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Neck muscles

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452757/exploring-novel-objective-functions-for-simulating-muscle-coactivation-in-the-neck
#1
J Mortensen, M Trkov, A Merryweather
Musculoskeletal modeling allows for analysis of individual muscles in various situations. However, current techniques to realistically simulate muscle response when significant amounts of intentional coactivation is required are inadequate. This would include stiffening the neck or spine through muscle coactivation in preparation for perturbations or impacts. Muscle coactivation has been modeled previously in the neck and spine using optimization techniques that seek to maximize the joint stiffness by maximizing total muscle activation or muscle force...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451373/regional-structural-and-functional-specialisations-in-the-urethra-of-the-female-rat-evidence-for-complex-physiological-control-systems
#2
Monica Eggermont, Stefan De Wachter, Jane Eastham, James Gillespie
The present study characterises the complex structural and functional elements of the female rat urethra that may be involved in controlling urethral closure and continence. Urethras were dissected from female Sprague-Dawley rats (n=12) euthanized by pentobarbital overdose. Tissues were fixed (4% paraformaldehyde), frozen and sectioned (8μm) for light microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Antibodies were used to detect immunoreactivity to calcitonin gene related peptide, nitric oxide synthase, vesicular acetylcholine transporter and tyrosine hydroxylase...
February 16, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451371/young-s-modulus-and-load-complexity-modeling-their-effects-on-proximal-femur-strain
#3
Adam D Sylvester, Patricia A Kramer
Finite element analysis (FEA) is a powerful tool for evaluating questions of functional morphology, but the application of FEA to extant or extinct creatures is a non-trivial task. Three categories of input data are needed to appropriately implement FEA: geometry, material properties, and boundary conditions. Geometric data are relatively easily obtained from imaging techniques, but often material properties and boundary conditions must be estimated. Here we conduct sensitivity analyses of the effect of the choice of Young's Modulus for elements representing trabecular bone and muscle loading complexity on the proximal femur using a finite element mesh of a modern human femur...
February 16, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447964/botulinum-toxin-type-a-relieves-sternocleidomastoid-muscle-fibrosis-in-congenital-muscular-torticollis
#4
Banghong Jiang, Wenxuan Zu, Jing Xu, Zhuyou Xiong, Yichao Zhang, Song Gao, Shuxing Ge, Li Zhang
Congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) is a neck deformity that involves shortening of sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) characterized by muscle atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. To investigate wheatear Botulinum toxin type A (BTA) has anti-fibrotic effects in CMT, we established acquired muscular torticollis that mimetics CMT in rabbit by intra-SCM injection of anhydrous alcohol. The treatment groups received BTA (2.5 units or 5 units) injection into the fibrotic SCM. The shortening and thickening of SCM were recorded by B-mode ultrasound...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446703/use-of-the-5-mm-endoscopic-stapler-for-ligation-of-fistula-in-laparoscopic-assisted-repair-of-anorectal-malformation
#5
Bethany J Slater, Saundra Kay, Steven S Rothenberg
OBJECTIVE: Laparoscopic anorectoplasty (LARRP) for the treatment of select anorectal malformations has gained popularity due to enhanced visualization of the fistula and the ability to place the rectum within the sphincter complex while minimizing division of muscles and the perineal incision. However, given the technical challenges and reported complications of ligation, a number of techniques have been described, including using clips, suture ligation, endoloops, or division without closure...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445428/the-danger-zone-in-the-anterior-neck-anatomical-landmarks-to-avoid-injury-to-anterior-jugular-vein-during-face-lift-and-neck-lift
#6
Andrew M Swiergosz, J Stephen Gunn, Steven A Schulz, Joshua T Henderson, Joshua H Choo, Arian Mowlavi, Bradon J Wilhelmi
Background : An estimated 125,711 face-lifts and 54,281 neck-lifts were performed in 2015. Regardless of the technique employed, facial and neck flap elevation carries with it anatomical risk of which any surgeon performing these procedures should be aware of. Statistics related to anterior jugular vein injury during these procedures have not been published. Objective : To define a "danger zone" that will contain both of the anterior jugular veins on the basis of anatomical landmarks to aid surgeons with planning their surgical approach during rhytidectomy in the anterior neck region...
2018: Eplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443867/effects-of-whole-body-vibration-versus-pilates-exercise-on-bone-mineral-density-in-postmenopausal-women-a-randomized-and-controlled-clinical-trial
#7
Laís Campos de Oliveira, Raphael Gonçalves de Oliveira, Deise Aparecida de Almeida Pires-Oliveira
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Decreased bone mineral density (BMD) is a common condition in postmenopausal women that can be managed with impact activities. Among the activities studied are the whole-body vibration (WBV) and muscle-strengthening exercises. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of WBV versus Pilates exercise on BMD in postmenopausal women. METHODS: In this study, 51 postmenopausal women were randomized into 3 groups: vibration (n = 17), Pilates (n = 17), and control (n = 17)...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443095/cystometric-and-external-urethral-sphincter-measurements-in-awake-rats-with-implanted-catheter-and-electrodes-allowing-for-repeated-measurements
#8
Elena E Foditsch, Karin Roider, Andrea M Sartori, Thomas M Kessler, Sabik Raj Kayastha, Ludwig Aigner, Marc P Schneider
Lower urinary tract function is mainly assessed by means of cystometric bladder function analysis in rodents. Conventional cystometries are usually performed as terminal analysis under urethane anesthesia. It is well known that anesthetic drugs can influence bladder function. Hence, the aim of this technique is to perform cystometric measurements of the urinary bladder and external urethral sphincter in lightly restrained awake rats. For this purpose, a bladder catheter is implanted into the bladder dome. Subsequently, two electrodes are implanted bilateral to the external urethral sphincter and a ground electrode is sutured to a non-responsive skeletal muscle...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440805/hypnotic-intervention-for-unexplained-dizziness-in-patients-with-advanced-cancer-a-preliminary-retrospective-observation-study
#9
Hideaki Hasuo, Kenji Kanbara, Mikihiko Fukunaga, Naoko Yunoki
Context: Patients with advanced cancer rarely complain of unexplained dizziness after excluding identifiable causes. Some patients become anxious because they attribute the dizziness to the progression of their cancer. We hypothesize that unexplained dizziness is associated with neck muscle hypertonicity, a noncancer-related secondary effect. However, most cases are associated with neck muscle hypertonicity, a noncancer-related secondary effect. Aims: We evaluated the usefulness of hypnotic intervention that made patients aware of the relation between dizziness and neck muscle hypertonicity through the experience of muscle relaxation and recognition of muscle tension...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438795/independent-suboesophageal-neuronal-innervation-of-the-defense-gland-and-longitudinal-muscles-in-the-stick-insect-peruphasma-schultei-prothorax
#10
Konrad Stolz, Johannes Strauß, Joscha Arne Alt, Reinhard Lakes-Harlan
This study investigates the neuroanatomy of the defense gland and a related muscle in the stick insect Peruphasma schultei with axonal tracing and histological sections. The gland is innervated by three neurons through the Nervus anterior of the suboesophageal ganglion (SOG), the ipsilateral neuron (ILN), the contralateral neuron (CLN) and the prothoracic intersegmental neuron (PIN). The ILN has a large soma which is typical for motoneurons that cause fast contraction of large muscles and its dendrites are located in motor-sensory and sensory neuropile areas of the SOG...
February 10, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436372/the-acupuncture-therapeutic-approach-in-temporal-arteritis-vasculitis-a-case-report
#11
Yılmaz Sezgin
Temporal arteritis is a form of vasculitis that involves the large and medium-diameter arteries and leads to progressive headache. Symptoms may be accompanied by vision disorder, subfebrile temperature, fatigue, lack of appetite, weight loss, sweating and joint pains. While cortisone therapy reduces the symptoms, its effects in terms of improving quality of life are limited. We elected to benefit from the effects of acupuncture in order to reduce symptoms and increase quality of life in a case of temporal arteritis, a chronic disease...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431303/eosinophilic-fasciitis-a-single-center-experience-of-seven-patients
#12
Oded Shamriz, Mariana Druker, Tzahi Neuman, Zvi Dranitzki, Yuval Tal
BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic fasciitis (EF) is a rare disease characterized by scleroderma-like skin, inflammation of deep muscle fascia, hypergammaglobulinemia, peripheral eosinophilia, and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. OBJECTIVES: To present our experience in diagnosis and treatment of seven biopsy-proven EF patients in a large tertiary medical center. METHODS: We screened all patients who were admitted to our tertiary medical center and diagnosed with EF by tissue biopsies from January 2000 to January 2016...
February 2018: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430846/low-grip-strength-is-a-strong-risk-factor-of-osteoporosis-in-postmenopausal-women
#13
Yi-Zhong Li, Hua-Feng Zhuang, Si-Qing Cai, Chang-Kun Lin, Pei-Wen Wang, Li-Sheng Yan, Jin-Kuang Lin, Hai-Ming Yu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of grip strength on bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women. Low BMD is related to risk of fracture and falling is the strongest factor for fragility fractures. Handgrip strength is a reliable indicator of muscle strength and muscle strength is associated with falling. METHODS: For the present study 120 women were divided into two groups: those ≤65 years and those >65 years. Serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), BMD, and handgrip strength were measured to observe the effect of age on 25OHD, grip strength, and BMD, as well as the effect of 25OHD on grip strength and BMD...
February 12, 2018: Orthopaedic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429160/-clinicopathologic-features-of-atypical-spindle-cell-lipomatous-tumor
#14
M Zhao, Y B Wang, Y J Yan, W Wang, G Q Ru, X L He
Objective: To investigate the clinicopathologic characteristics, immunophenotype, differential and diagnostic features of atypical spindle cell lipomatous tumor (ASLT). Methods: Three cases of ASLT were collected from January 2010 to March 2017 at Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital. The clinical and imaging features, histomorphology, immunophenotype and prognosis were analyzed. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to detect MDM2 gene amplification, and relevant literature was reviewed. Results: All three patients were adult males, aged 38, 43 and 54 years, respectively...
February 8, 2018: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429158/-pleomorphic-and-dedifferentiated-leiomyosarcoma-a-clinicopathologic-analysis
#15
M Sun, J G Liu, Q Y Weng, L Yu, J Wang
Objective: To investigate the clinicopathologic features, differential diagnosis and biological behavior of pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma (PLMS) and dedifferentiated leiomyosarcoma (DLMS). Methods: Forty-nine cases were collected from November 2007 to December 2016, including eight that diagnosed at Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, and 41 consultation cases. The clinical findings and pathologic features were reviewed. Immunophenotype was obtained in 33 cases and follow-up information was available in 38 cases...
February 8, 2018: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427867/neck-muscle-vibration-produces-diverse-responses-in-balance-and-gait-speed-between-individuals-with-and-without-neck-pain
#16
Nipaporn Wannaprom, Julia Treleaven, Gwendolen Jull, Sureeporn Uthaikhup
BACKGROUND: Neck muscle vibration can influence cervical proprioception and sensorimotor function. It is hypothesized to affect motor performance differently in persons with and without neck pain. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. OBJECTIVE: To clarify the extent to which vibration-induced motor responses of neck muscles affect static standing balance and gait speed in persons with and without neck pain. METHODS: Thirty participants with chronic neck pain and 30 healthy controls were recruited...
February 5, 2018: Musculoskeletal Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424673/nerve-fascicle-transfer-using-a-part-of-the-c-7-nerve-for-spinal-accessory-nerve-injury
#17
Xuan Ye, Yun-Dong Shen, Jun-Tao Feng, Wen-Dong Xu
OBJECTIVE Spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury results in a series of shoulder dysfunctions and continuous pain. However, current treatments are limited by the lack of donor nerves as well as by undesirable nerve regeneration. Here, the authors report a modified nerve transfer technique in which they employ a nerve fascicle from the posterior division (PD) of the ipsilateral C-7 nerve to repair SAN injury. The technique, first performed in cadavers, was then undertaken in 2 patients. METHODS Six fresh cadavers (12 sides of the SAN and ipsilateral C-7) were studied to observe the anatomical relationship between the SAN and C-7 nerve...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424327/-a-woman-with-spontaneous-neck-pain
#18
M Geerdes, S P Smook, T A von Schükkmann
A 42-year-old woman presented with neck pain without previous trauma. On suspicion of spondylodiscitis, an MRI of the cervical spine was made. This MRI and an additional CT showed calcific tendinitis of the longus colli muscle, a self-limiting disorder.
2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420736/loss-of-motor-neurons-innervating-cervical-muscles-in-patients-with-multiple-system-atrophy-and-dropped-head
#19
Rie Saito, Mari Tada, Yasuko Toyoshima, Masatoyo Nishizawa, Osamu Onodera, Hitoshi Takahashi, Akiyoshi Kakita
We investigated whether loss of motor neurons innervating the neck muscles contributes to dropped head (DH) in multiple system atrophy (MSA). From 75 patients with autopsy-proven MSA, we retrieved 3 who had DH (MSA-DH), and examined the 4th cervical cord segments. Neurons of the medial and lateral nuclear groups (MNG and LNG) innervate the neck and shoulder muscles, respectively. We measured the area of individual neurons in the MNG and LNG, and created an area-frequency histogram. Neurons were classified as large or small based on their area, and their total numbers in the MNG and LNG were counted...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420159/identifying-the-mechanical-and-neural-properties-of-the-sternocleidomastoid-muscles
#20
Bhillie D Luciani, David M Desmet, Amani A Alkayyali, Joshua M Leonardis, David Benjamin Lipps
Neck muscles are preferentially activated in specific force directions, but the constraints that the central nervous system considers when programming these preferred directions of muscle activity are unknown. The current study utilized ultrasound shear wave elastography (SWE) to investigate whether the material properties of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscles exhibit preferred directions similar to their preferred direction of muscle activity during an isometric task. Twenty-four healthy participants matched isometric forces in 16 axial directions...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
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