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Exercise-induced analgesia

Lucas V Lima, Thiago S S Abner, Kathleen A Sluka
Exercise is an integral part of the rehabilitation of patients suffering a variety of chronic musculoskeletal conditions, such as fibromyalgia, chronic low back pain and myofascial pain. Regular physical activity is recommended for treatment of chronic pain and its effectiveness has been established in clinical trials for people with a variety of pain conditions. However, exercise can also increase pain making participation in rehabilitation challenging for the person with pain. Animal models of exercise-induced pain have been developed and point to central mechanisms underlying this phenomena, such as increased activation of NMDA receptors in pain-modulating areas...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Physiology
Jessica Van Oosterwijck, Uros Marusic, Inge De Wandele, Lorna Paul, Mira Meeus, Greta Moorkens, Luc Lambrecht, Lieven Danneels, Jo Nijs
BACKGROUND: Patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis / chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) are unable to activate brain-orchestrated endogenous analgesia (or descending inhibition) in response to exercise. This physiological impairment is currently regarded as one factor explaining post-exertional malaise in these patients. Autonomic dysfunction is also a feature of ME/CFS. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to examine the role of the autonomic nervous system in exercise-induced analgesia in healthy people and those with ME/CFS, by studying the recovery of autonomic parameters following aerobic exercise and the relation to changes in self-reported pain intensity...
March 2017: Pain Physician
Louise Dunphy, Rossel Morhij, Sarah Tucker
A 50-year-old male UK resident with a history of hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia presented to the emergency department with a 48-hour history of sudden onset bilateral thigh swelling and pain unrelieved by regular analgesia. 3 days prior to presentation, he performed a vigorous workout in the gym. His medications included ramipril 5 mg once daily and atorvastatin 20 mg at night time. He was a non-smoker and did not consume alcohol. He reported no known drug allergies. Physical examination confirmed bilateral swollen thighs, with no overlying skin changes, clinically suggestive of compartment syndrome...
March 16, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
Xingrui Gong, Yongmei Chen, Bao Fu, Jing Jiang, Mazhong Zhang
Neuropathic pain is absent in infants and emergent years after injury. Adult spinal cord microglia play a key role in initiating neuropathic pain, and modulation of microglia is a potential target for treating neuropathic pain. In this study, we evaluated the role of microglia after infant peripheral nerve injury and the effect of exercise on the delayed-onset neuropathic pain. Rat pups received spared nerve injury, and behavior tests were performed to evaluate their pain threshold. qPCR, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot were used for M1 and M2 marker expression analysis...
February 28, 2017: Neuroscience
Nicholas Zdenkowski, Stephanie Tesson, Janine Lombard, Melanie Lovell, Sandra Hayes, Prudence A Francis, Haryana M Dhillon, Frances M Boyle
Patients diagnosed with breast cancer may have supportive care needs for many years after diagnosis. High quality multidisciplinary care can help address these needs and reduce the physical and psychological effects of breast cancer and its treatment. Ovarian suppression and extended endocrine therapy benefits are associated with vasomotor, musculoskeletal, sexual and bone density-related side effects. Aromatase inhibitor musculoskeletal syndrome is a common reason for treatment discontinuation. Treatment strategies include education, exercise, simple analgesia and a change to tamoxifen or another aromatase inhibitor...
November 21, 2016: Medical Journal of Australia
Steffen Krüger, Dominik Khayat, Meike Hoffmeister, Thomas Hilberg
PURPOSE: Physical exercise causes alterations in pain sensitivity. Many studies verified so-called exercise-induced analgesia caused by submaximal aerobic intensity. This study aimed to determine the effect of an endurance exercise to exhaustion on pain sensitivity of healthy young men. METHOD: Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) [in Newton, (N)] of 50 healthy males (mean age 26 ± 4 years) were applied to knee, ankle and elbow joints as well as to the sternum and forehead...
March 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Franciane Bobinski, Tamara A A Ferreira, Marina M Córdova, Patrícia A Dombrowski, Cláudio da Cunha, Caroline C do Espírito Santo, Anicleto Poli, Rita G W Pires, Cristina Martins-Silva, Kathleen A Sluka, Adair R S Santos
Physical exercise is a low-cost, safe, and efficient intervention for the reduction of neuropathic chronic pain in humans. However, the underlying mechanisms for how exercise reduces neuropathic pain are not yet well understood. Central monoaminergic systems play a critical role in endogenous analgesia leading us to hypothesize that the analgesic effect of low-intensity exercise occurs through activation of monoaminergic neurotransmission in descending inhibitory systems. To test this hypothesis, we induced peripheral nerve injury (PNI) by crushing the sciatic nerve...
December 2015: Pain
Ebonie Rio, Dawson Kidgell, G Lorimer Moseley, Jamie Gaida, Sean Docking, Craig Purdam, Jill Cook
Tendinopathy can be resistant to treatment and often recurs, implying that current treatment approaches are suboptimal. Rehabilitation programmes that have been successful in terms of pain reduction and return to sport outcomes usually include strength training. Muscle activation can induce analgesia, improving self-efficacy associated with reducing one's own pain. Furthermore, strength training is beneficial for tendon matrix structure, muscle properties and limb biomechanics. However, current tendon rehabilitation may not adequately address the corticospinal control of the muscle, which may result in altered control of muscle recruitment and the consequent tendon load, and this may contribute to recalcitrance or symptom recurrence...
February 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Audrey Leung, Nicholas S Gregory, Lee-Ann H Allen, Kathleen A Sluka
Regular physical activity in healthy individuals prevents development of chronic musculoskeletal pain; however, the mechanisms underlying this exercise-induced analgesia are not well understood. Interleukin-10 (IL-10), an antiinflammatory cytokine that can reduce nociceptor sensitization, increases during regular physical activity. Since macrophages play a major role in cytokine production and are present in muscle tissue, we propose that physical activity alters macrophage phenotype to increase IL-10 and prevent chronic pain...
January 2016: Pain
Tayler D Sheahan, Bryan A Copits, Judith P Golden, Robert W Gereau
Both clinical and animal studies suggest that exercise may be an effective way to manage inflammatory and neuropathic pain conditions. However, existing animal studies commonly use forced exercise paradigms that incorporate varying degrees of stress, which itself can elicit analgesia, and thus may complicate the interpretation of the effects of exercise on pain. We investigated the analgesic potential of voluntary wheel running in the formalin model of acute inflammatory pain and the spared nerve injury model of neuropathic pain in mice...
2015: PloS One
Young-Jin Kim, Jeong-Hyun Byun, In-Sung Choi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of aerobic exercise on neuropathic pain and verify whether regular treadmill exercise alters opioid receptor expression in the rostral ventral medulla (RVM) in a neuropathic pain rat model. METHODS: Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in the study. All rats were divided into 3 groups, i.e., group A, sham group (n=10); group B, chronic constriction injury (CCI) group (n=11); and group C, CCI+exercise group (n=11). Regular treadmill exercise was performed for 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week, for 4 weeks at the speed of 8 m/min for 5 minutes, 11 m/min for 5 minutes, and 22 m/min for 20 minutes...
June 2015: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
Luca Angius, James G Hopker, Samuele M Marcora, Alexis R Mauger
PURPOSE: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) provides a new exciting means to investigate the role of the brain during exercise. However, this technique is not widely used in exercise science, with little known regarding effective electrode montages. This study investigated whether tDCS of the motor cortex (M1) would elicit an analgesic response to exercise-induced pain (EIP). METHODS: Nine participants completed a VO2max test and three time to exhaustion (TTE) tasks on separate days following either 10 min 2 mA tDCS of the M1, a sham or a control...
November 2015: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Ebonie Rio, Dawson Kidgell, Craig Purdam, Jamie Gaida, G Lorimer Moseley, Alan J Pearce, Jill Cook
BACKGROUND: Few interventions reduce patellar tendinopathy (PT) pain in the short term. Eccentric exercises are painful and have limited effectiveness during the competitive season. Isometric and isotonic muscle contractions may have an immediate effect on PT pain. METHODS: This single-blinded, randomised cross-over study compared immediate and 45 min effects following a bout of isometric and isotonic muscle contractions. Outcome measures were PT pain during the single-leg decline squat (SLDS, 0-10), quadriceps strength on maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), and measures of corticospinal excitability and inhibition...
October 2015: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Cayo Almeida, Aline DeMaman, Ricardo Kusuda, Flaviane Cadetti, Maria Ida Ravanelli, André L Queiroz, Thais A Sousa, Sonia Zanon, Leonardo R Silveira, Guilherme Lucas
Treatment of neuropathic pain is a clinical challenge likely because of the time-dependent changes in many neurotransmitter systems, growth factors, ionic channels, membrane receptors, transcription factors, and recruitment of different cell types. Conversely, an increasing number of reports have shown the ability of extended and regular physical exercise in alleviating neuropathic pain throughout a wide range of mechanisms. In this study, we investigate the effect of swim exercise on molecules associated with initiation and maintenance of nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain...
March 2015: Pain
Cayo Almeida, Aline DeMaman, Ricardo Kusuda, Flaviane Cadetti, Maria Ida Ravanelli, André L Queiroz, Thais A Sousa, Sonia Zanon, Leonardo R Silveira, Guilherme Lucas
Treatment of neuropathic pain is a clinical challenge likely due to the time-dependent changes in many neurotransmitter systems, growth factors, ionic channels, membrane receptors, transcription factors as well as recruitment of different cell types. Conversely, an increasing number of reports have shown the ability of extended and regular physical exercise in alleviating neuropathic pain throughout a wide range of mechanisms. In the present study we investigate the effect of swim exercise on molecules associated to the initiation and maintenance of nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain...
December 30, 2014: Pain
Giovane S Galdino, Carlos H Xavier, Renato Almeida, Grazielle Silva, Marcos A Fontes, Gustavo Menezes, Igor D Duarte, Andrea C Perez
Resistance exercise (RE) is characterized to increase strength, tone, mass, and/or muscular endurance and also for produces many beneficial effects, such as blood pressure and osteoporosis reduction, diabetes mellitus control, and analgesia. However, few studies have investigated endogenous mechanisms involved in the RE-induced analgesia. Thus, the aim of this study was evaluate the role of the NO/CGMP/KATP pathway in the antinociception induced by RE. Wistar rats were submitted to acute RE in a weight-lifting model...
2015: International Journal of Neuroscience
David S Rowlands, Sarah P Shultz, Takahiro Ogawa, Wataru Aoi, Martin Korte
Titanium is biocompatible and widely utilized in a variety of applications. Recently, titanium in pico-nanometer scale and soluble form (Aqua Titan) has expanded its use to applied human health and performance. The purpose of this article is to review the current evidence associated with specific physiological responses to Aqua Titan-treated materials. In vitro studies have shown that application of Aqua Titan can modify membrane potential and long-term potentiation in isolated hippocampal neurons, suggesting reduced pain memory as a possible mechanism for reported analgesia...
2014: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
Gerhard Müller-Schwefe, Karsten Ahlbeck, Dominic Aldington, Eli Alon, Stefano Coaccioli, Flaminia Coluzzi, Frank Huygen, Wolfgang Jaksch, Eija Kalso, Magdalena Kocot-Kępska, Hans-Georg Kress, Ana Cristina Mangas, Cesar Margarit Ferri, Bart Morlion, Andrew Nicolaou, Concepción Pérez Hernández, Joseph Pergolizzi, Michael Schäfer, Patrick Sichère
Twenty years ago, the main barriers to successful cancer pain management were poor assessment by physicians, and patients' reluctance to report pain and take opioids. Those barriers are almost exactly the same today. Cancer pain remains under-treated; in Europe, almost three-quarters of cancer patients experience pain, and almost a quarter of those with moderate to severe pain do not receive any analgesic medication. Yet it has been suggested that pain management could be improved simply by ensuring that every consultation includes the patient's rating of pain, that the physician pays attention to this rating, and a plan is agreed to increase analgesia when it is inadequate...
September 2014: Current Medical Research and Opinion
Liesbeth Daenen, Emma Varkey, Michael Kellmann, Jo Nijs
BACKGROUND: Exercise is an effective treatment strategy in various chronic musculoskeletal pain disorders, including chronic neck pain, osteoarthritis, headache, fibromyalgia and chronic low back pain. Although exercise can benefit those with chronic pain (CP), some patients (eg, those with fibromyalgia, myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome and chronic whiplash associated disorders) encounter exercise as a pain inducing stimulus and report symptom flares due to exercise...
February 2015: Clinical Journal of Pain
Mira Meeus, Linda Hermans, Kelly Ickmans, Filip Struyf, Deborah Van Cauwenbergh, Laura Bronckaerts, Luc S De Clerck, Greta Moorken, Guy Hans, Sofie Grosemans, Jo Nijs
OBJECTIVE: Temporal summation (TS) of pain, conditioned pain modulation (CPM), and exercise-induced analgesia (EIA) are often investigated in chronic pain populations as an indicator for enhanced pain facilitation and impaired endogenous pain inhibition, respectively, but interactions are not yet clear both in healthy controls and in chronic pain patients. Therefore, the present double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study evaluates pains cores, TS, and CPM in response to exercise in healthy controls, patients with chronic fatigue syndrome and comorbid fibromyalgia (CFS/FM), and patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), both under placebo and paracetamol condition...
February 2015: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
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