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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786576/the-histological-and-electron-microscopic-study-of-the-parotid-salivary-gland-in-dehydrated-rats-of-different-ages
#1
Denys P Biletskyy, Oleg A Ustiansky, Olena S Maksymova, Pavel A Moskalenko, Alexey A Tymoshenko, Anna S Degtyarenko, Viktoriia Yu Harbuzova, Yevhen I Dubovyk, Andrii P Voznyi, Gennadii F Tkach
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Water-salt metabolism disorders is one of the main factor of salivary gland pathology development. The aim: To study the morphological structure of the parotid salivary gland of young, mature and old rats at micro- and ultrastructural levels under water deprivation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The experiment was carried out on thirty six laboratory male rats of different ages (young, mature and old). The rats of the control group received normal volume of drinking water...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782227/cdk5-mediated-acn-acinus-phosphorylation-regulates-basal-autophagy-independently-of-metabolic-stress
#2
Nilay Nandi, Helmut Krämer
In neurons, autophagy counteracts consequences of aging. It is therefore of interest how basal rates of macroautophagy/autophagy can be controlled independently of metabolic stress. We recently investigated the regulation of basal, starvation-independent autophagy by Acn/Acinus, a multifunctional nuclear protein with proposed roles in apoptosis, alternative RNA splicing, and basal autophagy. We found that Acn is stabilized by phosphorylation of the conserved serine 437. The phosphomimetic AcnS437D mutation causes no overt developmental phenotypes, but significantly elevates levels of basal autophagy and extends life spans...
May 21, 2018: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727209/perturbation-of-epithelial-apicobasal-polarity-by-rhomboid-family-1-gene-overexpression
#3
Xue-Mei Peng, Shan Gao, Hui-Ting Deng, Hong-Xing Cai, Zhuan Zhou, Rong Xiang, Qiang-Zhe Zhang, Lu-Yuan Li
The human rhomboid family (RHBDF)1 gene is highly expressed in breast cancer under clinical conditions but not in normal mammary gland tissues. Silencing the RHBDF1 gene in breast cancer xenograft tumors leads to inhibition of tumor growth. We show in this study that artificially raising RHBDF1 protein levels in the mammary epithelial cells MCF-10A results in severe perturbations of the ability of the cells to form lumen-containing acini, either in 3-dimensional cell cultures or implanted in mouse mammary fat pads...
May 4, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605866/effects-of-gadolinium-based-contrast-agents-on-submandibular-gland-tissue-in-rats
#4
Fatma Beyazal Celiker, Levent Tumkaya, Adnan Yilmaz, Zerrin Ozergin Coskun, Metin Celiker, Fatih Oghan, Tolga Mercantepe, Suat Terzi, Engin Dursun
AIM: The aim of this prospective animal study is to investigate the influence of multiple administrations of macrocyclic ionic (gadoteric acid) and linear nonionic (gadodiamide) gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCA) on submandibular gland tissue (SGT) of the rats. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Twenty-four Sprague Dawley female rats were included the study. Group 1 was determined as a control group (n = 6). Group 2 was determined as saline group (n = 6). Group 3 was determined as Omniscan group (n = 6) and received only intraperitoneal (IP) 0...
March 31, 2018: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594837/diagnosing-pituitary-adenoma-in-unstained-sections-based-on-multiphoton-microscopy
#5
Peihua Lin, Xueyong Liu, Shu Wang, Xiaoling Li, Yankun Song, Lianhuang Li, Shanshan Cai, Xingfu Wang, Jianxin Chen
PURPOSE: If we can find a new method that can achieve rapid diagnosis of adenoma during operation, it will help surgeon shorten the operation time and enhance the treatment efficacy. This study discusses the feasibility of multiphoton microscopy (MPM) in diagnosing pituitary adenoma. METHOD: MPM, based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) is performed for the diagnosis of pituitary adenoma in unstained sections. RESULTS: Our results show that MPM can reveal the variation of reticulin fiber by SHG signals of collagen, combined with the measurement of area of acinus, thickness of collagen fiber and collagen percentage...
March 29, 2018: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577199/experimental-analysis-of-the-efficacy-of-dihydroquercetin-on-the-model-of-chronic-nonbacterial-inflammation-of-the-prostatic-gland
#6
T G Borovskaya, S I Kamalova, M E Polyektova, V A Mashanova, A V Vychuzhanina, S I Kseneva, M B Plotnikov, V E Goldberg
We studied the efficiency of dihydroquercetin on the model of chronic nonbacterial inflammation of the prostatic gland in rats. It was found that administration of dihydroquercetin was followed by a significant decrease in the area of the connective tissue in the prostatic gland to initial levels, which attested to antifibrotic properties of this oxidant. Additionally, the substance prevented the development of atrophy of acinus epithelium. After administration of reference drug Prostamol Uno, only moderate antifibrotic effects were observed...
March 26, 2018: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570757/simulation-of-airflow-in-an-idealized-emphysematous-human-acinus
#7
Amitvikram Dutta, Dragos Vasilescu, James C Hogg, A B Phillion, Joshua R Brinkerhoff
Emphysema is the permanent enlargement of air spaces in the respiratory regions of the lung due to destruction of the inter-alveolar septa. The progressive coalescence of alveoli and alveolar ducts into larger airspaces leads to the disruption of normal airway wall motion and airflow rates within the pulmonary acinus. To contribute to the understanding of the individual effects of emphysema during its earliest stages, computational fluid dynamics simulations of airflow in mathematically-derived models of the pulmonary acinus were performed...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569790/hypoxia-activated-adipose-mesenchymal-stem-cells-prevents-irradiation-induced-salivary-hypofunction-by-enhanced-paracrine-effect-through-fgf10
#8
Hyun-Soo Shin, Songyi Lee, Young-Mo Kim, Jae-Yol Lim
PURPOSE: To explore the effects and mechanisms of paracrine factors secreted from human adipose mesenchymal stem cells (hAdMSCs) that are activated by hypoxia on radioprotection against irradiation-induced salivary hypofunction in subjects undergoing radiotherapy for head and neck cancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An organotypic spheroid coculture model to mimic IR-induced salivary hypofunction was set up for in vitro experiments. Human parotid gland epithelial cells were organized to form three-dimensional acinus-like spheroids on growth factor reduced (GFR)-Matrigel...
March 23, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560858/transient-external-force-induces-phenotypic-reversion-of-malignant-epithelial-structures-via-nitric-oxide-signaling
#9
Benjamin L Ricca, Gautham Venugopalan, Saori Furuta, Kandice Tanner, Walter A Orellana, Clay D Reber, Douglas G Brownfield, Mina J Bissell, Daniel A Fletcher
Non-malignant breast epithelial cells cultured in three-dimensional laminin-rich extracellular matrix (lrECM) form well organized, growth-arrested acini, whereas malignant cells form continuously growing disorganized structures. While the mechanical properties of the microenvironment have been shown to contribute to formation of tissue-specific architecture, how transient external force influences this behavior remains largely unexplored. Here, we show that brief transient compression applied to single malignant breast cells in lrECM stimulated them to form acinar-like structures, a phenomenon we term 'mechanical reversion...
March 21, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506983/liver-zonation-index-of-drug-transporter-and-metabolizing-enzyme-protein-expressions-in-mouse-liver-acinus
#10
Masanori Tachikawa, Yuna Sumiyoshiya, Daisuke Saigusa, Kazunari Sasaki, Michitoshi Watanabe, Yasuo Uchida, Tetsuya Terasaki
The purpose of the present study was to clarify the molecular basis of zonated drug distributions in mouse liver based on the protein expression levels of transporters and metabolizing enzymes in periportal (PP) and pericentral (PC) vein regions of mouse hepatic lobules. The distributions of sulforhodamine 101 (SR-101), a substrate of organic anion transporting polypeptides (Oatps), and ribavirin, a substrate of equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (Ent1), were elucidated in frozen liver sections of mice, to which each compound had been intravenously administered...
May 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484717/necklace-like-microfibers-with-variable-knots-and-perfusable-channels-fabricated-by-an-oil-free-microfluidic-spinning-process
#11
Ruoxiao Xie, Peidi Xu, Yupeng Liu, Lili Li, Guoan Luo, Mingyu Ding, Qionglin Liang
Fiber materials with different structural features, which in many cases endow the fibers extraordinary functions, are drawing considerable attention from biomedical and material researchers. Here, perfusable necklace-like knotted microfibers are presented for the first time. Additionally, a novel microfluidic spinning method facilitates the production of variable knots and channels. Not only spindle-, but also hemisphere- and petal-knotted microfibers can be controllably fabricated. Generation and perfusion of both Janus channels and helical channel in the knotted microfibers are also shown...
April 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466501/morphological-effects-on-helminth-parasites-caused-by-herbicide-under-experimental-conditions
#12
Tainá Carneiro de Castro Monte, Brunna Vianna Braga, Maurício Carvalho de Vasconcellos, Arnon Dias Jurberg, Ester Maria Mota, Helene Santos Barbosa, Juberlan Silva Garcia, Arnaldo Maldonado Júnior
Helminth parasites have been studied as potential accumulators for different pollutants. Echinostoma paraensei is a foodborne trematode whose vertebrate host, the rodent Nectomys squamipes, is naturally exposed to environmental pesticides. However, little information exists regarding the pesticide's effects on helminths. This study investigated the morphological effects on the trematode, E. paraensei, after experimental Roundup® herbicide exposure, in concentrations below those recommended for agricultural use...
February 19, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437785/dia1-dependent-adhesions-are-required-by-epithelial-tissues-to-initiate-invasion
#13
Tim B Fessenden, Yvonne Beckham, Mathew Perez-Neut, Guillermina Ramirez-San Juan, Aparajita H Chourasia, Kay F Macleod, Patrick W Oakes, Margaret L Gardel
Developing tissues change shape and tumors initiate spreading through collective cell motility. Conserved mechanisms by which tissues initiate motility into their surroundings are not known. We investigated cytoskeletal regulators during collective invasion by mouse tumor organoids and epithelial Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) acini undergoing branching morphogenesis in collagen. Use of the broad-spectrum formin inhibitor SMIFH2 prevented the formation of migrating cell fronts in both cell types. Focusing on the role of the formin Dia1 in branching morphogenesis, we found that its depletion in MDCK cells does not alter planar cell motility either within the acinus or in two-dimensional scattering assays...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370949/heterogeneous-structure-and-surface-tension-effects-on-mechanical-response-in-pulmonary-acinus-a-finite-element-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Kenichiro Koshiyama, Keisuke Nishimoto, Satoshi Ii, Toshihiro Sera, Shigeo Wada
BACKGROUND: The pulmonary acinus is a dead-end microstructure that consists of ducts and alveoli. High-resolution micro-CT imaging has recently provided detailed anatomical information of a complete in vivo acinus, but relating its mechanical response with its detailed acinar structure remains challenging. This study aimed to investigate the mechanical response of acinar tissue in a whole acinus for static inflation using computational approaches. METHODS: We performed finite element analysis of a whole acinus for static inflation...
January 20, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327467/erbb3-binding-protein-1-ebp1-is-a-novel-developmental-pluripotency-associated-4-dppa4-cofactor-in-human-pluripotent-cells
#15
Priyanka Somanath, Kelly M Bush, Paul S Knoepfler
Developmental Pluripotency-Associated-4 (DPPA4) is one of the few core pluripotency genes lacking clearly defined molecular and cellular functions. Here, we used a proteomics screening approach of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) nuclear extract to determine DPPA4 molecular functions through identification of novel cofactors. Unexpectedly, the signaling molecule ERBB3-binding protein 1 (EBP1) was the strongest candidate binding partner for DPPA4 in hESC. EBP1 is a growth factor signaling mediator present in two isoforms, p48 and p42...
January 12, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305332/morphological-and-functional-characterization-of-hemocytes-from-two-deep-sea-vesicomyid-clams-phreagena-okutanii-and-abyssogena-phaseoliformis
#16
Akihiro Tame, Genki Ozawa, Tadashi Maruyama, Takao Yoshida
Deep-sea vesicomyid clams harboring intracellular symbiotic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria are often dominant in chemosynthetic animal communities. Although they are known to have erythrocytes, little is known about other hemocytes. To investigate the types and roles of various hemocytes in vesicomyid clams, we performed morphological, histochemical and functional characterization of the hemocytes in two species, Phreagena okutanii, collected from 873 to 978 m depth, and Abyssogena phaseoliformis, from 5199 to 5355 m...
March 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227247/stress-induced-cdk5-activity-enhances-cytoprotective-basal-autophagy-in-drosophila-melanogaster-by-phosphorylating-acinus-at-serine-437
#17
Nilay Nandi, Lauren K Tyra, Drew Stenesen, Helmut Krämer
Cdk5 is a post-mitotic kinase with complex roles in maintaining neuronal health. The various mechanisms by which Cdk5 inhibits and promotes neurodegeneration are still poorly understood. Here, we show that in Drosophila melanogaster Cdk5 regulates basal autophagy, a key mechanism suppressing neurodegeneration. In a targeted screen, Cdk5 genetically interacted with Acinus (Acn), a primarily nuclear protein, which promotes starvation-independent, basal autophagy. Loss of Cdk5, or its required cofactor p35, reduces S437-Acn phosphorylation, whereas Cdk5 gain-of-function increases pS437-Acn levels...
December 11, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219039/morphogenesis-and-mucus-production-of-epithelial-tissues-of-three-major-salivary-glands-of-embryonic-mouse-in-3d-culture
#18
Azusa Nakao, Takumi Inaba, Akiko Murakami-Sekimata, Hiroyuki Nogawa
Embryonic mouse submandibular epithelia initiate branching morphogenesis within two days when embedded in Matrigel and stimulated by members of the epidermal growth factor family. However, it is unknown whether the end buds further branch over longer culture periods, and whether saliva-producing cells differentiate there. In the present study, we cultivated three major (submandibular, sublingual and parotid) salivary epithelia from 13-day embryos for 14 days in mesenchyme-free cultures. All epithelia continued to grow and branch to form numerous acinus-like structures in medium supplemented with neuregulin 1, fibroblast growth factor 1, and insulintransferrin-sodium selenite...
December 2017: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183042/expression-and-regulation-of-s100-fused-type-protein-hornerin-at-the-ocular-surface-and-lacrimal-apparatus
#19
Fabian Garreis, Janine Jahn, Katharina Wild, Daniel B Abrar, Martin Schicht, Jens-Michael Schröder, Friedrich Paulsen
Purpose: The S100 fused-type proteins hornerin (HRNR) and filaggrin-2 (FLG2) are members of the epidermal differentiation complex, which is involved in terminal differentiation of keratinocytes via cornification as well as maintenance of the epidermal antimicrobial barrier. We investigated the expression and possible regulation of HRNR and FLG2 at the ocular surface and in the lacrimal apparatus. Methods: Tissues of the lacrimal apparatus and ocular surface were analyzed systematically by means of RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and immuntransmission electron microscopy (iTEM) for their ability to express and produce HRNR and FLG2...
November 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127023/interobserver-variation-among-pathologists-and-refinement-of-criteria-in-distinguishing-separate-primary-tumors-from-intrapulmonary-metastases-in-lung
#20
Andrew G Nicholson, Kathleen Torkko, Patrizia Viola, Edwina Duhig, Kim Geisinger, Alain C Borczuk, Kenzo Hiroshima, Ming S Tsao, Arne Warth, Sylvie Lantuejoul, Prudence A Russell, Erik Thunnissen, Alberto Marchevsky, Mari Mino-Kenudson, Mary Beth Beasley, Johan Botling, Sanja Dacic, Yasushi Yatabe, Masayuki Noguchi, William D Travis, Keith Kerr, Fred R Hirsch, Lucian R Chirieac, Ignacio I Wistuba, Andre Moreira, Jin-Haeng Chung, Teh Ying Chou, Lukas Bubendorf, Gang Chen, Giuseppe Pelosi, Claudia Poleri, Frank C Detterbeck, Wilbur A Franklin
Multiple tumor nodules are seen with increasing frequency in clinical practice. On the basis of the 2015 WHO classification of lung tumors, we assessed the reproducibility of the comprehensive histologic assessment to distinguish second primary lung cancers (SPLCs) from intrapulmonary metastases (IPMs), looking for the most distinctive histologic features. An international panel of lung pathologists reviewed a scanned sequential cohort of 126 tumors from 48 patients and recorded an agreed set of histologic features, including tumor typing and predominant pattern of adenocarcinoma, thereby opining whether the case was SPLC, IPM, or a combination thereof...
February 2018: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
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