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nicotine, learning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456645/influence-of-exposure-to-nicotine-during-pregnancy-on-the-learning-and-memory-for-adult-offspring
#1
Xing-Dui Ma, Bei-Ping Li, Yuan Han, Yun-Ping Tian, Liang Wu, Hang Wang
We aimed to investigate the indirect influence of exposure to nicotine during pregnancy on the learning and memory of adult offspring mice. Thirty pregnant C57 mice were randomly divided into either the control group (CON) or the nicotine group (NIC), with 15 mice each. The CON group was given access to drug-free water, and the NIC group was given 60 g/ml nicotine in drinking water. Sixteen adult mice were randomly selected from the 8 litters for Morris water maze test. The level of products of related factors in the hippocampus of mice in the NIC and the CON groups were compared using the1 H-MRS method...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423839/molecular-neuronal-and-behavioral-effects-of-ethanol-and-nicotine-interactions
#2
Paul M Klenowski, Andrew R Tapper
Ethanol and nicotine can modulate the activity of several neurotransmitter systems and signalling pathways. Interactions between ethanol and nicotine can also occur via common molecular targets including nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). These effects can induce molecular and synaptic adaptations that over time, are consolidated in brain circuits that reinforce drug-seeking behavior, contribute to the development of withdrawal symptoms during abstinence and increase the susceptibility to relapse. This chapter will discuss the acute and chronic effects of ethanol and nicotine within the mesolimbic reward pathway and brain circuits involved in learning, memory, and withdrawal...
February 9, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421347/the-emerging-marijuana-retail-environment-key-lessons-learned-from-tobacco-and-alcohol-retail-research
#3
REVIEW
Carla J Berg, Lisa Henriksen, Patricia A Cavazos-Rehg, Regine Haardoerfer, Bridget Freisthler
The emerging retail market for recreational marijuana use warrants research and surveillance as such markets are established in more US states. This research can be informed by the existing literature regarding tobacco and alcohol, which highlights the impact of spatial access to tobacco and alcohol retailers and exposure to tobacco and alcohol marketing on smoking and drinking among youth and young adults. Prior research indicates that tobacco and alcohol retailers, as well as medical marijuana dispensaries, are disproportionately located in neighborhoods characterized by socioeconomic disadvantage and by higher proportions of racial/ethnic minorities and young adults...
February 1, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409736/biosignature-discovery-for-substance-use-disorders-using-statistical-learning
#4
REVIEW
James W Baurley, Christopher S McMahan, Carolyn M Ervin, Bens Pardamean, Andrew W Bergen
There are limited biomarkers for substance use disorders (SUDs). Traditional statistical approaches are identifying simple biomarkers in large samples, but clinical use cases are still being established. High-throughput clinical, imaging, and 'omic' technologies are generating data from SUD studies and may lead to more sophisticated and clinically useful models. However, analytic strategies suited for high-dimensional data are not regularly used. We review strategies for identifying biomarkers and biosignatures from high-dimensional data types...
February 3, 2018: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390543/the-risk-of-missed-abortion-associated-with-the-levels-of-tobacco-heavy-metals-and-phthalate-in-hair-of-pregnant-woman-a-case-control-study-in-chinese-women
#5
Ranran Zhao, Yuelian Wu, Fangfang Zhao, Yingnan Lv, Damin Huang, Jinlian Wei, Chong Ruan, Mingli Huang, Jinghuan Deng, Dongping Huang, Xiaoqiang Qiu
To assess the association between exposure to the tobacco, heavy metals and phthalate on early pregnancy and missed abortion.42 women with missed abortion and 57 matched controls (women with normal pregnancies) were recruited between March and May 2012, from the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University and the People Hospital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. The questionnaire survey was carried on to learn about the basic conditions, as well as smoking history of all participants...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384449/similar-nicotinic-excitability-responses-across-the-developing-hippocampal-formation-are-regulated-by-small-conductance-calcium-activated-potassium-channels
#6
Beryl Y T Chung, Craig D C Bailey
The hippocampal formation forms a cognitive circuit that is critical for learning and memory. Cholinergic input to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors plays an important role in the normal development of principal neurons within the hippocampal formation. However, the ability of nicotinic receptors to stimulate principal neurons across all regions of the developing hippocampal formation has not been determined. We show here that heteromeric nicotinic receptors mediate direct inward current and depolarization responses in principal neurons across the hippocampal formation of the young postnatal mouse...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383396/differential-effects-of-%C3%AE-4%C3%AE-2-nicotinic-receptor-antagonists-and-partial-agonists-on-contextual-fear-extinction-in-male-c57bl-6-mice
#7
Munir Gunes Kutlu, Jessica M Tumolo, Courtney Cann, Thomas J Gould
RATIONALE: Numerous studies have attributed the psychopathology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to maladaptive behavioral responses such as an inability to extinguish fear. While exposure therapies are mostly effective in treating these disorders by enhancing extinction learning, relapse of PTSD symptoms is common. Although several studies indicated a role for cholinergic transmission and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in anxiety and stress disorder symptomatology, very little is known about the specific contribution of nAChRs to fear extinction OBJECTIVES: In the present study, we examined the effects of inhibition and desensitization of α4β2 nAChRs via a full antagonist (Dihydro-beta-erythroidine (DhβE)) and two α4β2 nAChR partial-agonists (varenicline and sazetidine-A) on contextual fear extinction, locomotor activity, and spontaneous recovery of contextual fear in mice...
January 30, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379089/the-alpha7-nicotinic-receptor-contributes-to-gp120-induced-neurotoxicity-implications-in-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders
#8
Coral M Capó-Vélez, Bryan Morales-Vargas, Aurian García-González, José G Grajales-Reyes, Manuel Delgado-Vélez, Bismark Madera, Carlos A Báez-Pagán, Orestes Quesada, José A Lasalde-Dominicci
Currently, there are no specific therapies to treat HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). The HIV-1 envelope, gp120, induces neuropathological changes similar to those in HAND patients; furthermore, it triggers an upregulation of the α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR), facilitating intracellular calcium overload and neuronal cell death. Using a gp120IIIB-transgenic mouse (gp120-tgm) model, we demonstrate that α7-nAChRs are upregulated on striatal neurons. Activation of α7-nAChRs leads to an increase in both intracellular calcium and percentage of apoptotic cells, which can be abrogated by antagonizing the receptor, suggesting a role for α7-nAChRs in gp120-induced neurotoxicity...
January 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371319/altered-baseline-and-nicotine-mediated-behavioral-and-cholinergic-profiles-in-chat-cre-mouse-lines
#9
Edison Chen, Valeria Lallai, Yasmine Sherafat, Nickolas P Grimes, Anna N Pushkin, J P Fowler, Christie D Fowler
The recent development of transgenic rodent lines expressing cre recombinase in a cell-specific manner, along with advances in engineered viral vectors, has permitted in-depth investigations into circuit function. However, emerging evidence has begun to suggest that genetic modifications may introduce unexpected caveats. In the current studies, we sought to extensively characterize male and female mice from both the ChAT(BAC)-Cre mouse line, created with the bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) method, and ChAT(IRES)-Cre mouse line, generated with the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) method...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364128/investigating-the-effect-of-perinatal-nicotine-exposure-on-dopaminergic-neurons-in-the-vta-using-mirna-expression-profiles
#10
Renee F Keller, Pinar Kanlikilicer, Andrei Dragomir, Yantao Fan, Yasemin M Akay, Metin Akay
Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with developmental, cognitive, and behavioral disorders, including low birth weight, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, learning disabilities, and drug abuse later in life. Nicotine activates the reward-driven behavior characteristic of drug abuse. Dopaminergic (DA) neurons originating from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the brain, which are stimulated by nicotine and other stimuli, are widely implicated in the natural reward pathway that is known to contribute to addiction...
December 2017: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363182/learning-and-memory-performance-following-acute-intranasal-insulin-administration-in-abstinent-smokers
#11
Ajna Hamidovic, Lionel Candelaria, Ihsan Rodriguez, Mikiko Yamada, James Nawarskas, Mark R Burge
The highest incidence of relapse to smoking occurs within the first 2 weeks of a cessation attempt. In addition to enhanced nicotine craving, this phase of smoking cessation is also marked by learning and memory dysfunction. Many smokers are not able to overcome these symptoms, and they relapse to smoking shortly after trying to quit. In two clinical studies, we evaluated intranasal insulin for efficacy in improving learning and memory function during nicotine withdrawal. Our first study was a crossover evaluation (N = 19) following 20 hr of smoking abstinence...
January 24, 2018: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339346/user-centered-design-of-learn-to-quit-a-smoking-cessation-smartphone-app-for-people-with-serious-mental-illness
#12
Roger Vilardaga, Javier Rizo, Emily Zeng, Julie A Kientz, Richard Ries, Chad Otis, Kayla Hernandez
BACKGROUND: Smoking rates in the United States have been reduced in the past decades to 15% of the general population. However, up to 88% of people with psychiatric symptoms still smoke, leading to high rates of disease and mortality. Therefore, there is a great need to develop smoking cessation interventions that have adequate levels of usability and can reach this population. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to report the rationale, ideation, design, user research, and final specifications of a novel smoking cessation app for people with serious mental illness (SMI) that will be tested in a feasibility trial...
January 16, 2018: JMIR Serious Games
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324749/brand-switching-and-toxic-chemicals-in-cigarette-smoke-a-national-study
#13
Jennifer R Mendel, Sabeeh A Baig, Marissa G Hall, Michelle Jeong, M Justin Byron, Jennifer C Morgan, Seth M Noar, Kurt M Ribisl, Noel T Brewer
INTRODUCTION: US law requires disclosure of quantities of toxic chemicals (constituents) in cigarette smoke by brand and sub-brand. This information may drive smokers to switch to cigarettes with lower chemical quantities, under the misperception that doing so can reduce health risk. We sought to understand past brand-switching behavior and whether learning about specific chemicals in cigarette smoke increases susceptibility to brand switching. METHODS: Participants were US adult smokers surveyed by phone (n = 1,151, probability sample) and online (n = 1,561, convenience sample)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276477/cholinergic-modulation-of-cortical-microcircuits-is-layer-specific-evidence-from-rodent-monkey-and-human-brain
#14
REVIEW
Joshua Obermayer, Matthijs B Verhoog, Antonio Luchicchi, Huibert D Mansvelder
Acetylcholine (ACh) signaling shapes neuronal circuit development and underlies specific aspects of cognitive functions and behaviors, including attention, learning, memory and motivation. During behavior, activation of muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs and nAChRs) by ACh alters the activation state of neurons, and neuronal circuits most likely process information differently with elevated levels of ACh. In several brain regions, ACh has been shown to alter synaptic strength as well. By changing the rules for synaptic plasticity, ACh can have prolonged effects on and rearrange connectivity between neurons that outlasts its presence...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274915/differences-in-fecal-microbial-metabolites-and-microbiota-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#15
Dae-Wook Kang, Zehra Esra Ilhan, Nancy G Isern, David W Hoyt, Daniel P Howsmon, Michael Shaffer, Catherine A Lozupone, Juergen Hahn, James B Adams, Rosa Krajmalnik-Brown
Evidence supporting that gut problems are linked to ASD symptoms has been accumulating both in humans and animal models of ASD. Gut microbes and their metabolites may be linked not only to GI problems but also to ASD behavior symptoms. Despite this high interest, most previous studies have looked mainly at microbial structure, and studies on fecal metabolites are rare in the context of ASD. Thus, we aimed to detect fecal metabolites that may be present at significantly different concentrations between 21 children with ASD and 23 neurotypical children and to investigate its possible link to human gut microbiome...
December 21, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273458/testing-environment-shape-differentially-modulates-baseline-and-nicotine-induced-changes-in-behavior-sex-differences-hypoactivity-and-behavioral-sensitization
#16
J M Illenberger, C F Mactutus, R M Booze, S B Harrod
In those who use nicotine, the likelihood of dependence, negative health consequences, and failed treatment outcomes differ as a function of gender. Women may be more sensitive to learning processes driven by repeated nicotine exposure that influence conditioned approach and craving. Sex differences in nicotine's influence over overt behaviors (i.e. hypoactivity or behavioral sensitization) can be examined using passive drug administration models in male and female rats. Following repeated intravenous (IV) nicotine injections, behavioral sensitization is enhanced in female rats compared to males...
December 19, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261656/nicotinic-alpha-7-receptor-agonists-evp-6124-and-bms-933043-attenuate-scopolamine-induced-deficits-in-visuo-spatial-paired-associates-learning
#17
Michael R Weed, Joseph Polino, Laura Signor, Mark Bookbinder, Deborah Keavy, Yulia Benitex, Daniel G Morgan, Dalton King, John E Macor, Robert Zaczek, Richard Olson, Linda J Bristow
Agonists at the nicotinic acetylcholine alpha 7 receptor (nAChR α7) subtype have the potential to treat cognitive deficits in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) or schizophrenia. Visuo-spatial paired associates learning (vsPAL) is a task that has been shown to reliably predict conversion from mild cognitive impairment to AD in humans and can also be performed by nonhuman primates. Reversal of scopolamine-induced impairment of vsPAL performance may represent a translational approach for the development of nAChR α7 agonists...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236669/-optically-dissecting-brain-nicotinic-receptor-function-with-photo-controllable-designer-receptors
#18
Romain Durand-de Cuttoli, Sarah Mondoloni, Alexandre Mourot
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are pentameric ligand-gated ion channels widely expressed in the central nervous system and the periphery. They play an important modulatory role in learning, memory and attention, and have been implicated in various diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, schizophrenia and addiction. These receptors are activated by the endogenous neurotransmitter acetylcholine, or by nicotine, the alkaloid found in tobacco leaves. Both molecules open the ion channel and cause the movement of cations across the membrane, which directly affects neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity...
2017: Biologie Aujourd'hui
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225110/assessment-of-the-cerebellar-neurotoxic-effects-of-nicotine-in-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-in-rats
#19
Dwipayan Bhattacharya, Mohammed Majrashi, Sindhu Ramesh, Manoj Govindarajulu, Jenna Bloemer, Ayaka Fujihashi, Bailee-Ryan Crump, Harrison Hightower, Subhrajit Bhattacharya, Timothy Moore, Vishnu Suppiramaniam, Muralikrishnan Dhanasekaran
The adverse effects of prenatal nicotine and alcohol exposure on human reproductive outcomes are a major scientific and public health concern. In the United States, substantial percentage of women (20-25%) of childbearing age currently smoke cigarettes and consume alcohol, and only a small percentage of these individuals quit after learning of their pregnancy. However, there are very few scientific reports on the effect of nicotine in prenatal alcohol exposure on the cerebellum of the offspring. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the cerebellar neurotoxic effects of nicotine in a rodent model of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD)...
December 7, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221752/chronic-nicotine-exposure-impairs-uncertainty-modulation-on-reinforcement-learning-in-anterior-cingulate-cortex-and-serotonin-system
#20
Zhengde Wei, Long Han, Xiuying Zhong, Ying Liu, Rujing Zha, Ying Wang, Li-Zhuang Yang, Junjie Bu, Hongwen Song, Wenjuan Wang, Yifeng Zhou, Ping Gao, Xiaochu Zhang
Deficits in the computational processes of reinforcement learning have been suggested to underlie addiction. Additionally, environmental uncertainty, which is encoded in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), modulates reward prediction errors (RPEs) during reinforcement learning and exacerbates addiction. The present study tested whether and how the ACC would have an essential role in drug addiction by failing to use uncertainty to modulate the RPEs during reinforcement learning. In Experiment I, we found that the ACC/medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) did not modulate RPE learning according to uncertainty in smokers...
December 5, 2017: NeuroImage
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