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Sung-Ho Shin, Yang Hyeog Kwon, Young-Hwan Kim, Joo-Yun Jung, Junghyo Nah
Palladium (Pd)-based hydrogen (H₂) gas sensors have been widely investigated thanks to its fast reaction and high sensitivity to hydrogen. Various sensing mechanisms have been adopted for H₂ gas sensors; however, all the sensors must be powered through an external battery. We report here an H₂ gas sensor that can detect H₂ by measuring the output voltages generated during contact electrification between two friction surfaces. When the H₂ sensor, composed of Pd-coated ITO (indium tin oxide) and PET (polyethylene Terephthalate) film, is exposed to H₂, its output voltage is varied in proportion to H₂ concentration because the work function (WF) of Pd-coated surface changes, altering triboelectric charging behavior...
October 14, 2016: Nanomaterials
Lung-Chien Chen, Zong-Liang Tseng, Jun-Kai Huang
This work presents mixed (FAPbI₃)1-x(MAPbBr₃)x perovskite films with various composition ratios, x (x = 0-1), which are formed using the spin coating method. The structural, optical, and electronic behaviors of the mixed (FAPbI₃)1-x(MAPbBr₃)x perovskite films are discussed. A device with structure glass/indium tin oxide (ITO)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS)/mixed perovskite/C60/BCP/Ag was fabricated. The mixed perovskite film was an active light-harvesting layer. PEDOT: PSS was a hole transporting layer between the ITO and perovskite...
October 13, 2016: Nanomaterials
Shota Nomiyama, Takahiro Ogura, Hiroaki Ishida, Kazuki Aoki, Teruhisa Tsuchimoto
Treatment of N-substituted pyrroles with carbonyl compounds and nucleophiles under indium catalysis was found to be a promising method for preparing β-alkylpyrroles without contamination by α-alkylpyrroles. With this methodology, a variety of alkyl groups, which are primary, secondary and tertiary as well as cyclic and functionalized types, can be introduced in place onto the pyrrole ring. The simplicity performable as a catalytic one-step process is one of the important feature of this reaction. The substituent on the nitrogen atom of the product β-alkylpyrrole can be removed easily by literature procedures...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Danielle Klawinski, Christian Weinberger, Dominik Klaus, Jan-Henrik Smått, Michael Tiemann, Thorsten Wagner
The performance of many chemical gas-phase reactions is strongly influenced by the interaction of reactants with interfaces. Nanoporous materials, which exhibit pore diameters up to 100 nm and high specific surface areas, can be utilized to reduce the amount of cost-intensive materials (e.g. noble metals). However, due to limitations in material transport and reaction kinetics detailed knowledge of the diffusion and the kinetics of a chemical reaction is necessary to improve the performance of chemical processes in industry and research...
March 23, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Suzannah R Wood, Keenan N Woods, Paul N Plassmeyer, David A Marsh, Darren W Johnson, Catherine J Page, Kirsten M O Jensen, David C Johnson
Amorphous metal oxides are central to a variety of technological applications. In particular, indium gallium oxide has garnered attention as a thin-film transistor channel layer material. In this work we examine the structural evolution of indium gallium oxide gel-derived powders and thin films using X-ray diffraction, infrared vibrational spectroscopy, and pair distribution function analysis of X-ray total scattering from standard (PDF) and normal incidence thin film (tfPDF) geometries. We find that the gel-derived powders and films from the same aqueous precursor evolve differently with temperature, forming mixtures of Ga-substituted In2O3 and In-substituted β-Ga2O3 with different degrees of substitution...
March 22, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
J Yang, D G Zhao, D S Jiang, P Chen, J J Zhu, Z S Liu, W Liu, X Li, F Liang, S T Liu, L Q Zhang, H Yang
Three series of samples with different NH3 flow rate are grown and the optical and structural properties are investigated. It is found that apart from a positive effect on keeping a high partial pressure of nitrogen to enhance indium incorporation, NH3 may also play a negative effect on indium incorporation during InGaN growth. Especially, when temperature is relatively high, the hydrogen generated from the dissociation of NH3 may suppress the chemical reaction which produces InN, leading to a reduced indium incorporation efficiency during the InGaN layer growth...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
Kota Nishino, Kohei Minato, Takahiro Miyazaki, Yohei Ogiwara, Norio Sakai
In this study an InI3-TMDS (1,1,3,3-tetramethyldisiloxane) reducing system effectively catalyzed the reductive dithioacetalization of a variety of aromatic and aliphatic carboxylic acids with 1,2-ethanedithiol or 1,3-propanedithiol leading to the one-pot preparation of either 1,3-dithiolane derivatives or a 1,3-dithiane derivative. Also, the intact indium catalyst continuously catalyzed the subsequent oxidative desulfurization of an in-situ formed 1,3-dithiolane derivative, which led to the preparation of the corresponding aldehydes...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Fuli Zhang, Yuqiao Guan, Xulin Chen, Shuangshuang Wang, Dong Liang, Yafei Feng, Shufen Chen, Suzhi Li, Zhongyi Li, Fuqiang Zhang, Canzhong Lu, Guangxiu Cao, Bin Zhai
Three thermally activated delayed fluorescence cationic cuprous complexes [Cu(POP) (ECAF)]PF6 (1, POP = bis(2-diphenylphosphinophenyl)ether, ECAF = 9,9-bis(9-ethylcarbazol-3-yl)-4,5-diazafluorene), [Cu(POP) (EHCAF)]PF6 (2, EHCAF = 9,9-bis(9-ethylhexylcarbazol-3-yl)-4,5-diazafluorene), and [Cu(POP) (PCAF)]PF6 (3, PCAF = 9,9-bis(9-phenylcarbazaol-3-yl)-4,5-diazafluorene) with bipolar 4,5-diazafluorene ligand substituted by bis-carbazole have been successfully prepared, and their UV absorption, photoluminescent properties, and electrochemical behaviors were investigated...
March 17, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Martin Setvín, Margareta Wagner, Michael Schmid, Gareth S Parkinson, Ulrike Diebold
Metal oxides are abundant in nature and they are some of the most versatile materials for applications ranging from catalysis to novel electronics. The physical and chemical properties of metal oxides are dramatically influenced, and can be judiciously tailored, by defects. Small changes in stoichiometry introduce so-called intrinsic defects, e.g., atomic vacancies and/or interstitials. This review gives an overview of using Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM), in particular Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM), to study the changes in the local geometric and electronic structure related to these intrinsic point defects at the surfaces of metal oxides...
March 17, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Yuan-Ming Chang, Man-Ling Lin, Tung-Yen Lai, Chang-Hung Chen, Hsin-Yi Lee, Chih-Ming Lin, YewChung Sermon Wu, Yen-Fu Lin, Jenh-Yih Juang
The Photoluminescence (PL) and reflectivity characteristics of zinc oxide nanopillars (ZnO-NPs) grown on indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-coated glasses were investigated. The room temperature PL showed bright white-light emission for the undoped ZnO-NPs grown at 600 °C, suggesting the close relation between the optical characteristic and the growth conditions being carried out for obtaining the present ZnO-NPs. The reflectivity of the as-grown ZnO-NPs array was about ~29 % with the wavelength of the incident light ranging from 200-1800 nm...
March 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Kwan Yup Shin, Young Jun Tak, Won-Gi Kim, Seonghwan Hong, Hyun Jae Kim
In this research, nitrocellulose is proposed as a new material for the passivation layers of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin film transistors (a-IGZO TFTs). The a-IGZO TFTs with nitrocellulose passivation layers (NC-PVLs) demonstrate improved electrical characteristics and stability. The a-IGZO TFTs with NC-PVLs exhibit improvements in field-effect mobility (μFE) from 11.72 ± 1.14 to 20.68 ± 1.94 cm2/Vs, threshold voltage (Vth) from 1.85 ± 1.19 to 0.56 ± 0.35 V, and on/off current ratio (Ion/off) from (5...
March 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Habiballah Sistani, Santosh Karki, Jieutonne J Archer, Fengjian Shi, Robert J Levis
A nonresonant, femtosecond (fs) laser is employed to desorb samples of Victoria blue deposited on stainless steel or indium tin oxide (ITO) slides using either electrospray deposition (ESD) or dried droplet deposition. The use of ESD resulted in uniform films of Victoria blue whereas the dried droplet method resulted in the formation of a ring pattern of the dye. Laser electrospray mass spectrometry (LEMS) measurements of the ESD-prepared films on either substrate were similar and revealed lower average relative standard deviations for measurements within-film (20...
March 15, 2017: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Toshiya Sakata, Kotaro Nishimura, Yuuya Miyazawa, Akiko Saito, Hiroyuki Abe, Taira Kajisa
In this study, we developed an ion-sensitive transparent-gate transistor (IS-TGT) for visible cell sensing. The gate sensing surface of the IS-TGT is transparent in a solution because a transparent amorphous oxide semiconductor composed of amorphous In-Ga-Zn-oxide (a-IGZO) with a thin SiO2 film gate that includes an indium tin oxide (ITO) film as the source and drain electrodes is utilized. The pH response of the IS-TGT was found to be about 56 mV/pH, indicating approximately Nernstian response. Moreover, the potential signals of the IS-TGT for sodium and potassium ions, which are usually included in biological environments, were evaluated...
March 16, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Kalle Koskinen, Abdallah Slablab, Sasi Divya, Robert Czaplicki, Semen Chervinskii, Madanan Kailasnath, Padmanabhan Radhakrishnan, Martti Kauranen
We investigate bulk second-order nonlinear optical properties of amorphous indium selenide thin films fabricated by thermal evaporation. Such films are shown to exhibit strong and photostable second-harmonic generation (SHG). We report strong thickness dependence of the second-harmonic signals as characterized by the Maker-fringe method. The absolute value of the nonlinear susceptibility tensor of the film is addressed by analyzing the interference of SHG signals from the film and the glass substrate. The value of the joint non-diagonal component of the susceptibility is found to be 4 pm/V, which is comparable to that of widely used second-order nonlinear materials...
March 15, 2017: Optics Letters
Clio Deferm, Bieke Onghena, Tom Vander Hoogerstraete, Dipanjan Banerjee, Jan Luyten, Harald Oosterhof, Jan Fransaer, Koen Binnemans
Most metal extraction studies focus on the kinetics, the maximum loading and the extraction equilibrium, while structural information on the extracted complexes has been limited. This paper concerns the nature of the indium(iii) chloride complexes, present in the organic and aqueous phase during the solvent extraction of indium(iii) from an aqueous HCl solution by undiluted ionic liquids Cyphos(®) IL 101 and Aliquat(®) 336. In an aqueous HCl solution (0-12 M), indium(iii) exists as octahedral mixed complexes, [In(H2O)6-nCln](3-n) (0 ≤ n ≤ 6)...
March 15, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
R Clayton Shallcross, Yilong Zheng, S Scott Saavedra, Neal R Armstrong
We show for the first time that the frontier orbital energetics (conduction band minimum (CBM) and valence band maximum (VBM)) of device-relevant, methylammonium bromide (MABr)-doped, formamidinium lead trihalide perovskite (FA-PVSK) thin films can be characterized using UV-Vis spectroelectrochemistry, which provides an additional and straightforward experimental technique for determining energy band values relative to more traditional methods based on photoelectron spectroscopy. FA-PVSK films are processed via a two-step deposition process, known to provide high efficiency solar cells, on semi-transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) electrodes...
March 14, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Pelin Arıcan, Berna Okudan Tekin, Seniha Naldöken, Rıza Şefizade, Dilek Berker
Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome (VHLS) is an autosomal dominant hereditary familial disorder characterized by development of malignant and benign neoplasms. Differential diagnosis of the adrenal and pancreatic masses are difficult in patients with VHLS. Iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (I-123 MIBG) and indium-111 somatostatin receptor scintigraphies (In-111 SRS) have important roles in the differential diagnosis of adrenal and pancreatic masses in those patients. In this case report, we present the findings of I-123 MIBG single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT/CT) and In-111 SRS SPECT/CT in three members of a family with VHLS...
February 5, 2017: Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy
Rahul Kumar Sharma, Yogendra Nath Chouryal, Sushmita Chaudhari, Jeganathan Saravanakumar, Suhash Ranjan Dey, Pushpal Ghosh
Phase tuned quantum confined In2S3 nanocrystals are accessible solvothermally using task-specific ionic liquids (ILs) as structure directing agents. Selective tuning of size, shape, morphology and, most importantly, crystal phase of In2S3 is achieved by changing the alkyl side chain length, the H-bonding and aromatic -stacking ability of the 1-alkyl-3- methylimidazolium bromide ILs, [Cnmim]Br (n=2,4,6,8 and 10). It is observed that crystallite size is significantly less when ILs are used compared to the synthesis without ILs keeping the other reaction parameters same...
March 14, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Manuel Souto, Li Yuan, Dayana C Morales, Li Jiang, Imma Ratera, Christian A Nijhuis, Jaume Veciana
This Communication describes the mechanism of charge transport across self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of two donor-acceptor systems consisting of a polychlorotriphenylmethyl (PTM) electron-acceptor moiety linked to an electron-donor ferrocene (Fc) unit supported by ultraflat template-stripped Au and contacted by a eutectic alloy of gallium and indium top contacts. The electronic and supramolecular structures of these SAMs were well characterized. The PTM unit can be switched between the nonradical and radical forms, which influences the rectification behavior of the junction...
March 16, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Shih-Chen Chen, Nian-Zu She, Kaung-Hsiung Wu, Yu-Ze Chen, Wei-Sheng Lin, Jia-Xing Li, Fang I Lai, Jenh-Yih Juang, Chih Wei Luo, Lung-Teng Cheng, Tung-Po Hsieh, Hao-Chung Kuo, Yu-Lun Chueh
Ink-printing method emerges as a viable way for manufacturing large-scale flexible Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin film photovoltaic (TFPV) devices owing to its potential for the rapid process, mass production and low-cost non-vacuum device fabrication. Here, we brought the femtosecond laser annealing (fs-LA) process into the ink-printing CIGS thin film preparation. The effects of fs-LA treatment on the structural and optoelectronic properties of the ink-printing CIGS thin films were systematically investigated. It was observed that, while the film surface morphology remained essentially unchanged under superheating, the quality of crystallinity was significantly enhanced after the fs-LA treatment...
March 10, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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