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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917199/molecular-and-serological-detection-of-occult-hepatitis-b-virus-among-healthy-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-negative-blood-donors-in-malaysia
#1
Shuaibu A Hudu, Nabil S Harmal, Mohammed I Saeed, Ahmad S Alshrari, Yasmin A Malik, Mohd T Niazlin, Roshida Hassan, Zamberi Sekawi
BACKGROUND: Occult hepatitis B infections are becoming a major global threat, but the available data on its prevalence in various parts of the world are often divergent. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to detect occult hepatitis B virus in hepatitis B surface antigen-negative serum using anti-HBc as a marker of previous infection. PATIENT AND METHODS: A total of 1000 randomly selected hepatitis B surface antigen-negative sera from blood donors were tested for hepatitis B core antibody and hepatitis B surface antibody using an ELISA and nested polymerase chain reaction was done using primers specific to the surface gene (S-gene)...
September 2016: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882067/bioinformatic-identification-of-rare-codon-clusters-rccs-in-hbv-genome-and-evaluation-of-rccs-in-proteins-structure-of-hepatitis-b-virus
#2
Mojtaba Mortazavi, Mohammad Zarenezhad, Saeid Gholamzadeh, Seyed Moayed Alavian, Mohammad Ghorbani, Reza Dehghani, Abdorrasoul Malekpour, Mohammadhasan Meshkibaf, Ali Fakhrzad
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) as an infectious disease that has nine genotypes (A - I) and a 'putative' genotype J. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify the rare codon clusters (RCC) in the HBV genome and to evaluate these RCCs in the HBV proteins structure. METHODS: For detection of protein family accession numbers (Pfam) in HBV proteins, the UniProt database and Pfam search tool were used. Protein family accession numbers is a comprehensive and accurate collection of protein domains and families...
October 2016: Hepatitis Monthly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864147/host-factor-prpf31-is-involved-in-cccdna-production-in-hbv-replicating-cells
#3
Wataru Kinoshita, Naoki Ogura, Koichi Watashi, Takaji Wakita
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) plays a central role in chronic HBV infection and replication, and is an important factor for HBV surface antigen loss indicating the endpoint of HBV treatment. However, there is a known problem that current anti-HBV drugs, including interferons and nucleos(t)ide analogues, reduce HBV replication but have a little or no effect on reducing cccDNA. Therefore, the development of new therapeutic agents is necessary to eradicate cccDNA. In this study, we identified pre-mRNA processing factor 31 (PRPF31) by siRNA screening as a factor associated with cccDNA...
November 15, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779207/hbv-core-promoter-mutations-and-akt-upregulate-s-phase-kinase-associated-protein-2-to-promote-postoperative-hepatocellular-carcinoma-progression
#4
Lubiao Chen, Lin Gu, Yurong Gu, Hongbo Wang, Meihai Deng, Zania Stamataki, Ye Htun Oo, Yuehua Huang
Mutations in the hepatitis B virus (HBV) core promoter (CP) have been shown to be associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The CP region overlaps HBV X gene, which activates AKT to regulate hepatocyte survival. However, the cooperation between these two cascades in HCC progression remains poorly understood. Here, we assayed virological factors and AKT expression in liver tissues from 56 HCC patients with better prognoses (BHCC, ≥5-year survival) and 58 with poor prognoses (PHCC, <5-year survival) after partial liver resection...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771945/binding-and-uptake-into-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells-of-peptide-functionalized-gold-nanoparticles
#5
Satadru Jha, Federico Ramadori, Santina Quarta, Alessandra Biasiolo, Enrica Fabris, Paola Baldan, Gaetano Guarino, Mariagrazia Ruvoletto, Gianmarco Villano, Cristian Turato, Angelo Gatta, Fabrizio Mancin, Patrizia Pontisso, Paolo Scrimin
One of the most daunting challenges of nanomedicine is the finding of appropriate targeting agents to deliver suitable payloads precisely to cells affected by malignancies. Even more complex is to achieve the ability to ensure the nanosystems enter those cells. Here we use 2 nm (metal core) gold nanoparticles to target human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells stably transfected with the SERPINB3 (SB3) protein. The nanoparticles were coated with a 85:15 mixture of thiols featuring, respectively, a phosphoryl choline, to ensure water solubility and biocompatibility, and a 28-mer peptide corresponding to the amino acid sequence 21-47 of the hepatitis B virus-PreS1 protein (PreS1(21-47))...
October 22, 2016: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761438/treatment-for-hepatitis-b-in-patients-with-drug-resistance
#6
Frank Tacke, Daniela C Kroy
Persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections affect about 240 million patients worldwide that are at risk of developing liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. HBV is a small, partially double stranded DNA virus with four overlapping genes and a unique life cycle, which involves the generation of an RNA template for replication via reverse transcription. Mutations occur frequently during chronic infection, and particular selection pressures select distinct mutants. Nucleoside and nucleotide analogues like lamivudine (LMV), entecavir (ETV), telbivudine (LdT), adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) and tenofovir (TDF) are used to achieve long-term suppression of viral replication...
September 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27724895/hepatitis-b-virus-inhibits-apolipoprotein-a5-expression-through-its-core-gene
#7
Chengliang Zhu, Guosheng Gao, Hui Song, Fengxia Xu, Kailang Wu, Xinghui Liu
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection causes lipid metabolism disorders. Apolipoprotein A5 (ApoA5) is a new apolipoprotein family member that plays an important role in the regulation of lipid metabolism. The present study was to investigate the impact of HBV on ApoA5 expression and its regulatory mechanism. METHODS: Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting were used to measure ApoA5 mRNA and protein expression in HepG2 and HepG2...
October 10, 2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672298/different-pre-s-deletion-patterns-and-their-association-with-hepatitis-b-virus-genotypes
#8
Bing-Fang Chen
AIM: To investigate the associations of different types of pre-S deletions with hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes. METHODS: The sequences of the pre-S region, basal core promoter (BCP) mutation, and precore (PC) mutation were examined through direct DNA sequencing or clonal analysis and sequencing in 273 HBV carriers, namely 55 asymptomatic carriers, 55 carriers with chronic hepatitis (CH), 55 with liver cirrhosis (LC), 53 with liver cirrhotic hepatocellular carcinoma (LC-HCC), and 55 with noncirrhotic HCC...
September 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668597/-the-true-story-and-advantages-of-the-famous-hepatitis-b-virus-core-particles-outlook-2016
#9
P Pumpens, E Grens
This review article is a continuation of the paper "Hepatitis B core particles as a universal display model: a structure-function basis for development" written by Pumpens P. and Grens E., ordered by Professor Lev Kisselev and published in FEBS Letters, 1999, 442, 1-6. The past 17 years have strengthened the paper's finding that the human hepatitis B virus core protein, along with other Hepadnaviridae family member core proteins, is a mysterious, multifunctional protein. The core gene of the Hepadnaviridae genome encodes five partially collinear proteins...
July 2016: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636324/modulators-of-hbv-capsid-assembly-as-an-approach-to-treating-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#10
Andrew G Cole
The search for a cure for hepatitis B virus infection extends beyond interferon and the existing polymerase inhibitors, and targets different aspects of the virus life cycle to develop agents that operate by alternative mechanisms. Examples of small molecules that disrupt the encapsidation of pgRNA have been known for some time, but recent advances in the understanding of nucleocapsid formation, how compounds interact with core protein, and the development of drug-like molecules have recently progressed the study of capsid assembly modulators to proof of concept in the clinic with respect to reduction of viral load in chronic HBV patients...
September 13, 2016: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630726/prevalence-of-serologic-hepatitis-b-markers-in-blood-donors-from-puebla-mexico-the-association-of-relatively-high-levels-of-anti-core-antibodies-with-the-detection-of-surface-antigen-and-genomic-dna
#11
Francisca Sosa-Jurado, Nora Hilda Rosas-Murrieta, Belinda Guzman-Flores, Cintia Perez Zempoaltecalt, Ana Patricia Sanchez Torres, Leticia Ramirez Rosete, Maribel Bernal-Soto, Luis Marquez-Dominguez, Daniel Melendez-Mena, Miguel Angel Mendoza Torres, Maria Teresa Lopez Delgado, Julio Reyes-Leyva, Veronica Vallejo-Ruiz, Gerardo Santos-Lopez
BACKGROUND: The hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes chronic hepatitis, hepatic cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Surface antigen (HBsAg) detection is a definitive test that can confirm HBV infection, while the presence of antibodies against the core protein (anti-HBc) suggests either a previous or ongoing infection or occult hepatitis B infection (OBI). OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of anti-HBc and HBsAg in blood donors...
June 2016: Hepatitis Monthly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591143/identification-of-hydrolyzable-tannins-punicalagin-punicalin-and-geraniin-as-novel-inhibitors-of-hepatitis-b-virus-covalently-closed-circular-dna
#12
Chunlan Liu, Dawei Cai, Lin Zhang, Wei Tang, Ran Yan, Haitao Guo, Xulin Chen
The development of new agents to target HBV cccDNA is urgently needed because of the limitations of current available drugs for treatment of hepatitis B. By using a cell-based assay in which the production of HBeAg is in a cccDNA-dependent manner, we screened a compound library derived from Chinese herbal remedies for inhibitors against HBV cccDNA. Three hydrolyzable tannins, specifically punicalagin, punicalin and geraniin, emerged as novel anti-HBV agents. These compounds significantly reduced the production of secreted HBeAg and cccDNA in a dose-dependent manner in our assay, without dramatic alteration of viral DNA replication...
October 2016: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558941/functional-characterization-of-hepatitis-b-virus-core-promoter-mutants-revealed-transcriptional-interference-among-co-terminal-viral-mrnas
#13
Chaoyang Chen, Haodi Jia, Fei Zhang, Yanli Qin, Li Zong, Quan Yuan, Yongxiang Wang, Ningshao Xia, Jisu Li, Yumei Wen, Shuping Tong
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) has a 3.2 kb circular DNA genome. It employs four promoters in conjunction with a single polyadenylation signal to generate 3.5, 2.4, 2.1 and 0.7 kb co-terminal RNAs. The 3.5 kb RNA is subdivided into the precore RNA for e-antigen expression and pregenomic RNA for genome replication. When introduced to a genotype A clone, several core promoter mutations markedly enhanced HBV genome replication, but suppressed e-antigen expression through up-regulation of pregenomic RNA at the expense of precore RNA...
October 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553619/hepatitis-b-e-antigen-expression-by-hepatitis-b-virus-subgenotype-a1-relative-to-subgenotypes-a2-and-d3-in-cultured-hepatocellular-carcinoma-huh7-cells
#14
Nimisha Harshadrai Bhoola, Anna Kramvis
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is hyperendemic in southern Africa, with subgenotype A1 prevailing. The precore/core (preC/C) region of A1, encoding for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), has unique sequence characteristics, differentiating it from subgenotypes A2 and D3. Our aim was to follow the expression of HBeAg in vitro by the three subgenotypes. METHODS: Huh7 cells were transfected with plasmids belonging to subgenotypes A1, A2, and D3. Using indirect immunofluorescence, the expression of HBeAg was followed, as was the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) and subsequent activation of apoptosis...
2016: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547127/review-of-laboratory-tests-used-in-monitoring-hepatitis-b-response-to-pegylated-interferon-and-nucleos-t-ide-analog-therapy
#15
Carla Osiowy, Carla Coffin, Anton Andonov
There are only two currently approved classes of hepatitis B virus (HBV) antiviral agents, pegylated interferon (Peg-IFN), and nucleos(t)ide analogs (NAs) for chronic HBV infection. Although Peg-IFN is used for a finite 48-week duration and offers a greater chance of sustained off-treatment virological response, it is poorly tolerated and can only be offered to selected patients. The NAs are well tolerated but require prolonged therapy due to risk of relapse with treatment cessation. There is evolving data that novel virological assays (e...
2016: Current Treatment Options in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27518410/importin-%C3%AE-can-bind-hepatitis-b-virus-core-protein-and-empty-core-like-particles-and-induce-structural-changes
#16
Chao Chen, Joseph Che-Yen Wang, Elizabeth E Pierson, David Z Keifer, Mildred Delaleau, Lara Gallucci, Christian Cazenave, Michael Kann, Martin F Jarrold, Adam Zlotnick
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) capsids are found in many forms: immature single-stranded RNA-filled cores, single-stranded DNA-filled replication intermediates, mature cores with relaxed circular double-stranded DNA, and empty capsids. A capsid, the protein shell of the core, is a complex of 240 copies of core protein. Mature cores are transported to the nucleus by a complex that includes both importin α and importin β (Impα and Impβ), which bind to the core protein's C-terminal domains (CTDs). Here we have investigated the interactions of HBV core protein with importins in vitro...
August 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27473751/enhanced-pregenomic-rna-levels-and-lowered-precore-mrna-transcription-efficiency-in-a-genotype-a-hepatitis-b-virus-genome-with-c1766t-and-t1768a-mutations-obtained-from-a-fulminant-hepatitis-patient
#17
Tsutomu Nishizawa, Takashi Hoshino, Atsushi Naganuma, Tominari Kobayashi, Shigeo Nagashima, Masaharu Takahashi, Hitoshi Takagi, Hiroaki Okamoto
The viral factors associated with the development of fulminant hepatitis B are not fully understood. We recently found four unique mutations [G to A at nucleotide 1742 (G1742A), C1766T, T1768A and T1809C] in the basal core promoter (BCP) region of a genotype A hepatitis B virus (HBV) strain (FH) obtained from a 53-year-old man with fatal fulminant hepatitis. To elucidate the association of the mutations of the FH genome with the disease, we constructed a 1.3-fold FH genome and its five variants by replacing one or two mutated nucleotides with wild-type nucleotide(s) via site-directed mutagenesis, and transfected human hepatoma cells (HepG2/C3A) with the constructs...
October 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27440888/hepatitis-b-virus-polymerase-localizes-to-the-mitochondria-and-its-terminal-protein-domain-contains-the-mitochondrial-targeting-signal
#18
Nuruddin Unchwaniwala, Nathan M Sherer, Daniel D Loeb
UNLABELLED: To understand subcellular sites of hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication, we visualized core (Cp), polymerase (Pol), and pregenomic RNA (pgRNA) in infected cells. Interestingly, we found that the majority of Pol localized to the mitochondria in cells undergoing viral replication. The mitochondrial localization of Pol was independent of both the cell type and other viral components, indicating that Pol contains an intrinsic mitochondrial targeting signal (MTS). Neither Cp nor pgRNA localized to the mitochondria during active replication, suggesting a role other than DNA synthesis for Pol at the mitochondria...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27366184/evidence-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-cancer-and-noncancer-stem-cells-associated-with-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#19
Gerald Y Minuk, Wendy Bautista, Julianne Klein
Both the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been independently implicated in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To date, there have been no reports describing HBV infection within CSCs. In this report we describe HBV core (HBcAg) and HBx protein expression within CSCs associated with human HCC. HBV markers were also identified in nonmalignant stem cells present in adjacent nontumor tissue. These findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis of HBV-induced HCC and are potentially relevant to the treatment of both HCC and chronic HBV...
2016: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27350725/x-region-mutations-of-hepatitis-b-virus-related-to-clinical-severity
#20
REVIEW
Hong Kim, Seoung-Ae Lee, Bum-Joon Kim
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a major health problem, with more than 240 million people chronically infected worldwide and potentially 650000 deaths per year due to advanced liver diseases including liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HBV-X protein (HBx) contributes to the biology and pathogenesis of HBV via stimulating virus replication or altering host gene expression related to HCC. The HBV X region contains only 465 bp encoding the 16.5 kDa HBx protein, which also contains several critical cis-elements such as enhancer II, the core promoter and the microRNA-binding region...
June 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
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