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Sarah Theiner, Márkó Grabarics, Luis Galvez, Hristo P Varbanov, Nadine S Sommerfeld, Markus Galanski, Bernhard K Keppler, Gunda Koellensperger
The potential advantage of platinum(iv) complexes as alternatives to classical platinum(ii)-based drugs relies on their kinetic stability in the body before reaching the tumor site and on their activation by reduction inside cancer cells. In this study, an analytical workflow has been developed to investigate the reductive biotransformation and kinetic inertness of platinum(iv) prodrugs comprising different ligand coordination spheres (respectively, lipophilicity and redox behavior) in whole human blood. The distribution of platinum(iv) complexes in blood pellets and plasma was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after microwave digestion...
March 21, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Tomoko Hasegawa, Hanako Ohashi Ikeda, Sachiko Iwai, Yuki Muraoka, Tatsuaki Tsuruyama, Keiko Okamoto-Furuta, Haruyasu Kohda, Akira Kakizuka, Nagahisa Yoshimura
Retinal neuronal cell death underlies many incurable eye diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and glaucoma, and causes adult blindness. We have shown that maintenance of ATP levels via inhibiting ATP consumption is a promising strategy for preventing neuronal cell death. Here, we show that branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) are able to increase ATP production by enhancing glycolysis. In cell culture, supplementation of the culture media with BCAAs, but not glucose alone, enhanced cellular ATP levels, which was canceled by a glycolysis inhibitor...
February 2018: Heliyon
Salvina Barra, Liliana Belgioia, Michela Marcenaro, Serena Callegari, Alice Pastorino, Luca Trapani, Francesca Cavagnetto, Stefania Garelli, Renzo Corvò
Background: After radical prostatectomy (RP) radiotherapy (RT) plays a role, both as adjuvant or salvage treatment. If negative features are present such as extracapsular extension, seminal vesicle invasion, lymph invasion, and positive surgical margins, RT after RP reduces the risk of recurrence, although it is associated with an increased risk of acute and late toxicities. An intensified RT delivered in a shortened time could improve clinical outcome and be safely combined with hormonal therapy (HT)...
2018: Cancer Management and Research
Guo Liu, Shengwei Sun, Baoyan Guo, Benchun Miao, Zhen Luo, Zumeng Xia, Danyang Ying, Fei Liu, Bin Guo, Jian Tang, Yong Cao, Jianyin Miao
Casein phosphopeptides (CPPs) have been demonstrated to be calcium chelators. Unfortunately, few studies have been reported on the effects of CPPs on the mechanism of the uptake and absorption of Ca2+ and bone metabolism. In this study, a monomeric peptide fraction isolated by RP-HPLC (F6-1) that possessed high calcium transport capacity in Caco-2 cell monolayers was separated and characterized. The effects of F6-1 on the absorption mechanisms of Ca2+ in a Caco-2 monolayer model and bone metabolism in rats were investigated...
March 20, 2018: Food & Function
Lynn Tan, Luke L Wang, Weranja Ranasinghe, Raj Persad, Damien Bolton, Nathan Lawrentschuk, Shomik Sengupta
Background: The aim of the paper is to investigate the outcomes of patients younger than 55 years in Victoria, Australia undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP) for prostate cancer. Materials and methods: Data on all men undergoing RP in Victoria between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2014 were obtained from the Victorian Cancer Registry. Tumor characteristics including Gleason grade, stage of disease (based on final pathology specimen), and cause of death were also obtained...
March 2018: Prostate International
Satoru Ueno, Yasuhide Kitagawa, Mizuki Onozawa, Shiro Hinotsu, Hideyuki Akaza, Atsushi Mizokami, Mikio Namiki
Background: This prospective observational study elucidated the usefulness of hormonal therapy for localized prostate cancer. Background factors and the health-related quality of life in patients who initially underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) or primary androgen deprivation therapy (PADT) for localized prostate cancer are summarized. Materials and methods: Patients aged 67-76 years with clinical stage T1c or T2 localized prostate cancer treated with PADT or RP, a prostate-specific antigen concentration of <20 ng/mL, and Gleason score of ≤7 were included...
March 2018: Prostate International
Lehui Du, Wei Yu, Xiang Huang, Nana Zhao, Fang Liu, Fang Tong, Sujing Zhang, Baolong Niu, Xiaoliang Liu, Shouping Xu, Yurong Huang, Xiangkun Dai, Chuanbin Xie, Gaoxiang Chen, Xiaohu Cong, Baolin Qu
Background: Growing data suggest that DNA damage repair and detoxification pathways play crucial roles in radiation-induced toxicities. To determine whether common functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate genes from these pathways can be used as predictors of radiation pneumonitis (RP), we conducted a prospective study to evaluate the associations between functional SNPs and risk of RP. Methods: We recruited a total of 149 lung cancer patients who had received intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)...
2018: Journal of Cancer
Daniel Mattle, Bernd Kuhn, Johannes Aebi, Marc Bedoucha, Demet Kekilli, Nathalie Grozinger, Andre Alker, Markus G Rudolph, Georg Schmid, Gebhard F X Schertler, Michael Hennig, Jörg Standfuss, Roger J P Dawson
In the degenerative eye disease retinitis pigmentosa (RP), protein misfolding leads to fatal consequences for cell metabolism and rod and cone cell survival. To stop disease progression, a therapeutic approach focuses on stabilizing inherited protein mutants of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) rhodopsin using pharmacological chaperones (PC) that improve receptor folding and trafficking. In this study, we discovered stabilizing nonretinal small molecules by virtual and thermofluor screening and determined the crystal structure of pharmacologically stabilized opsin at 2...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Yu-Tian Zhang, Mei-Feng Xiao, Qiong Liao, Wen-Long Liu, Kai-Wen Deng, Yi-Qun Zhou, Yu Tang, Fu-Yuan He, Yan-Tao Yang
BACKGROUND: It is well-known that the public still have been facing on a severe issue about the inconsistency of quality and therapeutic efficacy of traditional medicines. Recently, Professor Chang-Xiao Liu has created a new promising concept for identifying relevant quality-markers (Q-marker) from herbs, their formulas and manufacturing products. Therefore, building up a new approach is necessary for us to bridge over quality to efficacy of pharmaceutical products. STUDY DESIGN: In this paper, five candidate Q-markers, astragaloside IV, paeonflorin, amygdalin, tetramethylpyrazine, ferulic acid in Buyanghuanwu injection (BYHWI) had been designed to carry out in rat by using single and polypharmacokinetic models for total quanta to ascertain adequate Q-marker...
March 7, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Yi Zhou, Qingqing Chang, Wenjie Wang, Xiaofang Zhang, Fang Zhou, Jianguo Sun, Guangji Wang, Ying Peng
FY363 is a new chemical entity of gemcitabine analog, which has been shown to have a significant inhibitory effect on cell proliferation in a variety of tumor cell lines in vitro. As a carbamate derivative, FY363 would be converted to the active metabolite gemcitabine through enzyme action in vivo. In order to clarify the exposure of FY363 prototype and its metabolite gemcitabine in vivo after administration of FY363, a sensitive and specific liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed and validated to simultaneously determine FY363 and gemcitabine in rat plasma after liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Roy Tan, Rupesh Agrawal, Swathi Taduru, Arushi Gupta, Kiran Vupparaboina, Jay Chhablani
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To evaluate structural changes in the choroid of patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) using swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective study was conducted comparing 35 eyes of 35 patients with RP and 26 eyes of 26 normal patients. OCT images of the choroid were binarized into luminal and stromal areas to derive choroidal vascularity index (CVI). Subfoveal choroidal thickness (CT) was also measured and compared...
March 1, 2018: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
Jing Li, Wei-Song Kong, Xin Liu, Yong-Qin Geng, Jin Wang, Yong Xu, Xue-Mei Li, Guang-Yu Yang, Min Zhou, Qiu-Fen Hu, Tao Li, Ci-Qing Jiang
A new isoflavone derivative was isolated from Rosa damascena by using various chromatographic techniques including silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, and preparative RP-HPLC separation. Its structure was identified as 4'-hydroxy-7-(3-hydroxypropanoyl)-6-methoxy-isoflavone using combined examinations of their UV, IR, MS, and NMR spectroscopic data. Biological activity test showed that this compound showed prominent antibacterial activity with MIC₉₀ value of (46±4) mg·L⁻¹ for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) strain...
January 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Tian-Bao Huang, Guang-Chen Zhou, Chuan-Peng Dong, Li-Ping Wang, Yang Luan, Jing-Ting Ye, Xiao Gu, Xu-Dong Yao, Jun-Hua Zheng, Xue-Fei Ding
Marital status is an independent prognostic factor for survival in several types of cancer, but has not been fully studied in prostate cancer (PCa). A total of 95,846 men diagnosed with PCa were treated with radical prostatectomy (RP) between 2004 and 2009 within 18 Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results registries. Survival curves were generated using Kaplan-Meier estimates and differences in survival were assessed using the log-rank test. Cox regression models were used to assess the impact of marital status on survival outcomes...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Jennifer B Gordetsky, Luciana Schultz, Kristin K Porter, Jeffrey W Nix, John V Thomas, Maria Del Carmen Rodriguez Pena, Soroush Rais-Bahrami
MR/ultrasound fusion targeted biopsy(TB) routinely samples multiple cores from each MR lesion of interest. Pathologists can evaluate the extent of cancer involvement and grade using an individual-core(IC) or aggregate(AG) method, which could potentially lead to differences in reporting. We reviewed patients who underwent TB followed by radical prostatectomy(RP). TB cores were evaluated for grade and tumor extent by two methods. IC method: grade for each TB lesion was based on the core with the highest Gleason score...
March 15, 2018: Human Pathology
John J McMurtrey, Mark O M Tso
Most patients suffering from retinitis pigmentosa (RP) inherit the disorder; however, the immune-pathologic features associated with this disease have yet to be extensively studied. Six reports correlate anti-retinal immune activity with vision deterioration in RP patients. Some of these patients have sporadic RP that occurs in excess of expected gene segregation during inheritance. The hypothesis that a primary immune-mediated disease process occurs in this sporadic group is supported by significant associations of RP with autoimmune endocrinopathies and other immune related conditions or factors; however, no immunologic difference regarding RP family history is reported in the peripheral blood studies of RP patients...
March 15, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
Stefanie von Mechow, Markus Graefen, Alexander Haese, Pierre Tennstedt, Dirk Pehrke, Frank Friedersdorff, Burkhard Beyer
PURPOSE: To compare the duration of sick leave in patients with localized prostate cancer after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) and open retropubic RP (ORP) at a German high-volume prostate cancer center. METHODS: The data of 1,415 patients treated with RP at Martini Klinik, Prostate Cancer Center between 2012 and 2016 were, retrospectively, analyzed. Information on employment status, monthly revenues and days of work missed due to sickness were assessed via online questionnaire...
March 15, 2018: Urologic Oncology
Sean Doyle, Gary W Jones, Stephen K Dolan
Gliotoxin is an epipolythiodioxopiperazine (ETP) class toxin, contains a disulfide bridge that mediates its toxic effects via redox cycling and is produced by the opportunistic fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. The gliotoxin bis-thiomethyltransferase, GtmA, attenuates gliotoxin biosynthesis in A. fumigatus by conversion of dithiol gliotoxin to bis-thiomethylgliotoxin (BmGT). Here we show that disruption of dithiol gliotoxin bis-thiomethylation functionality in A. fumigatus results in significant remodelling of the A...
April 2018: Fungal Biology
Mathijs Baert, Steven Martens, Gert Desmet, André J de Villiers, Filip E Du Prez, Frederic Lynen
Comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (LC×LC) allows for substantial gains in theoretical peak capacity in the field of liquid chromatography. However, in practice theoretical performance is rarely achieved due to a combination of undersampling, orthogonality and refocusing issues prevalent in many LC×LC applications. This is intricately linked to the column dimensions, flow rates and mobile phase compositions used, where in many cases incompatible or strong solvents are introduced in the second-dimension (2D) column, leading to peak broadening and the need for more complex interfacing approaches...
March 18, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Jesse D Sengillo, Winston Lee, Takayuki Nagasaki, Kaspar Schuerch, Lawrence A Yannuzzi, K Bailey Freund, Janet Sparrow, Rando Allikmets, Stephen H Tsang
PURPOSE: Mutations in the eyes shut homolog (EYS) gene are a frequent cause of autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP). This study used multi-modal retinal imaging to elucidate genotype-phenotype relationships in EYS-related RP (EYS-RP). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHOD: Multimodal retinal imaging and electrophysiologic testing was assessed for 16 patients with genetic confirmation of EYS-RP. RESULTS: A total of 27 unique EYS variants were identified in 16 patients...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Jinbo Yue, Qiuling Shi, Ting Xu, Melenda Jeter, Ting-Yu Chen, Ritsuko Komaki, Daniel R Gomez, Tinsu Pan, Charles S Cleeland, Zhongxing Liao, Xin Shelley Wang
PURPOSE: Clinician ratings of concurrent chemoradiation (CRT)-induced radiation pneumonitis (RP) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are based on both imaging and patient-reported lung symptoms. We compared the value of patient-reported outcomes versus normal-lung uptake of18 F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose in positron emission computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) during the last week of treatment, for indicating the development of grade ≥ 2 RP within 4 months of CRT completion...
March 16, 2018: Quality of Life Research
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