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pneumonia Parapneumonic effusion empyema abscess

Tahereh Haji, Adam Byrne, Tom Kovesi
Following the introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV7), while overall rates of invasive pneumococcal disease and pneumococcal pneumonia in children declined, rates of empyema increased. We examined changes in the incidence of hospitalization for pediatric complicated pneumonia (PCOMP) in Eastern Ontario, Canada, particularly since the introduction of the 13-valent vaccine (PCV13). A retrospective chart review was carried out evaluating previously healthy children admitted with PCOMP, which included empyema, parapneumonic effusion, necrotizing pneumonia, and lung abscess between 2002 and 2015...
March 3, 2018: Children
Danai Khemasuwan, Jeffrey Sorensen, David C Griffin
BACKGROUND: Combined intrapleural therapy with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and deoxyribonuclease (DNase) has been shown to reduce the need for surgical intervention for complicated pleural effusion/empyema (CPE/empyema). For patients in whom tPA/DNase is likely to fail, however, receipt of this therapy may simply delay the inevitable. The goal of this study was to identify risk factors for failure of combined intrapleural therapy. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of patients who received intrapleural tPA/DNase for the treatment of CPE/empyema...
February 6, 2018: Chest
Idrissa Diawara, Khalid Zerouali, Naima Elmdaghri, Abderrahman Abid
BACKGROUND: Simple parapneumonic effusion is a pleural effusion associated with lung infection (i.e., pneumonia). Streptococcus pneumoniae remains the most common pathogen causing parapneumonic effusions. In Morocco, the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 13-valent (PCV13) was introduced in the national immunization program in October 2010 in 2 + 1 schedule for prevention of pneumococcal disease, and replaced by the PCV10 in July 2012 in the same schedule. We report a case of parapneumonic pleural effusions caused by S...
April 27, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
S Poetter-Lang, C J Herold
CLINICAL ISSUE: The diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is often not possible based only on the clinical symptoms and biochemical parameters. STANDARD RADIOLOGICAL METHODS: For every patient with the suspicion of CAP, a chest radiograph in two planes should be carried out. Additionally, a risk stratification for the decision between outpatient therapy or hospitalization is recommended. METHODICAL INNOVATIONS: Based on the evaluation of the different radiological patterns as well as their extent and distribution, a rough allocation to so-called pathogen groups as well as a differentiation between viral and bacterial infections are possible; however, because different pathogens cause different patterns an accurate correlation is not feasible by relying purely on imaging...
January 2017: Der Radiologe
Katarzyna Krenke, Marta Krawiec, Grażyna Kraj, Joanna Peradzynska, Agnieszka Krauze, Marek Kulus
AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors that could predict the development of local complications (parapneumonic effusion/pleural empyema, necrotizing pneumonia, and lung abscess) in children with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). METHODS: Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were prospectively collected and compared in children with noncomplicated and complicated CAP. RESULTS: Two-hundred and three patients aged from 2 months to 17 years were enrolled...
January 2018: Clinical Respiratory Journal
Jia Wei Woo, John Kit Chung Tam, Douglas Su Gin Chan, Shi Wang, Lee Shir Ying
A 67-year-old woman with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and transfusional haemosiderosis developed Salmonella empyema caused by direct extension from splenic abscesses. She was successfully treated with antibiotics, pleural decortication and splenectomy. She had presented with fever after being treated for presumed pneumonia and parapneumonic effusion 2 months prior. CT scan showed splenic abscesses eroding through the diaphragm causing a left pleural empyema. Pleural fluid and spleen bacterial cultures grew Salmonella enterica...
September 2, 2015: BMJ Case Reports
Frank Dusemund, Joannis Chronis, Florent Baty, Werner Christian Albrich, Martin Hugo Brutsche
BACKGROUND: The impact of chronic lung diseases on outcome in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is not well established. We aimed to investigate the outcome of adult CAP-patients with underlying chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma or interstitial lung disease (ILD) in a case-control study. METHODS: We used a nationwide database including all hospitalisations in Switzerland from 2002 to 2010. Endpoints were the incidence of lung abscess, parapneumonic pleural effusion, empyema, acute respiratory distress syndrome, in-hospital mortality and length of stay...
2014: Swiss Medical Weekly
M A Fletcher, H-J Schmitt, M Syrochkina, G Sylvester
This review evaluates the serotype epidemiology of complicated pneumococcal pneumonia (CPP) during the period 1990-2012. PubMed and EMBASE were searched using the terms "empyema", "complicated pneumonia", "pleural infection", "necrotizing pneumonia", "pleural effusion", "parapneumonic effusion", "pneumatocele", or "lung abscess"; "pneumococcal" or "Streptococcus pneumoniae"; and "serotype" for studies on the epidemiology of complicated pneumonias published from January 1, 1990 to October 1, 2013...
June 2014: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Saleem Islam, Casey M Calkins, Adam B Goldin, Catherine Chen, Cynthia D Downard, Eunice Y Huang, Laura Cassidy, Jacqueline Saito, Martin L Blakely, Shawn J Rangel, Marjorie J Arca, Fizan Abdullah, Shawn D St Peter
The aim of this study is to review the current evidence on the diagnosis and management of empyema. The American Pediatric Surgical Association Outcomes and Clinical Trials Committee compiled 8 questions to address. A comprehensive review was performed on each topic. Topics included the distinction between parapneumonic effusion and empyema, the optimal imaging modality in evaluating pleural space disease, when and how pleural fluid should be managed, the first treatment option and optimal timing in the management of empyema, the optimal chemical debridement agent for empyema, therapeutic options if chemical debridement fails, therapy for parenchymal abscess or necrotizing pneumonia and duration of antibiotic therapy after an intervention...
November 2012: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
James D Chalmers, Aran Singanayagam, Adam T Hill
BACKGROUND: C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase protein synthesized by the liver primarily in response to interleukin-6. Initial studies have suggested that inflammatory markers may have a role in predicting severity. We investigated whether admission and day 4 CRP could predict severity in community-acquired pneumonia. METHODS: A prospective study was carried out over a 2-year period in a large teaching hospital. CRP was measured on admission and on day 4...
March 2008: American Journal of Medicine
Saud I Ahmed, Ria E Gripaldo, Oladipo A Alao
Empyema necessitans is a rare complication of pleural space infections and occurs when the infected fluid dissects spontaneously into the chest wall from the pleural space. This process may result from bronchopleural extension of a peripheral lung infection. These cases result from inadequate treatment of an empyema and usually occur after a necrotizing pneumonia or pulmonary abscess. We present two cases of empyema thoracic necessitans.
February 2007: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Neelmanee Ramphul, Katherine M Eastham, Roger Freeman, Gary Eltringham, Angela M Kearns, John P Leeming, Asif Hasan, Leslie J R Hamilton, David A Spencer
OBJECTIVE: The incidence of empyema has increased dramatically in children in the UK over the last decade. Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) serotype 1 is the dominant serotype. We have observed more pneumatocoele and bronchopleural fistulae formation over this time. AIM: Our aim was to determine the number of children who developed cavitatory disease as a complication of empyema at a tertiary referral centre and whether there was any association with S. pneumoniae serotype 1...
August 2006: Pediatric Pulmonology
Muhammad Jamal, Stacy C Reebye, Mohammed Zamakhshary, Erik D Skarsgard, Geoffrey K Blair
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Tube thoracostomy is a standard method of treating pediatric parapneumonic collections. Despite recent work denoting thoracoscopy as a superior method of treatment, few studies have looked at factors predictive of tube thoracostomy failure. We reviewed parapneumonic collections initially treated with tube thoracostomy to identify such factors. METHODS: Nontuberculous parapneumonic collections treated initially with tube thoracostomy over a 10-year period were reviewed...
May 2005: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Fang-Chi Lin, Yi-Chu Chen, Funn-Juh Chen, Shi-Chuan Chang
Tuberculous (TB) pleurisy and parapneumonic effusion (PPE) are common causes of pleural fibrosis. The mechanisms underlying fibrin deposition may be different since involved inflammatory cells are distinct. In this study, we measured various cytokines and fibrinolytic enzymes and compared the differences between the two effusions. PPE was further divided into noncomplicated PPE and complicated PPE/empyema subgroups. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1beta, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) and tissue type plasminogen activator (tPA) were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays...
August 2005: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
Tina Q Tan, Edward O Mason, Ellen R Wald, William J Barson, Gordon E Schutze, John S Bradley, Laurence B Givner, Ram Yogev, Kwang Sik Kim, Sheldon L Kaplan
OBJECTIVE: The frequency of children who are hospitalized with pneumococcal pneumonia complicated by necrosis, empyema/complicated parapneumonic effusion, and lung abscess seems to be increasing. The factors that contribute to this increase are unclear; therefore, the objective of this study was to describe and compare the relative frequency, clinical characteristics, and outcome of hospitalized children with complicated pneumonia with those of children with uncomplicated pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in the era of antibiotic resistance...
July 2002: Pediatrics
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