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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144833/low-dietary-fiber-intake-increases-collinsella-abundance-in-the-gut-microbiota-of-overweight-and-obese-pregnant-women
#1
Luisa F Gomez-Arango, Helen L Barrett, Shelley A Wilkinson, Leonie K Callaway, H David McIntyre, Mark Morrison, Marloes Dekker Nitert
The gut microbiota contributes to the regulation of glucose metabolism in pregnancy. Abundance of the genus Collinsella is positively correlated with circulating insulin; however, it is unclear what determines Collinsella abundance. This study aims to validate the correlation between Collinsella and insulin and to elucidate if macronutrient intake alters Collinsella abundance and gut microbiota composition. Gut microbiota profiles were assessed by 16S rRNA sequencing in 57 overweight and 73 obese pregnant women from the SPRING (Study of PRobiotics IN Gestational diabetes) trial at 16 weeks gestation and correlated with metabolic hormone levels and macronutrient intake...
November 16, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142885/successful-glycemic-control-using-a-flash-glucose-monitoring-system-for-a-pregnant-woman-with-diabetes-a-case-report
#2
Miyako Kishimoto, Saori Tamada, Yoko Oshiba
Background: Glucose control for pregnant women with glucose intolerance is important, as hyperglycemia may adversely affect the mother and the fetus. Case presentation: We report the case of a pregnant Japanese woman who experienced gestational diabetes mellitus during her first pregnancy and developed impaired glucose tolerance after the delivery. During her second pregnancy with twins, she required up to 75 units of injected insulin to control her postprandial hyperglycemia and occasionally experienced hypoglycemia...
2017: Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142651/prevention-of-insulin-resistance-by-dietary-intervention-among-pregnant-mothers-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Masoomeh Goodarzi-Khoigani, Seyed Saeed Mazloomy Mahmoodabad, Mohammad Hossein Baghiani Moghadam, Azadeh Nadjarzadeh, Farahnaz Mardanian, Hossein Fallahzadeh, Azam Dadkhah-Tirani
Background: Chronic insulin resistance (IR) is a basic part of the pathophysiology of gestational diabetes mellitus. Nutrition significantly impacts IR and weight loss reduces insulin levels, whereas weight gain increases the concentrations. Therefore, we surveyed the effect of nutrition intervention on IR in pregnant women and whether this effect is irrespective of weight gaining in accordance with Institute of Medicine limits. Methods: This prospective, randomized clinical trial was carried out among 150 primiparous pregnant mothers in fifteen health centers, five hospitals, and 15 private obstetrical offices in Isfahan...
2017: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142561/feto-maternal-outcomes-and-glycemic-control-in-metformin-versus-insulin-treated-gestational-diabetics
#4
Rabia Arshad, Samia Khanam, Fuad Shaikh, Nasim Karim
Objective: To evaluate and compare feto-maternal outcomes and glycemic control in metformin versus insulin treated gestational diabetics. Methods: The study was conducted in 2010- 2012 as a part of M. Phil at Civil hospital, Lyari General Hospital and Mamji Hospital in Karachi. After written informed consent, 71 GDM diagnosed females with WHO criteria were enrolled. They were divided into two groups. Group-A, 32 females were given oral metformin 500 mg TDS while Group-B, 39 females were given insulin 0...
September 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128935/associations-between-birthweight-gestational-age-at-birth-and-subsequent-type-1-diabetes-in-children-under-12-a-retrospective-cohort-study-in-england-1998-2012
#5
Raphael R Goldacre
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: With genetics thought to explain only 40-50% of the total risk of type 1 diabetes, environmental risk factors in early life have been proposed. Previous findings from studies of type 1 diabetes incidence by birthweight and gestational age at birth have been inconsistent. This study aimed to investigate the relationships between birthweight, gestational age at birth and subsequent type 1 diabetes in England. METHODS: Data were obtained from a population-based database comprising linked mother-infant pairs using English national Hospital Episode Statistics from 1998 to 2012...
November 11, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125636/very-tight-versus-tight-control-which-should-be-the-criteria-for-pharmacologic-therapy-dose-adjustment-in-diabetes-in-pregnancy-evidence-from-randomized-controlled-trials
#6
Claudia Caissutti, Gabriele Saccone, Andrea Ciardulli, Vincenzo Berghella
INTRODUCTION: There is inconclusive evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to support any specific criteria for pharmacologic therapy dose adjustment in diabetes in pregnancy. Our objective was to analyze the criteria for dose adjustment of pharmacologic treatment for diabetes mellitus (DM) in pregnancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data sources: MEDLINE, OVID and Cochrane Library were searched from their inception to September 2017. Selection criteria included all trials of DM in pregnancy managed by oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin reporting criteria for pharmacologic therapy dose adjustment...
November 10, 2017: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122892/subclinical-first-trimester-renal-abnormalities-are-associated-with-preeclampsia-in-normoalbuminuric-women-with-type-1-diabetes
#7
Clare B Kelly, Michelle B Hookham, Jeremy Y Yu, Alicia J Jenkins, Alison J Nankervis, Kristian F Hanssen, Satish K Garg, James A Scardo, Samar M Hammad, M Kathryn Menard, Christopher E Aston, Timothy J Lyons
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to determine the utility of tubular (urinary/plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [NGAL] and urinary kidney injury molecule 1 [KIM-1]) and glomerular (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR]) biomarkers in predicting preeclampsia (PE) in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) who were free of microalbuminuria and hypertension at the first trimester. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a prospective study of T1DM pregnancy...
November 9, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114778/long-term-sustainability-of-diabetes-prevention-approaches-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-clinical-trials
#8
J Sonya Haw, Karla I Galaviz, Audrey N Straus, Alysse J Kowalski, Matthew J Magee, Mary Beth Weber, Jingkai Wei, K M Venkat Narayan, Mohammed K Ali
Importance: Diabetes prevention is imperative to slow worldwide growth of diabetes-related morbidity and mortality. Yet the long-term efficacy of prevention strategies remains unknown. Objective: To estimate aggregate long-term effects of different diabetes prevention strategies on diabetes incidence. Data Sources: Systematic searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases. The initial search was conducted on January 14, 2014, and was updated on February 20, 2015...
November 6, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111856/vascular-derived-connective-tissue-growth-factor-ctgf-is-critical-for-pregnancy-induced-%C3%AE-cell-hyperplasia-in-adult-mice
#9
Raymond C Pasek, Jennifer C Dunn, Joseph M Elsakr, Mounika Aramandla, Anveetha R Matta, Maureen Gannon
During pregnancy, maternal β cells undergo compensatory changes including hypertrophy, hyperplasia, and increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Failure of these adaptations to occur can result in gestational diabetes mellitus. The secreted protein, Connective tissue growth factor (Ctgf), is critical for normal β cell development and promotes regeneration after partial β cell ablation. During embryogenesis, Ctgf is expressed in pancreatic ducts, vasculature, and β cells. In the adult pancreas, Ctgf is expressed only in the vasculature...
November 7, 2017: Islets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110650/group-based-developmental-bmi-trajectories-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-and-gestational-diabetes-a-community-based-longitudinal-study
#10
Nadira Sultana Kakoly, Arul Earnest, Lisa J Moran, Helena J Teede, Anju E Joham
BACKGROUND: Obesity is common in young women, increasing insulin resistance (IR) and worsening pregnancy complications, including gestational diabetes (GDM). Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are commonly obese, which aggravates the severity of PCOS clinical expression. Relationships between these common insulin-resistant conditions, however, remain unclear. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH) database, including data from 8009 women aged 18-36 years across six surveys...
November 6, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108631/mesenchymal-stromal-cells-isolated-from-gestationally-diabetic-human-placenta-exhibit-insulin-resistance-decreased-clonogenicity-and-angiogenesis
#11
Suja Ann Mathew, Ramesh Bhonde
Pregnancy is known to be a diabetogenic state. With sedentary lifestyle and wrong dietary choices, gestational diabetes mellitus is on the rise. This raises a concern as placenta is becoming an acceptable choice, as a source of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSCs). In our current study we questioned whether there exists a difference between MSCs isolated from normal and diabetic (Gd-P-MSCs) placenta, as the health of the cells used in therapy is of prime importance. We isolated and verified the Gd-P-MSCs based on their surface markers and differentiation potential...
November 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106783/gestational-diabetes-is-diet-and-insulin-the-only-solution
#12
(no author information available yet)
Gestational diabetes (GDM) is a relatively common complication of pregnancy. Maternal hyperglycemia causes many serious side effects for mothers, fetuses and newborns. In 90% of women diagnosed with GDM, a dietary treatment results in satisfactory levels of blood glucose. The remaining 10% require insulin therapy to achieve the recommended glycemic levels. The majority of recent studies show the efficiency of metformin in gestational diabetes and prove that it is not a cause for any harmful side effects to the embryo and/or fetus...
October 6, 2017: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104874/akt-mtor-role-in-human-foetoplacental-vascular-insulin-resistance-in-diseases-of-pregnancy
#13
REVIEW
Roberto Villalobos-Labra, Luis Silva, Mario Subiabre, Joaquín Araos, Rocío Salsoso, Bárbara Fuenzalida, Tamara Sáez, Fernando Toledo, Marcelo González, Claudia Quezada, Fabián Pardo, Delia I Chiarello, Andrea Leiva, Luis Sobrevia
Insulin resistance is characteristic of pregnancies where the mother shows metabolic alterations, such as preeclampsia (PE) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), or abnormal maternal conditions such as pregestational maternal obesity (PGMO). Insulin signalling includes activation of insulin receptor substrates 1 and 2 (IRS1/2) as well as Src homology 2 domain-containing transforming protein 1, leading to activation of 44 and 42 kDa mitogen-activated protein kinases and protein kinase B/Akt (Akt) signalling cascades in the human foetoplacental vasculature...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103210/insulin-for-the-treatment-of-women-with-gestational-diabetes
#14
REVIEW
Julie Brown, Luke Grzeskowiak, Kathryn Williamson, Michelle R Downie, Caroline A Crowther
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with short- and long-term complications for the mother and her infant. Women who are unable to maintain their blood glucose concentration within pre-specified treatment targets with diet and lifestyle interventions will require anti-diabetic pharmacological therapies. This review explores the safety and effectiveness of insulin compared with oral anti-diabetic pharmacological therapies, non-pharmacological interventions and insulin regimens...
November 5, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094444/metformin-as-a-prophylactic-treatment-of-gestational-diabetes-in-pregnant-patients-with-pregestational-insulin-resistance-a-randomized-study
#15
Enrique Valdés, Alvaro Sepúlveda-Martínez, Paula Candia, Nancy Abusada, Rodrigo Orellana, Bárbara Manukian, Eduardo Cuellar
AIM: We aimed to assess the use of metformin (MTF) in the prevention of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in patients with pregestational insulin resistance (PIR). METHODS: A double blind, multicenter, randomized trial was carried out in patients with a history of PIR and pregestational MTF treatment. Groups were allocated either to MTF 1700 mg/day or placebo. Patients were recruited between 12(+0) and 15(+6)  gestational weeks, and treatment was extended until week 36...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089613/glp-1-and-igf-i-levels-are-elevated-in-late-infancy-in-low-birthweight-infants-independently-of-glp-1-receptor-polymorphisms-and-neonatal-nutrition
#16
M Díaz, C García-Beltran, A López-Bermejo, F de Zegher, L Ibáñez
Low birth weight followed by rapid postnatal weight gain is associated with increased risks for obesity and diabetes in adulthood. Modulation of glucagon-like-peptide 1 (GLP-1) secretion by (epi)genetic mechanisms or nutrition may influence in part this risk. Formula fed infants born small-for-gestational-age (SGA) have higher circulating GLP-1 at age 4 months than breastfed SGA or appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) infants. Here, we assessed GLP-1 concentrations in healthy AGA (n=149) and SGA (n=107) subjects at age 12 months, and their association with endocrine-metabolic and body composition parameters and GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) rs6923761 and rs3765467 polymorphisms...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077742/dna-methylation-and-gene-expression-of-txnip-in-adult-offspring-of-women-with-diabetes-in-pregnancy
#17
Azadeh Houshmand-Oeregaard, Line Hjort, Louise Kelstrup, Ninna S Hansen, Christa Broholm, Linn Gillberg, Tine D Clausen, Elisabeth R Mathiesen, Peter Damm, Allan Vaag
BACKGROUND: Fetal exposure to maternal diabetes increases the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), possibly mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. Low blood TXNIP DNA methylation has been associated with elevated glucose levels and risk of T2DM, and increased skeletal muscle TXNIP gene expression was reported in subjects with impaired glucose metabolism or T2DM. Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and skeletal muscle play a key role in the control of whole body glucose metabolism and insulin action...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073628/transient-congenital-hypothyroidism-alters-gene-expression-of-glucose-transporters-and-impairs-glucose-sensing-apparatus-in-young-and-aged-offspring-rats
#18
Hanieh Gholami, Sajad Jeddi, Azita Zadeh-Vakili, Khadije Farrokhfall, Fatemeh Rouhollah, Maryam Zarkesh, Mahboubeh Ghanbari, Asghar Ghasemi
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Transient congenital hypothyroidism (TCH) could disturb carbohydrate metabolism in adulthood. Aging is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes. This study aims to address effects of TCH on mRNA expressions of glucose transporters (GLUTs) and glucokinase (GcK) in islets and insulin target tissues of aged offspring rats. METHODS: The TCH group received water containing 0.025% 6-propyl-2-thiouracil during gestation. Offspring from control and TCH groups (n=6 in each group) were followed until month 19...
October 27, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070511/metformin-in-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-predictors-of-poor-response
#19
Inês Gante, Luís Melo, Jorge Dores, Luísa Ruas, Maria do Céu Almeida
OBJECTIVE: Metformin can be regarded as a first-line treatment in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) due to its safety and effectiveness. However, a proportion of women do not achieve adequate glycemic control with metformin alone. We aim to identify predictors of this poor response to metformin. DESIGN AND METHODS: Retrospective multicentre cohort study of women with GDM who started metformin as first-line treatment. The assessed cohort was divided into a metformin group and metformin plus insulin group...
October 25, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063044/exercise-and-its-role-in-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#20
REVIEW
Chen Wang, Kym Janese Guelfi, Hui-Xia Yang
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) refers to diabetes diagnosed in the second or third trimester of pregnancy that is not clearly either type 1 or type 2 diabetes. GDM is a common medical complication in pregnancy that has been rapidly increasing worldwide. GDM is associated with both short- and long-term health issues for both mothers and offspring. Consistent with type 2 diabetes, peripheral insulin resistance contributes to the hyperglycemia associated with GDM. Accordingly, it is important to identify strategies to reduce the insulin resistance associated with GDM...
December 2016: Chronic Dis Transl Med
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