, Fangxiong Shi
Thyroid hormones are important in the development and regulation of testes. This study was conducted to determine the effects of hyper- and hypothyroidism on testicular development in prepubertal rats aged 20-70 days. Weaning male rats (20 days old) until day 70 age were randomly divided into four groups: control, hyperthyroid (hyper-T), hypothyroid (hypo-T) and hypothyroid treated with thyroxine (T4) (hypo-T+T4). The results indicated that thyroid hormones caused a significant effect in body and testis weights, and food and water consumption...
August 7, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776278/expression-of-thyroid-stimulating-hormone-receptors-and-thyroglobulin-in-limbic-regions-in-the-adult-human-brain
#18
Meleshni Naicker, Strinivasen Naidoo
Expression of the human thyroid-specific proteins, thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSH-R) and thyroglobulin (TG) in non-thyroid tissue is well-documented. TSH-R has been identified in the heart, kidney, bone, pituitary, adipose tissue, skin and astrocyte cultures. TG has been identified in the skin, thymus and kidney. However, none of those previous studies had identified TSH-R or TG in specific human brain regions. Previously, a pilot study conducted by our group on normal adult human brain demonstrated TSH-R and TG in cortical neurons and cerebral vasculature, respectively, within various brain areas...
August 3, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771744/loss-of-sorting-nexin-5-stabilizes-internalized-growth-factor-receptors-to-promote-thyroid-cancer-progression
#19
Sumito Jitsukawa, Ryuta Kamekura, Koji Kawata, Fumie Ito, Akinori Sato, Hiroshi Matsumiya, Tomonori Nagaya, Keiji Yamashita, Terufumi Kubo, Tomoki Kikuchi, Noriyuki Sato, Tadashi Hasegawa, Hiroshi Kiyonari, Yoshiko Mukumoto, Ken-Ichi Takano, Tetsuo Himi, Shingo Ichimiya
Thyroid carcinoma is the most common endocrine malignancy and its prevalence has recently been increasing worldwide. We previously reported that the level of sorting nexin 5 (Snx5), an endosomal translocator, is preferentially decreased during the progression of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma into poorly differentiated carcinoma. To address the functional role of Snx5 in the development and progression of thyroid carcinoma, we established Snx5-deficient (Snx5(-/-) ) mice. In comparison to wild-type (Snx5(+/+) ) mice, Snx5(-/-) mice exhibited enlarged thyroid glands that consisted of thyrocytes with large irregular-shaped vacuoles...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767604/serum-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-might-be-an-independent-prognostic-factor-for-graves-disease-recurrence
#20
Hwa Young Ahn, Yun Jae Chung, Bo Youn Cho
Graves disease is the most common cause of thyrotoxicosis. Although medical intervention with antithyroid drugs (ATDs) is commonly the first choice of treatment in Korea, the remission rate associated with this approach is not satisfactory. During ATD therapy, low or undetectable serum levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor antibodies (TRAbs) have been reported to affect the incidence of Graves disease remission. This study evaluated the correlation between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and TRAb levels, as well as the effect of 25-hydroxyvitamin D on the recurrence of Graves disease...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
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