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Sebastien F Barre, David Haberthür, Tiziana P Cremona, Marco Stampanoni, Johannes C Schittny
The pulmonary airways are subdivided into conducting and gas-exchanging airways. The small tree of gas-exchanging airways which is fed by the most distal conducting airway represents an acinus. Very little is known about the development of the number of acini. The goal of this study was to estimate their number throughout rat postnatal development. Right middle rat lung lobes were obtained at postnatal day 4-60, stained with heavy metals, paraffin embedded, and scanned by synchrotron radiation based X-ray tomographic microscopy or imaged using micro computed tomography after critical point drying...
October 19, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Yuanyuan Wang, Pingli Dai, Xiuping Chen, Jörg Romeis, Jianrong Shi, Yufa Peng, Yunhe Li
Because of its ecological and economic importance, the honey bee Apis mellifera is commonly used to assess the environmental risk of insect-resistant, genetically modified plants. In the current laboratory study, feeding-exposure experiments were used to determine whether pollen from transgenic rice harms A. mellifera worker bee. In one experiment, the survival and mean acinus diameter of hypopharyngeal glands of adult bees were similar when bees were fed on pollen from Bt rice lines or from a non-Bt rice line, but bee survival was significantly reduced when they received pollen that was mixed with potassium arsenate as a positive control...
October 7, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Hanjing Gao, Qing Song, Faqin Lv, Shan Wang, Yiru Wang, Xiaoyan Li, Yukun Luo, Xingguo Mei, Jie Tang
Background/Aims: This study investigated the protection provided by gabexate mesylate thermo-sensitive in-situ gel (GMTI) against grade III pancreatic trauma in rats. Methods: A grade III pancreatic trauma model with main pancreatic duct dividing was established, and the pancreas anatomical diagram, ascites, and serum biochemical indices, including amylase, lipase, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL- 6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), were examined...
September 20, 2016: Gut and Liver
Jun-Jun Huang, Yi Cai, Min-Yi Huang, Liu Zhu, Fei He, Xia-Wen Liu, Bi-Yun Huang, Yan-Zhen Yi, Mu Yuan
Naftopidil (NAF) is a α1D/1A adrenoceptor selective drug used for the treatment of both benign prostatic hyperplasia and lower urinary tract symptoms (BPH/LUTS). However, NAF is used as a racemate in clinic. To compare the differences and similarities among two enantiomers and racemate, pharmacological activities were evaluated through rat functional assays in vitro and estrogen/androgen (E/T) induced rat BPH model in vivo. NAF and the two enantiomers showed similar blocking activity on α1 receptor. S-NAF exhibited more α1D/1A adrenoceptor subtype selectivity than R-NAF and the racemate...
September 9, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Yan Ostrovski, Philipp Hofemeier, Josué Sznitman
BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesized that by coupling magnetic particles to inhaled therapeutics, the ability to target specific lung regions (eg, only acinar deposition), or even more so specific points in the lung (eg, tumor targeting), can be substantially improved. Although this method has been proven feasible in seminal in vivo studies, there is still a wide gap in our basic understanding of the transport phenomena of magnetic particles in the pulmonary acinar regions of the lungs, including particle dynamics and deposition characteristics...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Vera Rötzer, Desalegn Egu, Jens Waschke
Meibomian glands are a modified type of sebaceous glands within the eye lid, which produce an oily secretion important for the stabilization and the prevention of evaporation of the tear film. The holocrine secretory mode of Meibomian glands is characterized by the centripetal movement, the maturation and finally degeneration of the acinar epithelial cells. The process of maturation and degeneration is paralleled by altered expression pattern of certain proteins and the intracellular accumulation of Meibomian gland lipids...
August 18, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Sónia P Campos, Maria de Lurdes Pinto, Gabriela Gomes, Paula Guedes de Pinho, Joaquim A Monteiro, Luis M Félix, Paula S Branco, Luísa M Ferreira, Luís M Antunes
BACKGROUND: Propofol biotransformation occurs in the liver via hydroxylation by CYP450 enzymatic complex and by glucuronidation, however extra-hepatic metabolism has also been described. OBJECTIVES: To better understand the metabolic pathways involved in propofol biotransformation, the expression of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant activity and the amount of propofol and its non-conjugated metabolites were investigated. METHODS: Twenty-one NewZealand rabbits were allocated into three groups continuously treated for 20h...
October 2016: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
Geraint J Parfitt, Phillip N Lewis, Robert D Young, Alex Richardson, J Guy Lyons, Nick Di Girolamo, James V Jester
The meibomian and sebaceous glands secrete lipids to prevent desiccation of the ocular surface and skin, respectively. Precisely how these holocrine tissues regenerate is not well understood. To address this, we characterized keratin 5(+) (K5) label-retaining cells (LRCs) and the lineage tracing of keratin 14 (K14) progenitors in mouse meibomian glands. Using the tet-off H2B-GFP/K5tTA mouse, H2B-GFP fluorescence dilutes 2-fold with every division in K5(+) cell nuclei after doxycycline administration. In 3D reconstructions generated over a >28-day doxycycline chase, we observed LRCs at the acinus entrance where K6(+) ductal epithelium terminates...
September 13, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
Hong-Qun Wang, Jie Li
OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinicopathological features of myeloid sarcoma (MS). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the clinicopathological features of patients with MS and reviewed the relevant literature. RESULTS: There were 39 patients (20 male and 19 female, with a ratio of 1.1:1) aged 2-62 years (median: 33 years; mean: 33.4 years), with 53.9% patients in the 21-50 years age group. The clinical manifestations varied and were dependent on the lesion location...
September 2016: Pathology, Research and Practice
Luosha Xiao, Toshihiro Sera, Kenichiro Koshiyama, Shigeo Wada
Understanding the three-dimensional morphology of pulmonary acini is essential when exploring the biomechanics of respiratory function. In this study, we characterized the morphology of individual acini and a cluster of acini stemming from the same terminal conducting airway using a quantitative approach based on the semi-automatic segmentation of synchrotron micro-CT images of mouse lung. The volume and surface area of five clusters of mouse acini including 50 individual acini were estimated based on the voxel and surface mesh of segmented acini at FRC...
October 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Ying-Wei Li, Jin Guo, He Shen, Jun Li, Nuo Yang, Costa Frangou, Kayla E Wilson, Yinglong Zhang, Ashley L Mussell, Marius Sudol, Amjad Farooq, Jun Qu, Jianmin Zhang
The Hippo signaling pathway regulates cellular proliferation and survival, thus exerting profound effects on normal cell fate and tumorigenesis. The pivotal effector of this pathway is YAP1, a transcriptional co-activator amplified in mouse and human cancers where it promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and malignant transformation. The Hippo tumor suppressor pathway has been suggested to inhibit the YAP1 function through serine phosphorylation-induced cytoplasmic retention and degradation. Here we report that the tyrosine188 (Y188) site of YAP1 isoform with 2 WW domains (known as YAP1-2) plays an important role in YAP1-induced cellular transformation...
September 16, 2016: Cell Cycle
Teguh Budipitojo, Yuda Heru Fibrianto, Guntari Titik Mulyani
AIM: To identify the types of endocrine cells in the pancreas of the Sunda porcupine (Hystrix javanica) and its immunolocalization. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five adult H. javanica were used without sexual distinction. The presences of endocrine cells (glucagon, insulin, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide [PP]) in pancreatic tissues were detected using the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method. RESULTS: The fusiform, round, and oval form endocrine cells were detected in the islets of Langerhans and exocrine parts...
June 2016: Veterinary World
Run-Fen Cheng, Jian Wang, Jing-Yi Zhang, Lin Sun, Yan-Rui Zhao, Zhi-Qiang Qiu, Bao-Cun Sun, Yan Sun
BACKGROUND: MicroRNA-506 (miR-506) has been reported to function in several tumors as a tumor suppressor gene or oncogene. However, the expression and role of miR-506 in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the phenotype of miR-506 in PDAC. METHODS: Using miRNA in situ hybridization, we examined the expression of miR-506 in 113 PDACs and 87 paired normal pancreatic tissues. We evaluated miR-506 expression in PDAC cells, normal pancreatic ducts, and acinus/islands, and we analyzed the associations between miR-506 expression and the clinicopathologic characteristics of PDAC patients...
2016: Chinese Journal of Cancer
Julie Rodor, Qun Pan, Benjamin J Blencowe, Eduardo Eyras, Javier F Cáceres
Acinus (apoptotic chromatin condensation inducer in the nucleus) is an RNA-binding protein (RBP) originally identified for its role in apoptosis. It was later found to be an auxiliary component of the exon junction complex (EJC), which is deposited at exon junctions as a consequence of pre-mRNA splicing. To uncover the cellular functions of Acinus and investigate its role in splicing, we mapped its endogenous RNA targets using the cross-linking immunoprecipitation protocol (iCLIP). We observed that Acinus binds to pre-mRNAs, associating specifically to a subset of suboptimal introns, but also to spliced mRNAs...
September 2016: RNA
Nilay Nandi, Lauren K Tyra, Helmut Krämer
Acinus (Acn) is a nuclear protein that participates in the regulation of autophagy. Loss of Acn function prevents autophagy in starving cells. Conversely, Acn activation induces basal autophagy. This enhances the quality control functions of autophagy such as the removal of misfolded proteins, thereby reducing neurodegeneration and prolonging lifespan. Acn activity is enhanced by Akt1-mediated phosphorylation, which counteracts the cleavage of Acn by a caspase-3 homolog.
July 2015: Molecular & Cellular Oncology
Abhilash S Kizhakke Puliyakote, Dragoş M Vasilescu, John D Newell, Ge Wang, Ewald R Weibel, Eric A Hoffman
Through interior tomography, high-resolution microcomputed tomography (μCT) systems provide the ability to nondestructively assess the pulmonary acinus at micron and submicron resolutions. With the application of systematic uniform random sampling (SURS) principles applied to in situ fixed, intact, ex vivo lungs, we have sought to characterize morphometric differences in central vs. surface acini to better understand how well surface acini reflect global acinar geometry. Lungs from six mice (A/J strain, 15-20 wk of age) were perfusion fixed in situ and imaged using a multiresolution μCT system (Micro XCT 400, Zeiss)...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
James Sneyd, Shawn Means, Di Zhu, John Rugis, Jong Hak Won, David I Yule
We construct a model of calcium waves in a three-dimensional anatomically accurate parotid acinar cell, constructed from experimental data. Gradients of inositol trisphosphate receptor (IPR) density are imposed, with the IPR density being greater closer to the lumen, which has a branched structure, and inositol trisphosphate (IP3) is produced only at the basal membrane. We show (1) that IP3 equilibrates so quickly across the cell that it can be assumed to be spatially homogeneous; (2) spatial separation of the sites of IP3 action and IP3 production does not preclude the formation of stable oscillatory Ca(2+) waves...
May 4, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Dong-Yuan Chen, Katherine R Lipari, Yalda Dehghan, Sebastian J Streichan, David Bilder
Planar cell polarity (PCP) information is a critical determinant of organ morphogenesis. While PCP in bounded epithelial sheets is increasingly well understood, how PCP is organized in tubular and acinar tissues is not. Drosophila egg chambers (follicles) are an acinus-like "edgeless epithelium" and exhibit a continuous, circumferential PCP that does not depend on pathways active in bounded epithelia; this follicle PCP directs formation of an ellipsoid rather than a spherical egg. Here, we apply an imaging algorithm to "unroll" the entire 3D tissue surface and comprehensively analyze PCP onset...
May 10, 2016: Cell Reports
Gang Chen, Ye Zou, Xuan Zhang, Lingfei Xu, Qiaoyun Hu, Ting Li, Chenjuan Yao, Shali Yu, Xiaoke Wang, Chun Wang
β-actin, a cytoskeletal protein, is the most widely used housekeeping gene. Although housekeeping genes are expressed in all tissues, the β-actin gene is expressed in certain cell types because of differential binding of transcriptional factors to the regulatory elements of the gene. The expression and localization of β-actin protein in the submandibular glands (SMG) of mice were investigated in this study, using Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. In ICR and C57BL/6J mice, the levels of β-actin protein in the SMG of females are significantly higher than those in the SMG of males...
July 2016: Cell Biology International
Hui-Fang Hung, Heidi Hehnly, Stephen Doxsey
Establishing apical-basal polarity is instrumental in the functional shaping of a solitary lumen within an acinus. By exploiting micropatterned slides, wound healing assays, and three-dimensional culture systems, we identified a mother centriole subdistal appendage protein, cenexin, as a critical player in symmetric lumen expansion through the control of microtubule organization. In this regard, cenexin was required for both centrosome positioning in interphase cells and proper spindle orientation during mitosis...
March 21, 2016: Current Biology: CB
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