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Marcin Krotkiewski
Physiological saline can hardly be treated as physiological as it contains qualitatively and quantitatively different amounts of electrolytes. In particular, it contains 50% more chlorine ions than serum. Physiological saline can cause metabolic acidosis and in diabetic patients hyperchloremic acidosis. In comparison with Ringer solution and plasma-lyte, physiological saline is causing higher number of untoward effects and mortality associated with surgery. Ringer solution should be used in the situations requiring expansion of extracellular fluid...
October 2015: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Flavia Brancusi, Jeremy Farrar, Dorothee Heemskerk
Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most severe form of TB. Despite treatment, mortality and long-term disability remain unacceptably high. Prevention, early recognition, diagnosis and treatment are fundamental to improving outcomes. However, an effective vaccine remains elusive, initial symptoms are nonspecific, and sensitive diagnostic tests are not available. There has been progress in our understanding of the immunopathology of TBM, and several factors have been found to be associated with susceptibility to infection, disease progression and clinical outcome...
September 2012: Future Microbiology
Alastair L Young, Rajasundurum Rajagenashan, Sonal Asthana, Christopher J Peters, Giles J Toogood, Mervyn H Davies, J Peter A Lodge, Stephen G Pollard, K Rajendra Prasad
As the result of the widening gap between supply and demand of organs for liver transplantation, efforts to improve allocation have become an increasingly important yet controversial subject. The MELD score has been adopted in the USA but its usefulness has rarely been examined in Europe. We carried out an intention to treat analysis of 422 patients placed on our transplant waiting list over a 5-year period. We examined multiple variables to investigate the value of MELD, sodium and other factors in predicting post-transplant outcomes...
April 2007: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
R Bahl, N Bhandari, M K Bhan
World Health Organization (WHO) recommended standard ORS solution has sodium (90 mmol/L) and glucose (111 mmol/L) almost in the ratio of 1:1 and a total osmolarity of 311 mmol/L. There are concerns that the sodium or glucose concentration and the overall osmolarity in the formulation is not appropriate. Therefore, the efficacy of standard and reduced-osmolarity ORS solutions in young children with acute diarrhea was evaluated in a recent WHO supervised multicentre trial conducted in India (New Delhi), Brazil, Mexico and Peru...
July 1996: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
C S Loo, T O Lim, K S Fan, Z Murad, A B Suleiman
A patient with severe hyponatreamia secondary to chronic renal failure was treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD). On the third day of admission, she developed progressive obtundation. Neurological examination showed bilateral brisk reflexes with intact brain stem reflexes. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated patchy demyelination of the pontine area indicating central pontine myelinolysis (CPM). Despite supportive measures, the patient died on the fifteenth day of admission. The rate of correction of hyponatraemia with peritoneal dialysis can be rapid and detrimental to hyponatraemic chronic renal failure patients and careful monitoring of serum sodium level is advocated...
June 1995: Medical Journal of Malaysia
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