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Dalia Luz De Ita-Pérez, Mauricio Díaz-Muñoz
β-catenin, the principal effector of the Wnt pathway, is also one of the cadherin cell adhesion molecules; therefore, it fulfills signaling and structural roles in most of the tissues and organs. It has been reported that β-catenin in the liver regulates metabolic responses such as gluconeogenesis and histological changes in response to obesity-promoting diets. The function and cellular location of β-catenin is finely modulated by coordinated sequences of phosphorylation-dephosphorylation events. In this article, we evaluated the levels and cellular localization of liver β-catenin variants, more specifically β-catenin phosphorylated in serine 33 (this phosphorylation provides recognizing sites for β-TrCP, which results in ubiquitination and posterior proteasomal degradation of β-catenin) and β-catenin phosphorylated in serine 675 (phosphorylation that enhances signaling and transcriptional activity of β-catenin through recruitment of different transcriptional coactivators)...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Thomas Kietzmann
The liver has a multitude of functions which are necessary to maintain whole body homeostasis. This requires that various metabolic pathways can run in parallel in the most efficient manner and that futile cycles are kept to a minimum. To a large extent this is achieved due to a functional specialization of the liver parenchyma known as metabolic zonation which is often lost in liver diseases. Although this phenomenon is known for about 40 years, the underlying regulatory pathways are not yet fully elucidated...
January 17, 2017: Redox Biology
Tao Tang, Zhengduo Yang, Dan Zhang, Jie Qu, Guang Liu, Shiwu Zhang
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer involving the rectal wall is rare and may lead to diagnostic pitfalls. CASE PRESENTATION: Out of 9504 patients with rectal tumors between January 2003 and January 2015, 9 patients (elderly with a mean age of 74 years) with prostate cancer involving the rectal wall were clinically misdiagnosed with rectal cancer. The lesions were located in the rectum, and included 3 circumferential rectal masses, 1 ulceration lesion, 1 crater-like mass, and 4 protruding lesions...
January 17, 2017: Diagnostic Pathology
I Massie, K Spaniol, G Geerling, S Schrader
Severe dry eye syndrome (DES) can cause painful loss of vision and may result from lacrimal gland dysfunction. Current treatments are palliative, so a causative therapy is desirable. The ability to (cryo)preserve lacrimal gland tissue or epithelial cells would simplify this. Here, lacrimal gland tissue was cryopreserved in 10% dimethylsulphoxide in liquid nitrogen, or stored at 4 °C in culture medium for up to 7 days, and compared with fresh tissue using immunohistochemistry. Cultures were initiated from fresh and stored tissue, and cells characterised in P1 for proliferation (WST-1), colony-forming efficiency (CFE) and secretory capacity (immunocytochemistry and β-hexosaminidase activity assay)...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Rami Fishler, Yan Ostrovski, Chao-Yi Lu, Josué Sznitman
The dispersion of inhaled microparticles in the pulmonary acinus of the lungs is often attributed to the complex interplay between convective mixing, due to irreversible flows, and intrinsic particle motion (i.e. gravity and diffusion). However, the role of each mechanism, the exact nature of such interplay between them and their relative importance still remain unclear. To gain insight into these dispersive mechanisms, we track liquid-suspended microparticles and extract their effective diffusivities inside an anatomically-inspired microfluidic acinar model...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
Benedikt Minke, Drieke Vandamme, Thomas Schwarzl, Walter Kolch, Finian Martin
RNA sequencing is a technique widely used to identify and characterize gene expression patterns. We demonstrate that this method can be applied to screen expression profiles in mammary epithelial cells cultured in 3D, supported by a natural laminin-rich extracellular matrix, but requires several specific steps in the preparation of the RNA samples. Here we describe the use of RNA sequencing to analyze mRNA patterns in MCF10A human mammary epithelial cells cultured under 3D conditions in a laminin-rich extracellular matrix...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Malgorzata Gajewska, Sara McNally
Three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures on reconstituted basement membrane (rBM) enable the study of complex interactions between extracellular matrix (ECM) components and epithelial cells, which are crucial for the establishment of cell polarity and functional development of epithelia. 3D cultures of mammary epithelial cells (MECs) on Matrigel (a laminin-rich ECM derived from the Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm (EHS) murine tumor) promote interactions of MECs with the matrix via integrins, leading to formation of spherical monolayers of polarized cells surrounding a hollow lumen (acini)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Sébastien F Barré, David Haberthür, Tiziana P Cremona, Marco Stampanoni, Johannes C Schittny
The pulmonary airways are subdivided into conducting and gas-exchanging airways. The small tree of gas-exchanging airways which is fed by the most distal conducting airway represents an acinus. Very little is known about the development of the number of acini. The goal of this study was to estimate their number throughout rat postnatal development. Right middle rat lung lobes were obtained at postnatal day 4-60, stained with heavy metals, paraffin embedded, and scanned by synchrotron radiation-based X-ray tomographic microscopy or imaged with micro computed tomography after critical point drying...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Yuanyuan Wang, Pingli Dai, Xiuping Chen, Jörg Romeis, Jianrong Shi, Yufa Peng, Yunhe Li
Because of its ecological and economic importance, the honey bee Apis mellifera is commonly used to assess the environmental risk of insect-resistant, genetically modified plants. In the current laboratory study, feeding-exposure experiments were used to determine whether pollen from transgenic rice harms A. mellifera worker bee. In one experiment, the survival and mean acinus diameter of hypopharyngeal glands of adult bees were similar when bees were fed on pollen from Bt rice lines or from a non-Bt rice line, but bee survival was significantly reduced when they received pollen that was mixed with potassium arsenate as a positive control...
October 7, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Hanjing Gao, Qing Song, Faqin Lv, Shan Wang, Yiru Wang, Xiaoyan Li, Yukun Luo, Xingguo Mei, Jie Tang
Background/Aims: This study investigated the protection provided by gabexate mesylate thermo-sensitive in-situ gel (GMTI) against grade III pancreatic trauma in rats. Methods: A grade III pancreatic trauma model with main pancreatic duct dividing was established, and the pancreas anatomical diagram, ascites, and serum biochemical indices, including amylase, lipase, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), were examined...
January 15, 2017: Gut and Liver
Jun-Jun Huang, Yi Cai, Min-Yi Huang, Liu Zhu, Fei He, Xia-Wen Liu, Bi-Yun Huang, Yan-Zhen Yi, Mu Yuan
Naftopidil (NAF) is a α1D/1A adrenoceptor selective drug used for the treatment of both benign prostatic hyperplasia and lower urinary tract symptoms (BPH/LUTS). However, NAF is used as a racemate in clinic. To compare the differences and similarities among two enantiomers and racemate, pharmacological activities were evaluated through rat functional assays in vitro and estrogen/androgen (E/T) induced rat BPH model in vivo. NAF and the two enantiomers showed similar blocking activity on α1 receptor. S-NAF exhibited more α1D/1A adrenoceptor subtype selectivity than R-NAF and the racemate...
November 15, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Yan Ostrovski, Philipp Hofemeier, Josué Sznitman
BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesized that by coupling magnetic particles to inhaled therapeutics, the ability to target specific lung regions (eg, only acinar deposition), or even more so specific points in the lung (eg, tumor targeting), can be substantially improved. Although this method has been proven feasible in seminal in vivo studies, there is still a wide gap in our basic understanding of the transport phenomena of magnetic particles in the pulmonary acinar regions of the lungs, including particle dynamics and deposition characteristics...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Vera Rötzer, Desalegn Egu, Jens Waschke
Meibomian glands are a modified type of sebaceous glands within the eye lid, which produce an oily secretion important for the stabilization and the prevention of evaporation of the tear film. The holocrine secretory mode of Meibomian glands is characterized by the centripetal movement, the maturation and finally degeneration of the acinar epithelial cells. The process of maturation and degeneration is paralleled by altered expression pattern of certain proteins and the intracellular accumulation of Meibomian gland lipids...
December 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Sónia P Campos, Maria de Lurdes Pinto, Gabriela Gomes, Paula Guedes de Pinho, Joaquim A Monteiro, Luis M Félix, Paula S Branco, Luísa M Ferreira, Luís M Antunes
BACKGROUND: Propofol biotransformation occurs in the liver via hydroxylation by CYP450 enzymatic complex and by glucuronidation, however extra-hepatic metabolism has also been described. OBJECTIVES: To better understand the metabolic pathways involved in propofol biotransformation, the expression of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant activity and the amount of propofol and its non-conjugated metabolites were investigated. METHODS: Twenty-one NewZealand rabbits were allocated into three groups continuously treated for 20h...
October 2016: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
Geraint J Parfitt, Phillip N Lewis, Robert D Young, Alex Richardson, J Guy Lyons, Nick Di Girolamo, James V Jester
The meibomian and sebaceous glands secrete lipids to prevent desiccation of the ocular surface and skin, respectively. Precisely how these holocrine tissues regenerate is not well understood. To address this, we characterized keratin 5(+) (K5) label-retaining cells (LRCs) and the lineage tracing of keratin 14 (K14) progenitors in mouse meibomian glands. Using the tet-off H2B-GFP/K5tTA mouse, H2B-GFP fluorescence dilutes 2-fold with every division in K5(+) cell nuclei after doxycycline administration. In 3D reconstructions generated over a >28-day doxycycline chase, we observed LRCs at the acinus entrance where K6(+) ductal epithelium terminates...
September 13, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
Hong-Qun Wang, Jie Li
OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinicopathological features of myeloid sarcoma (MS). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the clinicopathological features of patients with MS and reviewed the relevant literature. RESULTS: There were 39 patients (20 male and 19 female, with a ratio of 1.1:1) aged 2-62 years (median: 33 years; mean: 33.4 years), with 53.9% patients in the 21-50 years age group. The clinical manifestations varied and were dependent on the lesion location...
September 2016: Pathology, Research and Practice
Luosha Xiao, Toshihiro Sera, Kenichiro Koshiyama, Shigeo Wada
Understanding the three-dimensional morphology of pulmonary acini is essential when exploring the biomechanics of respiratory function. In this study, we characterized the morphology of individual acini and a cluster of acini stemming from the same terminal conducting airway using a quantitative approach based on the semi-automatic segmentation of synchrotron micro-CT images of mouse lung. The volume and surface area of five clusters of mouse acini including 50 individual acini were estimated based on the voxel and surface mesh of segmented acini at FRC...
October 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Ying-Wei Li, Jin Guo, He Shen, Jun Li, Nuo Yang, Costa Frangou, Kayla E Wilson, Yinglong Zhang, Ashley L Mussell, Marius Sudol, Amjad Farooq, Jun Qu, Jianmin Zhang
The Hippo signaling pathway regulates cellular proliferation and survival, thus exerting profound effects on normal cell fate and tumorigenesis. The pivotal effector of this pathway is YAP1, a transcriptional co-activator amplified in mouse and human cancers where it promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and malignant transformation. The Hippo tumor suppressor pathway has been suggested to inhibit the YAP1 function through serine phosphorylation-induced cytoplasmic retention and degradation. Here we report that the tyrosine188 (Y188) site of YAP1 isoform with 2 WW domains (known as YAP1-2) plays an important role in YAP1-induced cellular transformation...
September 16, 2016: Cell Cycle
Teguh Budipitojo, Yuda Heru Fibrianto, Guntari Titik Mulyani
AIM: To identify the types of endocrine cells in the pancreas of the Sunda porcupine (Hystrix javanica) and its immunolocalization. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five adult H. javanica were used without sexual distinction. The presences of endocrine cells (glucagon, insulin, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide [PP]) in pancreatic tissues were detected using the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method. RESULTS: The fusiform, round, and oval form endocrine cells were detected in the islets of Langerhans and exocrine parts...
June 2016: Veterinary World
Run-Fen Cheng, Jian Wang, Jing-Yi Zhang, Lin Sun, Yan-Rui Zhao, Zhi-Qiang Qiu, Bao-Cun Sun, Yan Sun
BACKGROUND: MicroRNA-506 (miR-506) has been reported to function in several tumors as a tumor suppressor gene or oncogene. However, the expression and role of miR-506 in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the phenotype of miR-506 in PDAC. METHODS: Using miRNA in situ hybridization, we examined the expression of miR-506 in 113 PDACs and 87 paired normal pancreatic tissues. We evaluated miR-506 expression in PDAC cells, normal pancreatic ducts, and acinus/islands, and we analyzed the associations between miR-506 expression and the clinicopathologic characteristics of PDAC patients...
2016: Chinese Journal of Cancer
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