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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899792/nature-nurtures-the-design-of-new-semi-synthetic-macrolide-antibiotics
#1
REVIEW
Prabhavathi Fernandes, Evan Martens, David Pereira
Erythromycin and its analogs are used to treat respiratory tract and other infections. The broad use of these antibiotics during the last 5 decades has led to resistance that can range from 20% to over 70% in certain parts of the world. Efforts to find macrolides that were active against macrolide-resistant strains led to the development of erythromycin analogs with alkyl-aryl side chains that mimicked the sugar side chain of 16-membered macrolides, such as tylosin. Further modifications were made to improve the potency of these molecules by removal of the cladinose sugar to obtain a smaller molecule, a modification that was learned from an older macrolide, pikromycin...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870426/sex-dependent-effects-of-nicotine-on-the-developing-brain
#2
REVIEW
Sarah J Cross, Kay E Linker, Frances M Leslie
The use of tobacco products represents a major public health concern, especially among women. Epidemiological data have consistently demonstrated that women have less success quitting tobacco use and a higher risk for developing tobacco-related diseases. The deleterious effects of nicotine are not restricted to adulthood, as nicotinic acetylcholine receptors regulate critical aspects of neural development. However, the exact mechanisms underlying the particular sensitivity of women to develop tobacco dependence have not been well elucidated...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848935/distinct-roles-of-creb-within-the-ventral-and-dorsal-hippocampus-in-mediating-nicotine-withdrawal-phenotypes
#3
Miranda Fisher, Rachel LeMalefant, Luyi Zhou, Gavin Huang, Jill Turner
Addiction to nicotine and the inability to quit smoking are influenced by genetic factors, emphasizing the importance of understanding how genes and drugs of abuse mechanistically impact each other. One well-characterized protein responsible for regulating both response to drugs and gene expression is the transcription factor CREB. Previous work indicates that hippocampal specific alterations in CREB signaling and synaptic plasticity may underlie certain nicotine withdrawal phenotypes. However, the structure of the hippocampus possesses dorsal and ventral sub-regions, each differing in behavioral, anatomic and gene expression characteristics...
November 16, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826134/impact-of-a-collective-intelligence-tailored-messaging-system-on-smoking-cessation-the-perspect-randomized-experiment
#4
Rajani Shankar Sadasivam, Erin M Borglund, Roy Adams, Benjamin M Marlin, Thomas K Houston
BACKGROUND: Outside health care, content tailoring is driven algorithmically using machine learning compared to the rule-based approach used in current implementations of computer-tailored health communication (CTHC) systems. A special class of machine learning systems ("recommender systems") are used to select messages by combining the collective intelligence of their users (ie, the observed and inferred preferences of users as they interact with the system) and their user profiles. However, this approach has not been adequately tested for CTHC...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789575/us-medical-schools-awareness-of-their-students-who-smoke-cessation-programs-available-and-the-potential-impact-on-residency-match
#5
Joseph E Chidiac, Ahmed Mohamed, Madhumitha Krishnamoorthy, Karim Mahmoud, Geethapriya Rajasekaranrathnakumar, Mohan Palla, Diane L Levine
INTRODUCTION: Hospital systems are adopting strict nicotine-free policies excluding hiring individuals who smoke, including residents for graduate medical training. This study was conducted to (1) determine medical schools' awareness of these policies, (2) awareness of their students' smoking behaviors, and (3) the smoking cessation programs that they provide. METHODS: A survey was developed to learn about the smoking policies of medical schools in the United States: how school leadership estimates smoking prevalence among their students, what those estimates are, and what programs are in place to help students quit smoking...
October 27, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784625/nicotine-induced-neuroplasticity-counteracts-the-effect-of-schizophrenia-linked-neuregulin-1-signaling-on-nmdar-function-in-the-rat-hippocampus
#6
Yoshihiko Yamazaki, Katumi Sumikawa
A high rate of heavy tobacco smoking among people with schizophrenia has been suggested to reflect self-medication and amelioration of cognitive dysfunction, a core feature of schizophrenia. NMDAR hypofunction is hypothesized to be a mechanism of cognitive dysfunction, and excessive schizophrenia-linked neuregulin 1 (NRG1) signaling through its receptor ErbB4 can suppress NMDAR function by preventing Src-mediated enhancement of NMDAR responses. Here we investigated whether chronic nicotine exposure in rats by subcutaneous injection of nicotine (0...
October 23, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715053/pesticide-chemical-research-in-toxicology-lessons-from-nature
#7
John E Casida, Kathleen A Durkin
Pesticide researchers are students of nature, and each new compound and mechanism turns a page in the ever-expanding encyclopedia of life. Pesticides are both probes to learn about life processes and tools for pest management to facilitate food production and enhance health. In contrast to some household and industrial chemicals, pesticides are assumed to be hazardous to health and the environment until proven otherwise. About a thousand current pesticides working by more than 100 different mechanisms have helped understand many processes and coupled events...
October 7, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708591/cognitive-dysfunction-affective-states-and-vulnerability-to-nicotine-addiction-a-multifactorial-perspective
#8
Morgane Besson, Benoît Forget
Although smoking prevalence has declined in recent years, certain subpopulations continue to smoke at disproportionately high rates and show resistance to cessation treatments. Individuals showing cognitive and affective impairments, including emotional distress and deficits in attention, memory, and inhibitory control, particularly in the context of psychiatric conditions, such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, and mood disorders, are at higher risk for tobacco addiction. Nicotine has been shown to improve cognitive and emotional processing in some conditions, including during tobacco abstinence...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704595/cholinergic-regulation-of-fear-learning-and-extinction
#9
Marlene A Wilson, Jim R Fadel
Cholinergic activation regulates cognitive function, particularly long-term memory consolidation. This Review presents an overview of the anatomical, neurochemical, and pharmacological evidence supporting the cholinergic regulation of Pavlovian contextual and cue-conditioned fear learning and extinction. Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons provide inputs to neocortical regions and subcortical limbic structures such as the hippocampus and amygdala. Pharmacological manipulations of muscarinic and nicotinic receptors support the role of cholinergic processes in the amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex in modulating the learning and extinction of contexts or cues associated with threat...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639816/schizophrenia-smoking-status-and-performance-on-the-matrics-cognitive-consensus-battery
#10
Alexandra C Reed, Josette G Harris, Ann Olincy
Cognitive deficits and high rates of nicotine dependence are consistently documented in the schizophrenia literature. However, there is currently no consensus about how regular smoking influences cognition in schizophrenia or which cognitive domains are most affected by chronic smoking. Previous studies have also failed to disambiguate the effects of chronic nicotine from those of acute exposure. The current study uses a novel approach to testing nicotine addicted patients at a time-point between acute enhancement and withdrawal and implements the MATRICS Cognitive Consensus Battery (MCCB) to compare the overall cognitive performance of regular smokers (n=40) and nonsmokers (n=36) with schizophrenia...
September 9, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634143/effects-of-drugs-of-abuse-on-hippocampal-plasticity-and-hippocampus-dependent-learning-and-memory-contributions-to-development-and-maintenance-of-addiction
#11
Munir Gunes Kutlu, Thomas J Gould
It has long been hypothesized that conditioning mechanisms play major roles in addiction. Specifically, the associations between rewarding properties of drugs of abuse and the drug context can contribute to future use and facilitate the transition from initial drug use into drug dependency. On the other hand, the self-medication hypothesis of drug abuse suggests that negative consequences of drug withdrawal result in relapse to drug use as an attempt to alleviate the negative symptoms. In this review, we explored these hypotheses and the involvement of the hippocampus in the development and maintenance of addiction to widely abused drugs such as cocaine, amphetamine, nicotine, alcohol, opiates, and cannabis...
October 2016: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623427/long-term-effects-of-chronic-nicotine-on-emotional-and-cognitive-behaviors-and-hippocampus-cell-morphology-in-mice-comparisons-of-adult-and-adolescent-nicotine-exposure
#12
Erica D Holliday, Paul Nucero, Munir G Kutlu, Chicora Oliver, Krista L Connelly, Thomas J Gould, Ellen M Unterwald
Nicotine dependence is associated with increased risk for emotional, cognitive and neurological impairments later in life. This study investigated the long-term effects of nicotine exposure during adolescence and adulthood on measures of depression, anxiety, learning and hippocampal pyramidal cell morphology. Mice (C57BL/6J) received saline or nicotine for 12 days via pumps implanted on postnatal day 32 (adolescent) or 54 (adults). Thirty days after cessation of nicotine/saline, mice were tested for learning using contextual fear conditioning, depression-like behaviors using the forced swim test or anxiety-like behaviors with the elevated plus maze...
November 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613891/chronic-nicotine-treatment-during-adolescence-attenuates-the-effects-of-acute-nicotine-in-adult-contextual-fear-learning
#13
Erica D Holliday, Thomas J Gould
INTRODUCTION: Adolescent onset of nicotine abuse is correlated with worse chances at successful abstinence in adulthood. One reason for this may be due to enduring learning deficits resulting from nicotine use during adolescence. Previous work has indicated that chronic nicotine administration beginning in late adolescence (PND38) caused learning deficits in contextual fear when tested in adulthood. The purpose of this study was to determine if chronic nicotine treatment during adolescence would alter sensitivity to nicotine's cognitive enhancing properties in adulthood...
July 13, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613505/effects-of-varenicline-on-motor-cortical-plasticity-in-non-smokers-with-schizophrenia
#14
Alanna C Bridgman, Mera S Barr, Michelle S Goodman, Reza Zomorrodi, Tarek Rajji, Bernard Le Foll, Robert Chen, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Tony P George
BACKGROUND: Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) have been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, and deficits in this system may contribute to high rates of cigarette smoking in this population. nAChR stimulation may modulate neuroplasticity, or long-term potentiation (LTP), which is a key mediator of cognitive performance. Varenicline is a nAChR partial agonist that may improve cognitive deficits in both smokers and non-smokers with schizophrenia; however, the mechanism by which varenicline alters cognition in schizophrenia remains unclear...
September 6, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27601024/muscarinic-nicotinic-and-gabaergic-receptor-signaling-differentially-mediate-fat-conditioned-flavor-preferences-in-rats
#15
Francis M Rotella, Kerstin Olsson, Nancy Martinez, Alexandra Mordo, Ilanna Kohen, Alon Aminov, Jeremy Pagirsky, Alice Yu, Vishal Vig, Richard J Bodnar
Rats display conditioned flavor preferences (CFP) for fats. Previous studies demonstrated that whereas expression of an already-acquired corn oil (CO)-CFP was mildly reduced by dopamine (DA) D1, DA D2, NMDA or opioid receptor antagonists, the acquisition or learning of CO-CFP was eliminated by NMDA antagonists, and significantly reduced by DA D1 and D2, but not opioid antagonists. Previous studies of fructose-CFP demonstrated that muscarinic (scopolamine) and nicotinic (mecamylamine) cholinergic receptor antagonists and GABAB (baclofen) receptor agonism reduced the expression of this acquired response, and that scopolamine, but not mecamylamine or baclofen eliminated the acquisition or learning of this response...
September 4, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590783/exposure-to-low-doses-of-137-cesium-and-nicotine-during-postnatal-development-modifies-anxiety-levels-learning-and-spatial-memory-performance-in-mice
#16
Montserrat Bellés, Luis Heredia, Noemí Serra, José L Domingo, Victoria Linares
Radiation therapy is a major cause of long-term complications observed in survivors of pediatric brain tumors. However, the effects of low-doses of ionizing radiation (IR) to the brain are less studied. On the other hand, tobacco is one of the most heavily abused drugs in the world. Tobacco is not only a health concern for adults. It has also shown to exert deleterious effects on fetuses, newborns, children and adolescents. Exposure to nicotine (Nic) from smoking may potentiate the toxic effects induced by IR on brain development...
August 31, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27572608/functional-characterization-of-acetylcholine-receptors-expressed-in-human-neurons-differentiated-from-hippocampal-neural-stem-progenitor-cells
#17
Kazuyuki Fukushima, Kazuto Yamazaki, Norimasa Miyamoto, Kohei Sawada
Neurotransmission mediated by acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) plays an important role in learning and memory functions in the hippocampus. Impairment of the cholinergic system contributes to Alzheimer's disease (AD), indicating the importance of AChRs as drug targets for AD. To improve the success rates for AD drug development, human cell models that mimic the target brain region are important. Therefore, we characterized the functional expression of nicotinic and muscarinic AChRs (nAChRs and mAChRs, respectively) in human hippocampal neurons differentiated from hippocampal neural stem/progenitor cells (HIP-009 cells)...
August 29, 2016: Journal of Biomolecular Screening
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27545666/the-effect-of-coactivation-of-muscarinic-and-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-on-ltd-in-the-hippocampal-ca1-network
#18
Eriko Sugisaki, Yasuhiro Fukushima, Satoshi Fujii, Yoshihiko Yamazaki, Takeshi Aihara
Theneuromodulator acetylcholine (ACh) is considered to have a crucial effect on sensory inputs in the process of learning and memory, and ACh activates muscarinic (mAChR) and nicotinic (nAChR) acetylcholine receptors. Meanwhile in a hippocampal CA1 network including inhibitory connections, long-term potentiation (LTP) or long-term depression (LTD) is induced by the application of positive timing of the spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) protocol, while LTD is induced by negative timing protocol. In the previous study, the influence of ACh on LTD induced by the negative timing protocol application in the interneuron-blocked CA1 network was reported...
August 18, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27532746/mechanisms-and-genetic-factors-underlying-co-use-of-nicotine-and-alcohol-or-other-drugs-of-abuse
#19
Sarah J Cross, Shahrdad Lotfipour, Frances M Leslie
Concurrent use of tobacco and alcohol or psychostimulants represents a major public health concern, with use of one substance influencing consumption of the other. Co-abuse of these drugs leads to substantial negative health outcomes, reduced cessation, and high economic costs, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Epidemiological data suggest that tobacco use during adolescence plays a particularly significant role. Adolescence is a sensitive period of development marked by major neurobiological maturation of brain regions critical for reward processing, learning and memory, and executive function...
August 17, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27511019/cell-specific-cholinergic-modulation-of-excitability-of-layer-5b-principal-neurons-in-mouse-auditory-cortex
#20
Ankur Joshi, Bopanna I Kalappa, Charles T Anderson, Thanos Tzounopoulos
UNLABELLED: The neuromodulator acetylcholine (ACh) is crucial for several cognitive functions, such as perception, attention, and learning and memory. Whereas, in most cases, the cellular circuits or the specific neurons via which ACh exerts its cognitive effects remain unknown, it is known that auditory cortex (AC) neurons projecting from layer 5B (L5B) to the inferior colliculus, corticocollicular neurons, are required for cholinergic-mediated relearning of sound localization after occlusion of one ear...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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