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Oral contrast ct

Hena Naqvi, Mohammad Kaleem Ahmad, Syed Rizwan Hussain, Shalini Gupta, Mohammad Waseem, Abbas Ali Mahdi
BACKGROUND: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) occurrence appears to be the number one among all cancers in India. Folate is a methyl donor during DNA methylation, as it provides substrate for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) to convert 5,10-MTHF to 5-MTHF and subsequently metabolizes it to methionine. The purpose of this study was to identify MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism in patients with OSCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 350 OSCC cases and 350 healthy controls participated in this study...
October 24, 2016: Clinical Oral Investigations
Gavin Low, Harini Dharmana, Samantha Saravana-Bawan, Safwat Girgis
History An asymptomatic 33-year-old woman was referred to the Hepatology Department in 2013 for work-up of indeterminate multifocal liver masses. These lesions were discovered incidentally at multiphase contrast material-enhanced multidetector computed tomography (CT) performed in 2004 to investigate right lower quadrant pain. Imaging surveillance at sporadic intervals revealed slow progressive growth of the lesions over time; however, the number of lesions remained constant. There was no history of cancer, nor were there predisposing factors for chronic liver disease or cirrhosis...
November 2016: Radiology
Daniel Corrigan, Christiana Prucnal, Christopher Kabrhel
The diagnosis or exclusion of pulmonary embolism (PE) remains challenging for emergency physicians. Symptoms can be vague or non-existent, and the clinical presentation shares features with many other common diagnoses. Diagnostic testing is complicated, as biomarkers, like the D-dimer, are frequently false positive, and imaging, like computed tomography pulmonary angiography, carries risks of radiation and contrast dye exposure. It is therefore incumbent on emergency physicians to be both vigilant and thoughtful about this diagnosis...
September 2016: Clin Exp Emerg Med
W G P Kanchana, R A A Shaminda, K B Galketiya, V Pinto, D Walisinghe, S Wijetunge, R Heendeniya
Background. Solid Pseudopapillary Tumours of the pancreas are a rare entity and more commonly seen in women than in men. These tumours have typically reached large sizes when clinically detected. Case Description. A 21-year-old male was found to have a left hypochondrial mass on physical examination following a trivial soft tissue injury. Contrast-enhanced computed topography (CT) of the abdomen showed a 10.3 × 7.6 × 10.3 cm size arising from the body and the tail of the pancreas. He underwent laparoscopic resection of distal pancreatic tumour en bloc with spleen...
2016: Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine
Mark McInturff, Anne Adamson, Chadwick Donaldson, Brenda L Nelson
A 19 year old female presents to the emergency room with right facial enlargement. Clinical examination revealed a soft tissue mass of the right buccal mucosa. Treated initially as infection, the patient later turned to clinic with now rapidly enlarging and intermittently painful mass. Computed tomography with contrast showed a low attenuated buccal mass with mild enhancement lateral to the right caudal maxilla and superior mandible. Biopsy was performed and microscopic examination showed cells with moderate pleomorphism with numerous atypical mitotic figures and occasional elongated "strap" cells with eccentric nuclei...
October 14, 2016: Head and Neck Pathology
L Pelegrí Martínez, A A Kohan, J L Vercher Conejero
The introduction of PET/CT scanners in clinical practice in 1998 has improved care for oncologic patients throughout the clinical pathway, from the initial diagnosis of disease through the evaluation of the response to treatment to screening for possible recurrence. The CT component of a PET/CT study is used to correct the attenuation of PET studies; CT also provides anatomic information about the distribution of the radiotracer. CT is especially useful in situations where PET alone can lead to false positives and false negatives, and CT thereby improves the diagnostic performance of PET...
October 7, 2016: Radiología
Kevin P Murphy, Liam J Healy, Lee Crush, Maria Twomey, Fiachra Moloney, Sylvia Sexton, Owen J O'Connor, Michael M Maher
AIM: To assess the effect of neutral (NC) and positive (PC) oral contrast use on patient dose in low-dose abdominal computed tomography (CT). METHODS: Low-dose clinically indicated CTs were performed on 79 Crohn's patients (35 = PC, 1 L 2% gastrografin; 44 = NC, 1.5 L polyethylene glycol). Scanner settings for both acquisitions were identical apart from 25 s difference in intravenous contrast timing. Body mass index (BMI), scan-ranges, dose-length product and size-specific dose estimated were recorded...
September 28, 2016: World Journal of Radiology
Andrew Mitchell, Alexandre Dugas
BACKGROUND: Perforation of the colon occurring during or shortly following colonoscopy or barium enema is a rare complication of collagenous colitis (CC). "Spontaneous" perforation in CC, in which no instigating factor is identified, is even less common, with only five cases reported to date. We report herein an additional case of spontaneous perforation in previously undiagnosed CC and review the clinical and pathological features of previously reported cases. CASE PRESENTATION: An 80 year old woman presented to the emergency department with abdominal pain preceded by approximately one month of frequent non-bloody diarrhea...
October 6, 2016: BMC Gastroenterology
Ying Li, Gao Yang, Jinwei Qiang, Songqi Cai, Hao Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence of insulin resistance (IR) and diabetes in patients with chronic hepatic schistosomiasis japonica (HSJ) and portosystemic shunts (PSS). METHODS: Pre- and post-contrasted computed tomography images obtained from patients with HSJ and control subjects were reviewed by two radiologists who identified and graded any shunting vessels. Anthropometric measurements, hepatic enzymes, lipid profile, blood levels of albumin, glucose, insulin and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-2) index of all participants were also assessed...
September 29, 2016: Journal of International Medical Research
William Ruger Porter, Jayc C Sedlmayr, Lawrence M Witmer
Extant crocodilians are a highly apomorphic archosaur clade that is ectothermic, yet often achieve large body sizes that can be subject to higher heat loads. Therefore, the anatomical and physiological roles that blood vessels play in crocodilian thermoregulation need further investigation to better understand how crocodilians establish and maintain cephalic temperatures and regulate neurosensory tissue temperatures during basking and normal activities. The cephalic vascular anatomy of extant crocodilians, particularly American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) was investigated using a differential-contrast, dual-vascular injection technique and high resolution X-ray micro-computed tomography (μCT)...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
Andre S Madsen, George Oosthuizen, Grant L Laing, John L Bruce, Damian Luiz Clarke
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to audit our experience with computed tomography angiography (CTA) for the detection of aerodigestive tract injury (ADTI) following penetrating neck injury (PNI) and to assess the significance of deep surgical emphysema on CTA. METHODS: A prospectively maintained trauma registry at the Pietermaritzburg Metropolitan Trauma Service, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa was retrospectively interrogated. The data of all patients with PNI investigated with CTA over a 4-y period were reviewed...
October 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
Masaki Ikeda, Yoshitake Murata, Ryoko Ohnishi, Tatsuo Kato, Akira Hara, Takuji Fujinaga
Congenital esophagobronchial fistula (EBF) is rarely seen in adults. We report a case of EBF detected in adulthood with a destroyed lung. A 67-year-old man experienced repeated pneumonia during his childhood. Since the age of 38, he had often suffered from bloody phlegm and always had a cough and sputum during oral intake. Before cardiac surgery for atrial fibrillation and valvular disease, computed tomography (CT) detected bronchiectasis, which could cause pulmonary bleeding during heart surgery, and the patient was introduced to our hospital for lung resection...
December 2016: Surgical Case Reports
K Sunil Raviraj, P Miglani, A Garg, P K Agarwal
Mucormycosis, is an emerging fungal infection in immunocompromised and diabetic individuals, usually affects rhino-orbito-cerebral, cutaneous and pulmonary regions. But mucormycosis in immunocompetent environment is rare and occurrence of gastric mucormycosis is unusual. We report a case of 19 year old female, with no pre-existing co-morbidities, presented with fever, dysentery, vomiting, and melena for 4 days. On evaluation she was found to have pancytopenia, acute kidney injury, hemolytic anemia, coagulopathy and hepatic derangement and treated with hemodialysis, plasmapheresis along with antibiotics and packed cell RBC transfusion...
October 2015: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Federico Moser, Franco José Signorini, Pablo Sergio Maldonado, Veronica Gorodner, Arturo Lopez Sivilat, Lucio Ricardo Obeide
INTRODUCTION: Bochdalek hernia is a congenital diaphragmatic defect that results from improper fusion of the septum transversum and the pleuroperitoneal folds. It rarely persists asymptomatic until adulthood. The reported incidence is as low as 0.17%. Surgical repair of the defect can be performed through the abdomen or through the chest, and in both cases open or through laparoscopy/thoracoscopy. CASE REPORT: We present 2 cases of fully laparoscopic repair of giant Bochdalek hernia in adults...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
Donlaporn Kittivanichhkul, Narattaphol Charoenphandhu, Phisit Khemawoot, Suchinda Malaivijitnond
Since the in vitro and in vivo anti-osteoporotic effects of Pueraria mirifica (PM) in rodents have been verified, its activity in menopausal monkeys was evaluated as required before it can be applicable for human use. In this study, postmenopausal osteoporotic monkeys were divided into two groups (five per group), and fed daily with standard diet alone (PMP0 group) or diet mixed with 1,000 mg/kg BW of PM powder (PMP1000 group) for 16 months. Every two months, the bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC) and bone geometry parameters (cortical area and thickness, and periosteal and endosteal circumference) at the distal radius and proximal tibia were determined using peripheral quantitative computed tomography together with plasma and urinary bone markers...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
Kenichi Utano, Koichi Nagata, Tetsuro Honda, Toru Mitsushima, Takaaki Yasuda, Takashi Kato, Shoichi Horita, Michio Asano, Noritaka Oda, Kenichiro Majima, Yasutaka Kawamura, Michiaki Hirayama, Naoki Watanabe, Hidenori Kanazawa, Alan Kawarai Lefor, Hideharu Sugimoto
Purpose To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and patient acceptance of reduced-laxative computed tomographic (CT) colonography without computer-aided detection (CAD) for the detection of colorectal polypoid and non-polypoid neoplasms in a population with a positive recent fecal immunochemical test (FIT). Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval and written informed consent were obtained. This multicenter prospective trial enrolled patients who had positive FIT results. Reduced-laxative CT colonography and colonoscopy were performed on the same day...
August 31, 2016: Radiology
Mohammed Monem, Mohamad Khalid Iskandarani, Kishan Gokaraju
We discuss the case of an independent 80-year-old Caucasian woman, being treated with new oral anticoagulants for a previous deep vein thrombosis, who had fallen on her right shoulder. She made a delayed presentation to the emergency department with a wrist drop in her right dominant hand. She had right arm bruising with good distal pulses but had a global neurological deficit in the hand. Plain radiographs of the shoulder, humerus, elbow, forearm and wrist demonstrated no fractures. MRI showed a significant right axillary lesion distorting the surrounding soft tissues, including the brachial plexus, and CT with contrast confirmed this to be a large axillary pseudoaneurysm...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Utaroh Motosugi, Tomoaki Ichikawa, Katsuhiro Sano, Hiroshi Onishi
OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to determine the effects of dehydration and oral rehydration on the incidence of acute adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media administered during abdominal and pelvic CT in outpatients. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: For our prospective randomized study performed at a single institution, adult outpatients undergoing contrast-enhanced abdominal CT were randomly divided into a rehydration group (n = 2244 patients [1379 men and 865 women]; mean age, 65...
November 2016: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Michele A Steffey, Allison L Zwingenberger, Leticia Daniel, Sandra L Taylor
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of 3 different bowel preparation protocols on interpretation of computed tomography (CT) pneumocolonography images. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental crossover design. ANIMALS: Intact male, hound-cross, research colony dogs (n=4). METHODS: All dogs received the 3 different bowel preparation protocols for CT pneumocolonography in the same order, with a minimum of 2 weeks between protocols...
October 2016: Veterinary Surgery: VS
Jessica Wong, Helen Moore, Mark Roger, Chris McKee
INTRODUCTION: Several different neutral oral contrast agents have been trialled in magnetic resonance and CT enterography (CTE). In the Auckland region, Mannitol 2.5% and VoLumen are both used in CTE. This study compares the performance of these two neutral oral contrast agents in CTE. METHODS: Computed tomography enterography data were collected from 25 consecutive studies that used either Mannitol or VoLumen in 2014. All images were reviewed by three radiologists blinded to the type of oral contrast...
October 2016: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
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