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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031134/the-positive-relationships-between-plant-coverage-species-richness-and-aboveground-biomass-are-ubiquitous-across-plant-growth-forms-in-semi-steppe-rangelands
#1
Anvar Sanaei, Arshad Ali, Mohammad Ali Zare Chahouki
The positive relationships between biodiversity and aboveground biomass are important for biodiversity conservation and greater ecosystem functioning and services that humans depend on. However, the interaction effects of plant coverage and biodiversity on aboveground biomass across plant growth forms (shrubs, forbs and grasses) in natural rangelands are poorly studied. Here, we hypothesized that, while accounting for environmental factors and disturbance intensities, the positive relationships between plant coverage, biodiversity, and aboveground biomass are ubiquitous across plant growth forms in natural rangelands...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031127/patients-perceptions-and-experiences-of-living-with-a-surgical-wound-healing-by-secondary-intention-a-qualitative-study
#2
Dorothy McCaughan, Laura Sheard, Nicky Cullum, Jo Dumville, Ian Chetter
BACKGROUND: Most surgical wounds heal by primary intention, that is to say, the edges of the wound are brought together with sutures, staples, adhesive glue or clips. However, some wounds may be left open to heal (if there is a risk of infection, or if there has been significant tissue loss), and are known as 'surgical wounds healing by secondary intention'. They are estimated to comprise approximately 28% of all surgical wounds and are frequently complex to manage. However, they are under researched and little is known of their impact on patients' lives...
September 28, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031040/-treatment-refusal-in-pediatric-oncology
#3
A Špótová, K Husáková, A Hrašková, M Mikesková, J Puškáčová, S Hederová, M Jamárik, E Rabenseifertová, Z Jalovecká, A Kolenová, Z Šubová
BACKGROUND: Pediatric oncologists are often faced with situations in which parents or guardians refuse recommended treatment for curable childhood cancer. Deciding how to proceed in such situations is an ethical dilemma. The aim of this article is to consider optimal approaches when parents are strongly against oncological treatment, potentially compromising their childrens rights for health care and to the chance for cure. CASES: In this paper, we report two cases of treatment refusal from our department and the impact of such decisions on the children themselves...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031037/-evaluation-of-anti-cancer-therapies-with-reimbursement-limited-to-comprehensive-cancer-centres-using-the-european-society-for-medical-oncology-magnitude-of-clinical-benefit-scale
#4
T Büchler, B Melichar, D Vrána, R Lemstrová, J Fínek, L Dušek, K Petráková, J Prausová
BACKGROUND: The costs of oncology treatments are increasing, due to the rising prevalence of malignant diseases and the introduction of expensive novel anti-cancer agents. The new European Society for Clinical Oncology (ESMO) has recently developed a new parametric system to evaluate the clinical benefit of drugs. The Magnitude of Clinical Benefit Scale (ESMO-MCBS) compares the contribution of a novel drug based on overall and progression-free survival and quality of life with those of current treatment options...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031036/-the-role-of-chemotherapy-in-the-treatment-of-low-grade-gliomas
#5
R Lakomý, T Kazda, A Poprach, P Pospíšil, R Jančálek, P Šlampa
BACKGROUND: The standard postsurgical options for low-grade gliomas include watchful waiting or radiotherapy depending on the risk factors for recurrence. The use of chemotherapy for the treatment of this disease is generally controversial, although the recently published results of the first of two large randomized phase III clinical trials (RTOG 9802 a EORTC 22033-26033), focusing on the evaluation of chemotherapy for the upfront treatment of newly diagnosed low-grade gliomas, are reassuring in this respect...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031035/-controversy-in-the-postoperative-treatment-of-low-grade-gliomas
#6
T Kazda, R Lakomý, A Poprach, P Pospíšil, R Jančálek, P Šlampa
BACKGROUND: The optimal treatment for low-grade gliomas remains controversial. Neurosurgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy are the main treatment options. Despite advances in oncology, there are still a lot of uncertainties, and the optimal sequences, combinations, and timings of these procedures have not yet been optimized. It is still unclear whether temozolomide can replace effective, but toxic PCV chemotherapy (procarbazine, lomustine, vincristine) and whether temozolomide can be used upfront alone instead of radiotherapy alone...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031034/-potential-of-using-vitamin-d-as-an-adjuvant-treatment-of-malignant-melanoma
#7
B Bolerázska, E Ďurovcová, M Mareková
The incidence of malignant melanoma worldwide continues to grow despite the enormous advances in topical and systemic therapy. This increase is recorded regularly even in countries where, as a result of public health campaigns, dermatological examination and subsequent treatment have become more frequent. However, there have been reports of a stable or even decreasing mortality rate that seem to contradict the objective increase in its incidence. The well-known risk factors for malignant melanoma include sunburns and occasional sunbathing, whereas regular sunbathing is associated with a lower incidence...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031030/ectopic-bone-as-a-nidus-for-calcium-oxalate-urocystolithiasis-in-a-cat
#8
J P Lulich, H S Prasad, M Manno, B Bagley
A 7-year-old female spayed domestic shorthair cat was referred to the urology service for nonsurgical urocystolith removal. A urolith was attached to the urothelium by ectopic bone. Interventional removal without surgery was successful. Follow-up evaluation 3 years after urolith removal revealed recurrent uroliths, bladder wall mineralization, and marked renal mineralization. This case illustrates the metaplastic potential of the urothelium and that ectopic bone should be included among the pathological factors that promote lithogenesis...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029370/elder-neglect-oral-diseases-and-injuries
#9
Stefano Petti
Elder Neglect (EN) is the failure of a designated caregiver to meet the needs of a dependent older person. World EN prevalence, meta-analyzed in this study, is 1.0% or 1.8% according to different statistical methods. Referring alleged EN cases to Adult Protective Services (APSs) by healthcare workers (HCWs) is mandatory in many countries. However, only few claims are substantiated, as EN could be confused with Self-Neglect, neglect could be unintentional or due to caregiver unawareness. Screening tools are inaccurate and their use is discouraged by public health organizations, because they lead to too many false positives, which engulf the already overwhelmed APSs...
October 13, 2017: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029234/keeping-education-fresh-not-just-in-microbiology
#10
Beatrix Fahnert
Innovative practice from around the globe, addressing a range of recent educational themes and trends, was published in the FEMS Microbiology Letters virtual Thematic Issue ''Keeping Education Fresh' in October 2017. Its thought-provoking content is reviewed here to more directly facilitate reflections and discussions in the professional community. The focus is on best practice approaches when enhancing student engagement, how to adjust those to the diversity of learners, learning situations and infrastructures, and to a broad range of subjects...
October 4, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029159/impact-evaluation-of-free-delivery-care-on-maternal-health-service-utilisation-and-neonatal-health-in-nepal
#11
Prabhat Lamichhane, Anurag Sharma, Ajay Mahal
Nepal introduced free delivery services for births in public facilities in 2005 in 25 districts with the intervention initially restricted to women with less than two living children and/or women with obstetric complications. After November 2007, eligibility conditions were relaxed to include all women, and the programme was later expanded to cover an additional 50 districts in December 2008. We exploit the phased expansion of the free birth delivery programme to identify its impact on place of delivery, the presence of skilled birth attendants (SBAs) and neonatal mortality using difference-in-difference methods, on data for 4457 live-births reported between 2001 and 2008 from Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys for 2006 and 2011...
September 27, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029132/general-practitioners-strategies-in-consultations-with-immigrants-in-norway-practice-based-shared-reflections-among-participants-in-focus-groups
#12
Stefán Hjörleifsson, Elise Hammer, Esperanza Díaz
Background: Immigrants comprise 16.8% of the population in Norway and meet General Practitioners (GPs) as their first point of contact with most health care services as do others in Norway. While Norwegian GPs are not trained in cultural competence, little is known about the extent to which they see good care for immigrants as relying on specific strategies. Objectives: To explore the thoughts of GPs in Norway about strategies they might use with immigrant patients...
September 28, 2017: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029086/hiv-prevention-costs-and-their-predictors-evidence-from-the-orphea-project-in-kenya
#13
Omar Galárraga, Richard G Wamai, Sandra G Sosa-Rubí, Mercy G Mugo, David Contreras-Loya, Sergio Bautista-Arredondo, Helen Nyakundi, Joseph K Wang'ombe
We estimate costs and their predictors for three HIV prevention interventions in Kenya: HIV testing and counselling (HTC), prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) and voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC). As part of the 'Optimizing the Response of Prevention: HIV Efficiency in Africa' (ORPHEA) project, we collected retrospective data from government and non-governmental health facilities for 2011-12. We used multi-stage sampling to determine a sample of health facilities by type, ownership, size and interventions offered totalling 144 sites in 78 health facilities in 33 districts across Kenya...
September 26, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029076/neoliberal-long-term-care-from-community-to-corporate-control
#14
Larry Polivka, Baozhen Luo
Publicly (mainly Medicaid) funded long-term care (LTC) services have evolved from a nursing home dominated system of service to a much more balanced system including home- and community-based services (HCBS) programs over the last 30 years. The HCBS programs have been largely administered by the state and local level nonprofit aging networks (ANs) consisting of Area Agencies on Aging and thousands of service providers. Over the last decade, however, for-profit HMOs administered primarily by large insurance companies have begun to displace AN organizations...
September 23, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029075/improving-health-systems-performance-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-system-dynamics-model-of-the-pay-for-performance-initiative-in-afghanistan
#15
O Alonge, S Lin, T Igusa, D H Peters
System dynamics methods were used to explore effective implementation pathways for improving health systems performance through pay-for-performance (P4P) schemes. A causal loop diagram was developed to delineate primary causal relationships for service delivery within primary health facilities. A quantitative stock-and-flow model was developed next. The stock-and-flow model was then used to simulate the impact of various P4P implementation scenarios on quality and volume of services. Data from the Afghanistan national facility survey in 2012 was used to calibrate the model...
September 23, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029048/general-practitioners-perception-of-being-a-doctor-in-urban-vs-rural-regions-in-germany-a-focus-group-study
#16
Nadine J Pohontsch, Heike Hansen, Ingmar Schäfer, Martin Scherer
Background: Inadequate recruitment numbers for GPs in rural regions give cause for concern. Working in rural regions is less attractive among medical students because of strong associations concerning a higher workload, restriction of privacy and demands exceeding their competences. We aimed to explore perceptions of GPs working in urban versus rural regions to contrast these prejudices. Methods: We conducted nine focus groups with GPs [female = 21, male = 44] from urban and rural regions, using a semi-structured guideline...
September 23, 2017: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029033/trial-evaluating-ambulatory-therapy-of-travelers-diarrhea-treat-td-study-a-randomized-controlled-trial-comparing-3-single-dose-antibiotic-regimens-with-loperamide
#17
Mark S Riddle, Patrick Connor, Jamie Fraser, Chad K Porter, Brett Swierczewski, Emma J Hutley, Brook Danboise, Mark P Simons, Christine Hulseberg, Tahaniyat Lalani, Ramiro L Gutierrez, David R Tribble
Background: Recommended treatment for travelers' diarrhea includes the combination of an antibiotic, usually a fluoroquinolone or azithromycin, and loperamide for rapid resolution of symptoms. However, adverse events, postdose nausea with high-dose azithromycin, effectiveness of single-dose rifaximin, and emerging resistance to front-line agents are evidence gaps underlying current recommendations. Methods: A randomized, double-blind trial was conducted in 4 countries (Afghanistan, Djibouti, Kenya, and Honduras) between September 2012 and July 2015...
September 23, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028957/long-term-mortality-and-disability-in-cryptococcal-meningitis-a-systematic-literature-review
#18
Estelle Pasquier, John Kunda, Pierre De Beaudrap, Angela Loyse, Elvis Temfack, Síle F Molloy, Thomas S Harrison, Olivier Lortholary
Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is the primary cause of meningitis in HIV-infected adults and an emerging disease in HIV-seronegative individuals. No literature review has studied the long-term outcome of CM. We performed a systematic review on the long-term (≥3 months) impact of CM (C. neoformans and C. gattii) on mortality and disability in HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected adults. Though the quality of current evidence is limited, the long-term impact of CM on survival and disability appears to be high. One-year mortality ranged from 13% in an Australian non-HIV C...
October 4, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028892/nephele-a-cloud-platform-for-simplified-standardized-and-reproducible-microbiome-data-analysis
#19
Nick Weber, David Liou, Jennifer Dommer, Philip MacMenamin, Mariam Quiñones, Ian Misner, Andrew Oler, Joe Wan, Lewis Kim, Meghan Coakley McCarthy, Samuel Ezeji, Karlynn Noble, Darrell E Hurt
Motivation: Widespread interest in the study of the microbiome has resulted in data proliferation and the development of powerful computational tools. However, many scientific researchers lack the time, training, or infrastructure to work with large datasets or to install and use command line tools. Results: The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) has created Nephele, a cloud-based microbiome data analysis platform with standardized pipelines and a simple web interface for transforming raw data into biological insights...
September 28, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028869/mg-rast-version-4-lessons-learned-from-a-decade-of-low-budget-ultra-high-throughput-metagenome-analysis
#20
Folker Meyer, Saurabh Bagchi, Somali Chaterji, Wolfgang Gerlach, Ananth Grama, Travis Harrison, Tobias Paczian, William L Trimble, Andreas Wilke
As technologies change, MG-RAST is adapting. Newly available software is being included to improve accuracy and performance. As a computational service constantly running large volume scientific workflows, MG-RAST is the right location to perform benchmarking and implement algorithmic or platform improvements, in many cases involving trade-offs between specificity, sensitivity and run-time cost. The work in [Glass EM, Dribinsky Y, Yilmaz P, et al. ISME J 2014;8:1-3] is an example; we use existing well-studied data sets as gold standards representing different environments and different technologies to evaluate any changes to the pipeline...
September 26, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
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