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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231503/ecotoxicity-assessment-of-ionic-as-iii-as-v-in-iii-and-ga-iii-species-potentially-released-from-novel-iii-v-semiconductor-materials
#1
Chao Zeng, Adrian Gonzalez-Alvarez, Emily Orenstein, Jim A Field, Farhang Shadman, Reyes Sierra-Alvarez
III-V materials such as indium arsenide (InAs) and gallium arsenide (GaAs) are increasingly used in electronic and photovoltaic devices. The extensive application of these materials may lead to release of III-V ionic species during semiconductor manufacturing or disposal of decommissioned devices into the environment. Although arsenic is recognized as an important contaminant due to its high toxicity, there is a lack of information about the toxic effects of indium and gallium ions. In this study, acute toxicity of As(III), As(V), In(III) and Ga(III) species was evaluated using two microbial assays testing for methanogenic activity and O2 uptake, as well as two bioassays targeting aquatic organisms, including the marine bacterium Aliivibrio fischeri (bioluminescence inhibition) and the crustacean Daphnia magna (mortality)...
February 20, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230999/design-of-contact-electrodes-for-semiconductor-nanowire-solar-energy-harvesting-devices
#2
Tzu-Ging Lin, Sarath Ramadurgam, Chen Yang
Transparent, low resistive contacts are critical for efficient solar energy harvesting devices. It is important to reconsider the material choices and electrode design as devices move from 2D films to 1D nanostructures. In this paper, we study the effectiveness of indium tin oxide (ITO) and metals, such as Ag and Cu, as contacts in 2D and 1D systems. Although ITO has been studied extensively and developed into an effective transparent contact for 2D devices, our results show that effectiveness does not translate to 1D systems...
February 23, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226943/using-liquid-metal-alloy-egain-to-electrochemically-enhance-ss-stimulation-electrodes-for-biobotic-applications
#3
Tahmid Latif, Fengyuan Gong, Michael Dickey, Mihail Sichitiu, Alper Bozkurt, Tahmid Latif, Fengyuan Gong, Michael Dickey, Mihail Sichitiu, Alper Bozkurt, Michael Dickey, Tahmid Latif, Fengyuan Gong, Alper Bozkurt, Mihail Sichitiu
Biobotics is an emerging and useful advent in the field of robotics which harnesses the mechanical power of live invertebrates and benefits from them as "working" animals. Most biobotic applications rely on neural or muscular stimulation through implanted electrodes for achieving direct control of their locomotory behavior. Degradation of stimulation efficiency is often noticed through extended usage, partly owing to incompatibility of implanted electrodes to the application. Our previous achievements in biobotics utilized commercially available stainless steel wires as stimulation electrodes due to its availability and lower cost...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224796/multi-cl-substituted-self-assembled-molecules-as-anode-interlayers-tuning-surface-properties-and-humidity-stability-for-organic-photovoltaics
#4
Xiaofang Cheng, Liqiang Huang, Lifu Zhang, Qingyun Ai, Lie Chen, Yiwang Chen
Self-assembled small-molecules (SASMs) are of effective materials to improve the interfacial issues between the metal/metal oxide and the overlying organic layer. In this work, surface modification of indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode through a series of Cl-contained SASMs has been exploited to control the surface properties of ITO and device performance in organic photovoltaics. Depending on the position and degrees of chlorination for SASMs, we could precisely manipulate the work function of the ITO electrode, and chemisorption of SASMs on ITO as well...
February 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218495/design-and-evaluation-of-a-variable-stiffness-manual-operating-platform-for-laparoendoscopic-single-site-surgery-less
#5
Jinhua Li, Xuejie Li, Jianchen Wang, Yuan Xing, Shuxin Wang, Xiangyun Ren
BACKGROUND: Most of the existing robotic platforms for LESS have workspace and load capacity weaknesses, because of the limitation of one single incision. We have developed a LESS manual operating platform of which the stiffness of the insertion tube is controllable. METHODS: The system included two dexterous tool manipulators, a stereo-vision module and a variable stiffness insertion tube (VSIT), which was designed using phase-change material (mixed indium, gallium and stannum)...
February 20, 2017: International Journal of Medical Robotics + Computer Assisted Surgery: MRCAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217991/simultaneous-formation-and-spatial-patterning-of-zno-on-ito-surfaces-by-local-laser-induced-generation-of-microbubbles-in-aqueous-solutions-of-zn-nh3-4-2
#6
Sho Fujii, Ryuta Fukano, Yoshihito Hayami, Hiroaki Ozawa, Eiro Muneyuki, Noboru Kitamura, Masa-Aki Haga
We demonstrate the simultaneous formation and spatial patterning of ZnO nanocrystals on an indium-tin oxide (ITO) surface upon local heating using a laser (1064 nm) and subsequent formation of microbubbles. Laser irradiation of an ITO surface in aqueous [Zn(NH3)4](2+) solution (1.0 × 10(-2) M at pH = 12.0) under an optical microscope produced ZnO nanocrystals, the presence of which was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis and Raman microspectroscopy. Scanning the focused laser beam over the ITO surface generated a spatial ZnO pattern (height: ~60 nm, width: ~1 m) in the absence of a template or mask...
February 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215081/photocatalytic-co2-reduction-by-carbon-coated-indium-oxide-nanobelts
#7
Yun-Xiang Pan, Ya You, Sen Xin, Yutao Li, Gengtao Fu, Zhiming Cui, Yu-Long Men, Fei-Fei Cao, Shu-Hong Yu, John B Goodenough
Indium-oxide (In2O3) nanobelts coated by a 5-nm-thick car-bon layer provide an enhanced photocatalytic reduction of CO2 to CO and CH4, yielding CO and CH4 evolution rates of 126.6 and 27.9 mol h-1, respectively, with water as reductant and Pt as co-catalyst. Experiments and theoretical calcula-tions indicate that the carbon coat promotes the absorption of visible light, improves the separation of photoinduced electron-hole pairs, increases the chemisorption of CO2, makes more protons from water splitting participate in CO2 reduction, and thereby faciliates the photocatalytic reduction of CO2 to CO and CH4...
February 19, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211116/ac-dielectrophoretic-manipulation-and-electroporation-of-vaccinia-virus-using-carbon-nanoelectrode-arrays
#8
Foram Ranjeet Madiyar, Sherry Basset, Omer Farooq, Stefan Rothenburg, Christopher Culbertson, Jun Li
This paper reports the capture and detection of vaccinia virus particles based on AC dielectrophoresis (DEP) and electrochemical impedance measurements employing an embedded vertically aligned carbon nanofiber (VACNF) nanoelectrode array (NEA) versus a macroscopic indium-tin-oxide (ITO) transparent electrode in a "points-and-lid" configuration. The nano-DEP device was fabricated by bonding two SU-8 covered electrodes patterned using photolithography. The bottom electrode contains a 200 × 200 μm(2) active region on a randomly distributed NEA and the top electrode contains a microfluidic channel in SU-8 spin-coated on ITO to guide the flow of the virus solution...
February 17, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209913/rapid-imaging-of-tumor-cell-death-in-vivo-using-the-c2a-domain-of-synaptotagmin-i
#9
André A Neves, Bangwen Xie, Sarah Fawcett, Israt S Alam, Timothy H Witney, Maaike M de Backer, Julia Summers, William Hughes, Sarah McGuire, Dmitry Soloviev, Jodie Miller, William J Howat, De-En Hu, Tiago B Rodrigues, David Y Lewis, Kevin M Brindle
Cell death is an important target for imaging the early response of tumors to treatment. We describe here validation of a phosphatidylserine-binding agent for detecting tumor cell death in vivo based on the C2A domain of Synaptotagmin-I. Methods: The capability of near infrared fluorophore-labeled and 99mTechnetium- and (111)Indium-labeled derivatives of C2Am for imaging tumor cell death, using planar near infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging and single photon computed tomography (SPECT) respectively, was evaluated in implanted and genetically engineered mouse models of lymphoma and in a human colorectal xenograft...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208259/ultrasensitive-electrochemical-detection-of-mirna-21-using-a-zinc-finger-protein-specific-to-dna-rna-hybrids
#10
Chiew San Fang, Kwang-Sun Kim, Byeongjun Yu, Sangyong Jon, Moon-Soo Kim, Haesik Yang
Both high sensitivity and high specificity are crucial for detection of miRNAs that have emerged as important clinical biomarkers. Just Another Zinc finger proteins (JAZ, ZNF346) bind preferably (but nonsequence-specifically) to DNA-RNA hybrids over single-stranded RNAs, single-stranded DNAs, and double-stranded DNAs. We present an ultrasensitive and highly specific electrochemical method for miRNA-21 detection based on the selective binding of JAZ to the DNA-RNA hybrid formed between a DNA capture probe and a target miRNA-21...
February 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207950/simplifying-volumes-of-interest-vois-definition-in-quantitative-spect-beyond-manual-definition-of-3d-whole-organ-vois
#11
Esther M Vicente, Martin A Lodge, Steven P Rowe, Richard L Wahl, Eric C Frey
PURPOSE: We investigated the feasibility of using simpler methods than manual whole-organ volume-of-interest (VOI) definition to estimate the organ activity concentration in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in cases where the activity in the organ can be assumed to be uniformly distributed on the scale of the voxel size. In particular, we investigated an anatomic region-of-interest (ROI) defined in a single transaxial slice, and a single sphere placed inside the organ boundaries...
February 16, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206753/charge-density-wave-in-the-new-polymorphs-of-re2ru3ge5-re-pr-sm-dy
#12
Daniel E Bugaris, Christos D Malliakas, Fei Han, Nicholas P Calta, Mihai Sturza, Matthew Krogstad, Raymond Osborn, Stephan Rosenkranz, Jacob P C Ruff, Giancarlo Trimarchi, Sergey L Bud'ko, Mahalingam Balasubramanian, Duck Young Chung, Mercouri G Kanatzidis
A new polymorph of the RE2Ru3Ge5 (RE = Pr, Sm, Dy) compounds has been grown as single crystals via an indium flux. These compounds crystallize in tetragonal space group P4/mnc with the Sc2Fe3Si5-type structure, having lattice parameters a = 11.020(2) Å and c = 5.853(1) Å for RE = Pr, a = 10.982(2) Å and c = 5.777(1) Å for RE = Sm, and a = 10.927(2) Å and c = 5.697(1) Å for RE = Dy. These materials exhibit a structural transition at low temperature that occurs due to the charge density wave (CDW). Both the high-temperature average crystal structure and the low-temperature incommensurately modulated crystal structure (for Sm2Ru3Ge5 as a representative) have been solved...
February 16, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205420/tetrabutylammonium-salts-of-aluminum-iii-and-gallium-iii-phthalocyanine-radical-anions-bonded-with-fluoren-9-olato%C3%AF-anions-and-indium-iii-bromide-phthalocyanine-radical-anions
#13
Dmitri Konarev, Salavat Khasanov, Manabu Ishikawa, Yoshiaki Nakano, Akihiro Otsuka, Hideki Yamochi, Gunzi Saito, Rimma N Lyubovskaya
Reduction of aluminum(III), gallium(III) and indium(III) chloride phthalocyanines by sodium fluorenone ketyl in the presence of tetrabutylammonium cations yielded crystalline salts (Bu4N+)2[M(III)(HFl-O-)(Pc*3-)](*-)(Br-).1.5C6H4Cl2 (M = Al (1), Ga(2), HFl-O- = Fluoren-9-olato- anion) and (Bu4N+)[In(III)Br(Pc*3-)]*-.0.875C6H4Cl2.0.125C6H14 (3). The salts contain Pc(*3-) radical anions with negatively charged phthalocyanine macrocycles evidenced by the presence of intense bands of (Pc*3-) in the NIR range and noticeable blue shift of both Q- and Soret bands of phthalocyanine...
February 15, 2017: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199220/critical-analysis-of-soft-point-contact-andreev-reflection-spectra-between-superconducting-films-and-pressed-in
#14
Pradnya Parab, Prashant Chauhan, H Muthurajan, Sangita Bose
We present a critical analysis of an alternative technique of point contact Andreev reflection (PCAR) spectroscopy used to extract energy resolved information of superconductors which is based on making 'soft-contacts' between superconductors and indium. This technique is not sensitive to mechanical vibrations and hence can be used in a cryogen free platform increasing its accessibility to users having no access to cryogenic liquids. Through our experiments on large number of superconducting films we show that the PCAR spectra below the T c of In show sub-harmonic gap structures consistent with the theory of multiple Andreev reflection (MAR) and a zero bias conductance (ZBC) anomaly associated with the Josephson supercurrent...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198867/acceleration-of-the-nonlinear-dynamics-in-p-doped-indium-phosphide-nanoscale-resonators
#15
Gregory Moille, Sylvain Combrié, Kerstin Fuchs, Matusala Yacob, Johann Peter Reithmaier, Alfredo de Rossi
We demonstrated a twofold acceleration of the fast time constant characterizing the recovery of a p-doped indium-phosphide photonic crystal all-optical gate. Time-resolved spectral analysis is compared to a three-dimensional drift-diffusion model for the carrier dynamics, demonstrating the transition from the ambipolar to the faster minority carrier dominated diffusion regime. This opens the perspective for faster yet efficient nanophotonic all-optical gates.
February 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196629/the-atomic-structure-of-polar-and-non-polar-ingan-quantum-wells-and-the-green-gap-problem
#16
C J Humphreys, J T Griffiths, F Tang, F Oehler, S D Findlay, C Zheng, J Etheridge, T L Martin, P A J Bagot, M P Moody, D Sutherland, P Dawson, S Schulz, S Zhang, W Y Fu, T Zhu, M J Kappers, R A Oliver
We have used high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), aberration-corrected quantitative scanning transmission electron microscopy (Q-STEM), atom probe tomography (APT) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to study the atomic structure of (0001) polar and (11-20) non-polar InGaN quantum wells (QWs). This paper provides an overview of the results. Polar (0001) InGaN in QWs is a random alloy, with In replacing Ga randomly. The InGaN QWs have atomic height interface steps, resulting in QW width fluctuations...
February 3, 2017: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195721/gallium-iii-and-indium-iii-complexes-with-meso-monophosphorylated-porphyrins-synthesis-and-structure-a-first-example-of-dimers-formed-by-the-self-assembly-of-meso-porphyrinylphosphonic-acid-monoester
#17
Yulia Yu Enakieva, Marina V Volostnykh, Sergey E Nefedov, Gayane A Kirakosyan, Yulia G Gorbunova, Aslan Yu Tsivadze, Alla G Bessmertnykh-Lemeune, Christine Stern, Roger Guilard
The synthesis and structural characterization, both in solution by means of (1)H and (31)P NMR and UV-vis spectroscopies and in the solid state by X-ray diffraction on single crystal, of a series of gallium(III) and indium(III) meso-mono(diethoxyphosphoryl)porphyrins bearing different peripheral substituents as well as the corresponding monoesters and phosphonic acids are reported. This work describes the first example of the X-ray structure of a self-assembled dimer formed via strong binding between the oxygen atom of the phosphonate substituent and the gallium(III) cations of adjacent porphyrin molecules [Ga-O = 1...
February 14, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193073/ultrasensitive-protease-sensors-using-selective-affinity-binding-selective-proteolytic-reaction-and-proximity-dependent-electrochemical-reaction
#18
Seonhwa Park, Gamwoo Kim, Jeongwook Seo, Haesik Yang
The development of a fast and ultrasensitive protease detection method is a challenging task. This paper reports ultrasensitive protease sensors exploiting (i) selective affinity binding, (ii) selective proteolytic reaction, and (iii) proximity-dependent electrochemical reaction. The selective affinity binding to capture IgG increases the concentration of the target protease (trypsin as a model protease) near the electrode, and the selective proteolytic reaction by trypsin increases the concentration of the redox-active species near the electrode...
December 20, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191848/intriguing-indium-salen-complexes-as-multicolor-luminophores
#19
Seon Hee Lee, Nara Shin, Sang Woo Kwak, Kyunglim Hyun, Won Hee Woo, Ji Hye Lee, Hyonseok Hwang, Min Kim, Junseong Lee, Youngjo Kim, Kang Mun Lee, Myung Hwan Park
The series of novel salen-based indium complexes (3-(t)Bu-5-R-salen)In-Me (3-(t)Bu-5-R-salen = N,N'-bis(2-oxy-3-tert-butyl-5-R-salicylidene)-1,2-diaminoethane, R = H (1), (t)Bu (2), Br (3), Ph (4), OMe (5), NMe2 (6)) and [(3-(t)Bu-5-NMe3-salen)In-Me](OTf)2 (7; OTf = CF3SO3(-)) have been synthesized and fully characterized by NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. All indium complexes 1-7 are highly stable in air and even aqueous solutions. The solid-state structures for 3-5, which were confirmed by single-crystal X-ray analysis, exhibit square-pyramidal geometries around the indium center...
February 13, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190898/synthesis-and-opioid-receptor-binding-of-indium-iii-and-111-in-labeled-macrocyclic-conjugates-of-diprenorphine-novel-ligands-designed-for-imaging-studies-of-peripheral-opioid-receptors
#20
Shefali Srivastava, Emily A Fergason-Cantrell, Roger I Nahas, John R Lever
Radiolabeled diprenorphine (DPN) and analogs are widely used ligands for non-invasive brain imaging of opioid receptors. To develop complementary radioligands optimized for studies of the peripheral opioid receptors, we prepared a pair of hydrophilic DPN derivatives, conjugated to the macrocyclic chelator DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid), for complexation with trivalent metals. The non-radioactive indium (III) complexes, tethered to the C6-oxygen position of the DPN scaffold by 6- to 9-atom spacers, displayed high affinities for binding to μ, δ and κ opioid receptors in vitro...
October 6, 2016: Tetrahedron
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