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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225110/assessment-of-the-cerebellar-neurotoxic-effects-of-nicotine-in-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-in-rats
#1
Dwipayan Bhattacharya, Mohammed Majrashi, Sindhu Ramesh, Manoj Govindarajulu, Jenna Bloemer, Ayaka Fujihashi, Bailee-Ryan Crump, Harrison Hightower, Subhrajit Bhattacharya, Timothy Moore, Vishnu Suppiramaniam, Muralikrishnan Dhanasekaran
The adverse effects of prenatal nicotine and alcohol exposure on human reproductive outcomes are a major scientific and public health concern. In the United States, substantial percentage of women (20-25%) of childbearing age currently smoke cigarettes and consume alcohol, and only a small percentage of these individuals quit after learning of their pregnancy. However, there are very few scientific reports on the effect of nicotine in prenatal alcohol exposure on the cerebellum of the offspring. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the cerebellar neurotoxic effects of nicotine in a rodent model of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD)...
December 7, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221752/chronic-nicotine-exposure-impairs-uncertainty-modulation-on-reinforcement-learning-in-anterior-cingulate-cortex-and-serotonin-system
#2
Zhengde Wei, Long Han, Xiuying Zhong, Ying Liu, Rujing Zha, Ying Wang, Li-Zhuang Yang, Junjie Bu, Hongwen Song, Wenjuan Wang, Yifeng Zhou, Ping Gao, Xiaochu Zhang
Deficits in the computational processes of reinforcement learning have been suggested to underlie addiction. Additionally, environmental uncertainty, which is encoded in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), modulates reward prediction errors (RPEs) during reinforcement learning and exacerbates addiction. The present study tested whether and how the ACC would have an essential role in drug addiction by failing to use uncertainty to modulate the RPEs during reinforcement learning. In Experiment I, we found that the ACC/medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) did not modulate RPE learning according to uncertainty in smokers...
December 5, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203303/interactive-effects-of-morphine-and-nicotine-on-memory-function-depend-on-the-central-amygdala-cannabinoid-cb1-receptor-function-in-rats
#3
Fatemeh Tirgar, Ameneh Rezayof, Sakineh Alijanpour, Nima Yazdanbakhsh
The present study investigated the possible involvement of the central amygdala (CeA) cannabinoid receptors type-1 (CB1Rs) in the interactive effects of morphine and nicotine on memory formation in a passive avoidance learning task. Our results showed that systemic administration of morphine (3 and 6mg/kg, s.c.) immediately after training phase impaired memory consolidation and induced amnesia. Administration of nicotine (0.3 and 0.6mg/kg, s.c.) before testing phase significantly restored morphine-induced amnesia, suggesting a cross state-dependent learning between morphine and nicotine...
December 1, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127660/exposure-to-a-sublethal-concentration-of-imidacloprid-and-the-side-effects-on-target-and-nontarget-organs-of-apis-mellifera-hymenoptera-apidae
#4
Aline Fernanda Catae, Thaisa Cristina Roat, Marcel Pratavieira, Anally Ribeiro da Silva Menegasso, Mario Sergio Palma, Osmar Malaspina
The use of insecticides has become increasingly frequent, and studies indicate that these compounds are involved in the intoxication of bees. Imidacloprid is a widely used neonicotinoid; thus, we have highlighted the importance of assessing its oral toxicity to Africanized bees and used transmission electron microscopy to investigate the sublethal effects in the brain, the target organ, and the midgut, responsible for the digestion/absorption of food. In addition, the distribution of proteins involved in important biological processes in the brain were evaluated on the 1st day of exposure by MALDI-imaging analysis...
November 10, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123362/lessons-from-practice-designing-tools-to-facilitate-individualized-support-for-quitting-smoking
#5
Arpita Bhattacharya, Roger Vilardaga, Julie A Kientz, Sean A Munson
Many health care providers, with a variety of trainings, counsel clients on quitting smoking on a day-to-day basis. In their clinical practice, they draw from and adapt guidelines and research-based strategies to fit individual client situations and challenges. Designers of technologies to support quitting smoking can learn from these real world practices to create tools that better adapt to individual differences. We present findings from interviews with 28 providers with diverse experiences in smoking cessation counselling...
2017: ACM Transactions on Computer-human Interaction: a Publication of the Association for Computing Machinery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29088998/post-injury-administration-of-galantamine-reduces-traumatic-brain-injury-pathology-and-improves-outcome
#6
Jing Zhao, Michael J Hylin, Nobuhide Kobori, Kimberly N Hood, Anthony N Moore, Pramod K Dash
Acetylcholine is an excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system that plays a key role in cognitive function, including learning and memory. Previous studies have shown that experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI) reduces cholinergic neurotransmission, decreases evoked release of acetylcholine, and alters cholinergic receptor levels. Galantamine (FDA-approved for the treatment of vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease) has been shown to inhibit acetylcholinesterase activity, and allosterically potentiate nicotinic receptor signaling...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065194/nicotine-induced-neuroprotection-against-cognitive-dysfunction-after-partial-hepatectomy-involves-activation-of-bdnf-trkb-signaling-pathway-and-inhibition-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-in-aged-rats
#7
Penghui Wei, Qiang Zheng, Hui Liu, Tiantian Wan, Jinfeng Zhou, Dong Li, Haipeng Zhou, Jing Li, Fucheng Ji, Wenxi Tang, Jianjun Li
Introduction: The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects and possible mechanisms of nicotine pre-treatment on postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) in aged rats. Methods: Nicotine (0.5 mg/kg) was given i.p. immediately after anesthesia induction. After the Morris water maze test was used to evaluate the rats' spatial learning and memory, serum and hippocampal tissues were harvested 1 and 3 days after intervention. Inflammatory cytokines in the serum were evaluated by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)...
July 27, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064509/patient-driven-n-of-1-in-parkinson-s-disease-lessons-learned-from-a-placebo-controlled-study-of-the-effect-of-nicotine-on-dyskinesia
#8
Sara Riggare, Kenton T Unruh, Jasmine Sturr, Josefa Domingos, Jonathan A Stamford, Per Svenningsson, Maria Hägglund
BACKGROUND: New insights and knowledge in biomedical science often come from observation and experimentation. Methods traditionally used include self-experimentation, case reports, randomised controlled trials, and N-of-1 studies. Technological advances have lead to an increasing number of individuals and patients engaging in self-tracking. We use the term patient-driven N-of-1 for self-tracking performed with the explicit intention to disseminate the results by academic publishing. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to: 1) explore the potential role for patient-driven N-of-1 studies as a tool for improving self-management in Parkinson's disease (PD) using the example of managing levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) with nicotine, and 2) based on this example; identify some specific challenges of patient-driven N-of-1 studies...
October 24, 2017: Methods of Information in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059450/prenatal-nicotine-exposure-disrupts-infant-neural-markers-of-orienting
#9
Erin King, Alana Campbell, Aysenil Belger, Karen Grewen
Introduction: Prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) from maternal cigarette-smoking is linked to developmental deficits, including impaired auditory processing, language, generalized intelligence, attention and sleep. Fetal brain undergoes massive growth, organization and connectivity during gestation, making it particularly vulnerable to neurotoxic insult. Nicotine binds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, which are extensively involved in growth, connectivity and function of developing neural circuitry and neurotransmitter systems...
August 17, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030431/distinctive-modulation-of-dopamine-release-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-shell-mediated-by-dopamine-and-acetylcholine-receptors
#10
Jung Hoon Shin, Martin F Adrover, Veronica A Alvarez
Nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell shows unique dopamine (DA) signals in vivo and plays a unique role in DA dependent behaviors, such as reward-motivated learning and the response to drugs of abuse. A di-synaptic mechanism for DA release was reported and shown to require synchronized firing of cholinergic interneurons (CINs) and activation of nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (nAChRs) in DA neuron (DAN) axons. The properties of this di-synaptic mechanism of DA transmission is not well understood in the NAc shell...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962173/tetramethylpyrazine-reduces-blood-brain-barrier-permeability-associated-with-enhancement-of-peripheral-cholinergic-anti-inflammatory-effects-for-treating-traumatic-brain-injury
#11
Aimin Wang, Guangbin Zhu, Ping Qian, Tao Zhu
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a diverse group of intracranial injuries resulting from external mechanical insults to the brain. While basic and clinical research for TBI has been conducted for decades, it has not identified cost-effective medical interventions for treating TBI. Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), which is derived from the Chinese herb, Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort (Chuan Xiong), has been clinically used for treating ischemic brain injury for years. However, whether TMP could provide effective benefits for improving the outcomes following TBI is unknown...
September 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957728/the-effects-of-nicotine-on-conditioning-extinction-and-reinstatement-in-humans
#12
Alexandra N Palmisano, Eleanor C Hudd, Courtney M McQuade, Harriet de Wit, Robert S Astur
Nicotine has been shown to enhance the reinforcement and reward-responsiveness of non-nicotine stimuli. To determine whether nicotine enhances the strength of conditioning to context, undergraduate participants with varying levels of nicotine dependence were recruited for a two-day study and tested on a virtual reality (VR) conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. On day one, participants explored two virtual rooms where they received multiple pairings of M&M rewards in one room and no rewards in the other room, followed by a free-access test session with no rewards...
September 18, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935940/layer-and-cell-type-selective-co-transmission-by-a-basal-forebrain-cholinergic-projection-to-the-olfactory-bulb
#13
Daniel T Case, Shawn D Burton, Jeremy Y Gedeon, Sean-Paul G Williams, Nathaniel N Urban, Rebecca P Seal
Cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain project heavily to the main olfactory bulb, the first processing station in the olfactory pathway. The projections innervate multiple layers of the main olfactory bulb and strongly influence odor discrimination, detection, and learning. The precise underlying circuitry of this cholinergic input to the main olfactory bulb remains unclear, however. Here, we identify a specific basal forebrain cholinergic projection that innervates select neurons concentrated in the internal plexiform layer of the main olfactory bulb...
September 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877410/neural-correlates-of-tobacco-cue-reactivity-predict-duration-to-lapse-and-continuous-abstinence-in-smoking-cessation-treatment
#14
Max M Owens, James MacKillop, Joshua C Gray, Steven R H Beach, Michael D Stein, Raymond S Niaura, Lawrence H Sweet
It has been hypothesized that neural reactivity to drug cues in certain limbic/paralimbic regions of the brain is an indicator of addiction severity and a marker for likelihood of success in treatment. To address this question, in the current study, 32 participants (44 percent female) completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging cigarette cue exposure paradigm 2 hours after smoking, and then enrolled in a 9-week smoking cessation treatment program. Neural activation to smoking cues was measured in five a priori defined limbic/paralimbic regions previously implicated with cue reactivity across substances...
September 6, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860980/chronic-nicotine-exposure-initiated-in-adolescence-and-unpaired-to-behavioral-context-fails-to-enhance-sweetened-ethanol-seeking
#15
Aric C Madayag, Kyle S Czarnecki, Lynde M Wangler, Donita L Robinson
Nicotine use in adolescence is pervasive in the United States and, according to the Gateway Hypothesis, may lead to progression towards other addictive substances. Given the prevalence of nicotine and ethanol comorbidity, it is difficult to ascertain if nicotine is a gateway drug for ethanol. Our study investigated the relationship between adolescent exposure to nicotine and whether this exposure alters subsequent alcohol seeking behavior. We hypothesized that rats exposed to nicotine beginning in adolescence would exhibit greater alcohol seeking behavior than non-exposed siblings...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857504/persistent-histone-modifications-at-the-bdnf-and-cdk-5-promoters-following-extinction-of-nicotine-seeking-in-rats
#16
Matthew R Castino, Danay Baker-Andresen, Vikram S Ratnu, Galina Shevchenko, Kevin V Morris, Timothy W Bredy, Neil A Youngson, Kelly J Clemens
Drugs of addiction lead to a wide range of epigenetic changes at the promoter regions of genes directly implicated in learning and memory processes. We have previously shown that the histone deactylase inhibitor, sodium butyrate (NaB), accelerates the extinction of nicotine-seeking and provides resistance to relapse. Here we explore the potential molecular mechanisms underlying this effect. Rats received intravenous nicotine or saline self-administration, followed by six days of extinction training, with each extinction session followed immediately by treatment with NaB or vehicle...
August 31, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842280/electroacupuncture-alleviates-surgery-induced-cognitive-dysfunction-by-increasing-%C3%AE-7-nachr-expression-and-inhibiting-inflammatory-pathway-in-aged-rats
#17
Pei-Rong Liu, Ying Zhou, Yu Zhang, Shu Diao
Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a common disorder of cognitive functions in aged patients following anesthesia and surgery. α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7-nAChR) plays a regulatory role in cognitive processes and is involved in cognitive deficits. This study aims to observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on the cognitive function in aged POCD rats, and its regulation on expressions of hippocampal α7-nAChR and proinflammatory factors. Ninety healthy Sprague-Dawley male aged rats were randomly divided into three groups (each n=30): control group (sham operation), model group (partial hepatectomy), and electroacupuncture (EA) group...
October 17, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828223/effects-of-haloperidol-olanzapine-ziprasidone-and-pha-543613-on-spatial-learning-and-memory-in-the-morris-water-maze-test-in-na%C3%A3-ve-and-mk-801-treated-mice
#18
Houxu Ning, Dong Cao, Haidong Wang, Bing Kang, Shiping Xie, Yujing Meng
INTRODUCTION: Cognitive impairment is the core symptom of schizophrenia, significantly impacting the functional outcome. Improvement of cognitive function has been an important aspect of the treatment of schizophrenia. Therefore, this study is to demonstrate the effects of first-generation antipsychotic haloperidol, second-generation antipsychotic olanzapine and ziprasidone, and alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist PHA-543613 on spatial learning and memory. MATERIAL AND METHODS: C57BL/6 mice received intraperitoneal injections of haloperidol (2 mg/kg), olanzapine (2...
August 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810545/electroacupuncture-attenuates-learning-and-memory-impairment-via-activation-of-%C3%AE-7nachr-mediated-anti-inflammatory-activity-in-focal-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injured-rats
#19
Jiao Liu, Chunyan Li, Hongwei Peng, Kunqiang Yu, Jing Tao, Ruhui Lin, Lidian Chen
Studies have reported that electroacupuncture (EA) may reduce learning and memory impairment following cerebral ischemic injury. However, the precise mechanism of action remains unclear. In the present study, the attenuation of focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by EA in rats was investigated. EA at the Baihui (DU 20) and Shenting (DU 24) acupoints was demonstrated to significantly improve performance in the Morris water maze task, with shortened latency time and increased frequency of passing the platform...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808247/social-learning-promotes-nicotine-self-administration-by-facilitating-the-extinction-of-conditioned-aversion-in-isogenic-strains-of-rats
#20
Wenyan Han, Tengfei Wang, Hao Chen
Both social environment and genetic factors are critical for smoking initiation and nicotine addiction. We reported that rats developed conditioned flavor (i.e., taste and odor) aversion to intravenously self-administered (IVSA) nicotine, and that social learning promoted nicotine IVSA with flavor cues. We thus tested the hypothesis that socially acquired nicotine IVSA is a heritable trait by using female rats of six inbred strains and six F1 hybrids. Each strain was tested for 10 daily IVSA sessions. We found that the intake of nicotine (15 and 30 μg/kg/inf) varied among these strains by 33...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
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