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Acinus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127023/interobserver-variation-among-pathologists-and-refinement-of-criteria-in-distinguishing-separate-primary-tumours-from-intrapulmonary-metastases-in-lung
#1
Andrew G Nicholson, Kathleen Torkko, Patrizia Viola, Edwina Duhig, Kim Geisinger, Alain C Borczuk, Kenzo Hiroshima, Ming S Tsao, Arne Warth, Sylvie Lantuejoul, Prudence A Russell, Erik Thunnissen, Alberto Marchevsky, Mari Mino-Kenudson, Mary Beth Beasley, Johan Botling, Sanja Dacic, Yasushi Yatabe, Masayuki Noguchi, William D Travis, Keith Kerr, Fred R Hirsch, Lucian R Chirieac, Ignacio I Wistuba, Andre Moreira, Jin-Haeng Chung, Teh Ying Chou, Lukas Bubendorf, Gang Chen, Giuseppe Pelosi, Claudia Poleri, Frank C Detterbeck, Wilbur A Franklin
Multiple tumor nodules (MTNs) are seen with increasing frequency in clinical practice. Based on the 2015 WHO classification of lung tumors, we assessed the reproducibility of the comprehensive histologic assessment (CHA) to distinguish second primary lung cancers (SPLC) from intrapulmonary metastases (IPM), looking for the most distinctive histological features. An international panel of lung pathologists reviewed a scanned sequential cohort of 126 tumors from 48 patients, recorded an agreed set of histologic features, including tumor typing and predominant pattern of adenocarcinoma, thereby opining whether the case was SPLC, IPM or a combination...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954217/one-sub-acinus-for-all-fate-of-inhaled-aerosols-in-heterogeneous-pulmonary-acinar-structures
#2
Philipp Hofemeier, Kenishiro Koshiyama, Shigeo Wada, Josué Sznitman
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) have offered an attractive gateway to investigate in silico respiratory flows and aerosol transport in the depths of the lungs. Yet, not only do existing models lack sufficient anatomical realism in capturing the heterogeneity and morphometry of the acinar environment, numerical simulations have been widely restricted to domains capturing a mere few percent of a single acinus. Here, we present to the best of our knowledge the most detailed and comprehensive in silico simulations to date on the fate of aerosols in the acinar depths...
September 24, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940161/spatial-distribution-of-metals-within-the-liver-acinus-and-their-perturbation-by-pcb126
#3
William D Klaren, David Vine, Stefan Vogt, Larry W Robertson
Animal studies show that exposure to the environmental pollutant 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) causes alterations in hepatic metals as measured in acid-digested volume-adjusted tissue. These studies lack the detail of the spatial distribution within the liver. Here we use X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) to assess the spatial distribution of trace elements within liver tissue. Liver samples from male Sprague Dawley rats, treated either with vehicle or PCB126, were formalin fixed and paraffin embedded...
September 23, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917963/an-efficient-computational-fluid-particle-dynamics-method-to-predict-deposition-in-a-simplified-approximation-of-the-deep-lung
#4
P G Koullapis, P Hofemeier, J Sznitman, S C Kassinos
High-fidelity simulations of the complete airway tree are still largely beyond current computational capabilities. Towards large-scale simulations of the human lung, the current study introduces a numerical methodology to predict particle deposition in a simplified approximation of the deep lung during a full breathing cycle. The geometrical model employed consists of an idealised bronchial tree that represents generations 10 to 19 of the conducting zone and an heterogeneous acinar model created using a space-filling algorithm...
September 13, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900032/nucleolar-and-spindle-associated-protein-1-nusap1-interacts-with-a-sumo-e3-ligase-complex-during-chromosome-segregation
#5
Christine A Mills, Aussie Suzuki, Anthony Arceci, Jin Yao Mo, Alex Duncan, Edward D Salmon, Michael J Emanuele
The mitotic spindle is composed of dynamic microtubules and associated proteins that together direct chromosome movement during mitosis. The spindle plays a vital role in accurate chromosome segregation fidelity and is a therapeutic target in cancer. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms by which many spindle-associated proteins function remains unknown. The nucleolar and spindle-associated protein NUSAP1 is a microtubule-binding protein implicated in spindle stability and chromosome segregation. We show here that NUSAP1 localizes to dynamic spindle microtubules in a unique chromosome-centric pattern, in the vicinity of overlapping microtubules, during metaphase and anaphase of mitosis...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747982/comparative-study-of-fatty-liver-induced-by-methionine-and-choline-deficiency-in-c57bl-6n-mice-originating-from-three-different-sources
#6
Sou Hyun Kim, Yong Lim, Ju Bin Park, Jae-Hwan Kwak, Keuk-Jun Kim, Joung-Hee Kim, HyunKeun Song, Joon Young Cho, Dae Youn Hwang, Kil Soo Kim, Young-Suk Jung
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is believed to be the most prevalent liver disease worldwide and a major cause of chronic liver injury. It is characterized by lipid accumulation in the absence of significant alcohol consumption and frequently progresses to steatohepatitis, liver fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Although many studies have been conducted to better understand NAFLD since it was first recognized, there are still many gaps in knowledge of etiology, prognosis, prevention and treatment...
June 2017: Laboratory Animal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539829/multifaceted-regulation-of-gene-expression-by-the-apoptosis-and-splicing-associated-protein-complex-and-its-components
#7
REVIEW
Bhagyashree Deka, Kusum Kumari Singh
The differential deposition of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) on pre-mRNA mediates the processes of gene expression. One of the complexes containing RBPs that play a crucial part in RNA metabolism is the apoptosis-and splicing-associated protein (ASAP) complex. In this review, we present a summary of the structure of ASAP complex and its localization. Also, we discuss the findings by different groups on various functions of the subunits of the ASAP complex in RNA metabolism. The subunits of the ASAP complex are RNPS1, Acinus and SAP18...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483921/lack-of-liver-glycogen-causes-hepatic-insulin-resistance-and-steatosis-in-mice
#8
Jose M Irimia, Catalina M Meyer, Dyann M Segvich, Sneha Surendran, Anna A DePaoli-Roach, Nuria Morral, Peter J Roach
Disruption of the Gys2 gene encoding the liver isoform of glycogen synthase generates a mouse strain (LGSKO) that almost completely lacks hepatic glycogen, has impaired glucose disposal, and is pre-disposed to entering the fasted state. This study investigated how the lack of liver glycogen increases fat accumulation and the development of liver insulin resistance. Insulin signaling in LGSKO mice was reduced in liver, but not muscle, suggesting an organ-specific defect. Phosphorylation of components of the hepatic insulin-signaling pathway, namely IRS1, Akt, and GSK3, was decreased in LGSKO mice...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409533/control-of-oxygen-tension-recapitulates-zone-specific-functions-in-human-liver-microphysiology-systems
#9
Felipe T Lee-Montiel, Subin M George, Albert H Gough, Anup D Sharma, Juanfang Wu, Richard DeBiasio, Lawrence A Vernetti, D Lansing Taylor
This article describes our next generation human Liver Acinus MicroPhysiology System (LAMPS). The key demonstration of this study was that Zone 1 and Zone 3 microenvironments can be established by controlling the oxygen tension in individual devices over the range of ca. 3 to 13%. The oxygen tension was computationally modeled using input on the microfluidic device dimensions, numbers of cells, oxygen consumption rates of hepatocytes, the diffusion coefficients of oxygen in different materials and the flow rate of media in the MicroPhysiology System (MPS)...
October 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287935/heterotopic-pancreas-histopathologic-features-imaging-findings-and-complications
#10
REVIEW
Maryam Rezvani, Christine Menias, Kumaresan Sandrasegaran, Jeffrey D Olpin, Khaled M Elsayes, Akram M Shaaban
Heterotopic pancreas is a congenital anomaly in which pancreatic tissue is anatomically separate from the main gland. The most common locations of this displacement include the upper gastrointestinal tract-specifically, the stomach, duodenum, and proximal jejunum. Less common sites are the esophagus, ileum, Meckel diverticulum, biliary tree, mesentery, and spleen. Uncomplicated heterotopic pancreas is typically asymptomatic, with the lesion being discovered incidentally during an unrelated surgery, during an imaging examination, or at autopsy...
March 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287163/immunofluorescence-identifies-distinct-subsets-of-endothelial-cells-in-the-human-liver
#11
Otto Strauss, Anthony Phillips, Katya Ruggiero, Adam Bartlett, P Rod Dunbar
As well as systemic vascular endothelial cells, the liver has specialised sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC). LSEC dysfunction has been documented in many diseased states yet their phenotype in normal human liver has not been comprehensively assessed. Our aim was to improve characterisation of subsets of endothelial cells and associated pericytes in the human liver. Immunofluorescence microscopy was performed on normal human liver tissue samples to assess endothelial and structural proteins in a minimum of three donors...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235682/nuclear-imprisonment-of-host-cellular-mrna-by-nsp1%C3%AE-protein-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus
#12
Mingyuan Han, Hanzhong Ke, Qingzhan Zhang, Dongwan Yoo
Positive-strand RNA genomes function as mRNA for viral protein synthesis which is fully reliant on host cell translation machinery. Competing with cellular protein translation apparatus needs to ensure the production of viral proteins, but this also stifles host innate defense. In the present study, we showed that porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), whose replication takes place in the cytoplasm, imprisoned host cell mRNA in the nucleus, which suggests a novel mechanism to enhance translation of PRRSV genome...
May 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220106/synchronization-by-daytime-restricted-food-access-modulates-the-presence-and-subcellular-distribution-of-%C3%AE-catenin-and-its-phosphorylated-forms-in-the-rat-liver
#13
Dalia Luz De Ita-Pérez, Mauricio Díaz-Muñoz
β-catenin, the principal effector of the Wnt pathway, is also one of the cadherin cell adhesion molecules; therefore, it fulfills signaling and structural roles in most of the tissues and organs. It has been reported that β-catenin in the liver regulates metabolic responses such as gluconeogenesis and histological changes in response to obesity-promoting diets. The function and cellular location of β-catenin is finely modulated by coordinated sequences of phosphorylation-dephosphorylation events. In this article, we evaluated the levels and cellular localization of liver β-catenin variants, more specifically β-catenin phosphorylated in serine 33 (this phosphorylation provides recognizing sites for β-TrCP, which results in ubiquitination and posterior proteasomal degradation of β-catenin) and β-catenin phosphorylated in serine 675 (phosphorylation that enhances signaling and transcriptional activity of β-catenin through recruitment of different transcriptional coactivators)...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126520/metabolic-zonation-of-the-liver-the-oxygen-gradient-revisited
#14
Thomas Kietzmann
The liver has a multitude of functions which are necessary to maintain whole body homeostasis. This requires that various metabolic pathways can run in parallel in the most efficient manner and that futile cycles are kept to a minimum. To a large extent this is achieved due to a functional specialization of the liver parenchyma known as metabolic zonation which is often lost in liver diseases. Although this phenomenon is known for about 40 years, the underlying regulatory pathways are not yet fully elucidated...
April 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095874/clinicopathological-study-of-9-cases-of-prostate-cancer-involving-the-rectal-wall
#15
Tao Tang, Zhengduo Yang, Dan Zhang, Jie Qu, Guang Liu, Shiwu Zhang
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer involving the rectal wall is rare and may lead to diagnostic pitfalls. CASE PRESENTATION: Out of 9504 patients with rectal tumors between January 2003 and January 2015, 9 patients (elderly with a mean age of 74 years) with prostate cancer involving the rectal wall were clinically misdiagnosed with rectal cancer. The lesions were located in the rectum, and included 3 circumferential rectal masses, 1 ulceration lesion, 1 crater-like mass, and 4 protruding lesions...
January 17, 2017: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976538/cryopreservation-and-hypothermic-storage-of-lacrimal-gland-towards-enabling-delivery-of-regenerative-medicine-therapies-for-treatment-of-dry-eye-syndrome
#16
I Massie, K Spaniol, G Geerling, S Schrader
Severe dry eye syndrome (DES) can cause painful loss of vision and may result from lacrimal gland dysfunction. Current treatments are palliative, so a causative therapy is desirable. The ability to (cryo)preserve lacrimal gland tissue or epithelial cells would simplify this. Here, lacrimal gland tissue was cryopreserved in 10% dimethylsulphoxide in liquid nitrogen, or stored at 4 °C in culture medium for up to 7 days, and compared with fresh tissue using immunohistochemistry. Cultures were initiated from fresh and stored tissue, and cells characterised in P1 for proliferation (WST-1), colony-forming efficiency (CFE) and secretory capacity (immunocytochemistry and β-hexosaminidase activity assay)...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871676/streamline-crossing-an-essential-mechanism-for-aerosol-dispersion-in-the-pulmonary-acinus
#17
Rami Fishler, Yan Ostrovski, Chao-Yi Lu, Josué Sznitman
The dispersion of inhaled microparticles in the pulmonary acinus of the lungs is often attributed to the complex interplay between convective mixing, due to irreversible flows, and intrinsic particle motion (i.e. gravity and diffusion). However, the role of each mechanism, the exact nature of such interplay between them and their relative importance still remain unclear. To gain insight into these dispersive mechanisms, we track liquid-suspended microparticles and extract their effective diffusivities inside an anatomically-inspired microfluidic acinar model...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796956/next-generation-rna-sequencing-analysis-reveals-expression-of-a-transient-emt-profile-during-early-organization-of-mcf10a-cells-in-3d
#18
Benedikt Minke, Drieke Vandamme, Thomas Schwarzl, Walter Kolch, Finian Martin
RNA sequencing is a technique widely used to identify and characterize gene expression patterns. We demonstrate that this method can be applied to screen expression profiles in mammary epithelial cells cultured in 3D, supported by a natural laminin-rich extracellular matrix, but requires several specific steps in the preparation of the RNA samples. Here we describe the use of RNA sequencing to analyze mRNA patterns in MCF10A human mammary epithelial cells cultured under 3D conditions in a laminin-rich extracellular matrix...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796954/using-3d-culture-of-primary-mammary-epithelial-cells-to-define-molecular-entities-required-for-acinus-formation-analyzing-map-kinase-phosphatases
#19
Malgorzata Gajewska, Sara McNally
Three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures on reconstituted basement membrane (rBM) enable the study of complex interactions between extracellular matrix (ECM) components and epithelial cells, which are crucial for the establishment of cell polarity and functional development of epithelia. 3D cultures of mammary epithelial cells (MECs) on Matrigel (a laminin-rich ECM derived from the Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm (EHS) murine tumor) promote interactions of MECs with the matrix via integrins, leading to formation of spherical monolayers of polarized cells surrounding a hollow lumen (acini)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760763/the-total-number-of-acini-remains-constant-throughout-postnatal-rat-lung-development
#20
Sébastien F Barré, David Haberthür, Tiziana P Cremona, Marco Stampanoni, Johannes C Schittny
The pulmonary airways are subdivided into conducting and gas-exchanging airways. The small tree of gas-exchanging airways which is fed by the most distal conducting airway represents an acinus. Very little is known about the development of the number of acini. The goal of this study was to estimate their number throughout rat postnatal development. Right middle rat lung lobes were obtained at postnatal day 4-60, stained with heavy metals, paraffin embedded, and scanned by synchrotron radiation-based X-ray tomographic microscopy or imaged with micro computed tomography after critical point drying...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
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