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nicotine, learning

John E Casida, Kathleen A Durkin
Pesticide researchers are students of nature, and each new compound and mechanism turns a page in the ever-expanding encyclopedia of life. Pesticides are both probes to learn about life processes and tools for pest management to facilitate food production and enhance health. In contrast to some household and industrial chemicals, pesticides are assumed to be hazardous to health and the environment until proven otherwise. About a thousand current pesticides working by more than 100 different mechanisms have helped understand many processes and coupled events...
October 7, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Morgane Besson, Benoît Forget
Although smoking prevalence has declined in recent years, certain subpopulations continue to smoke at disproportionately high rates and show resistance to cessation treatments. Individuals showing cognitive and affective impairments, including emotional distress and deficits in attention, memory, and inhibitory control, particularly in the context of psychiatric conditions, such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, and mood disorders, are at higher risk for tobacco addiction. Nicotine has been shown to improve cognitive and emotional processing in some conditions, including during tobacco abstinence...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Marlene A Wilson, Jim R Fadel
Cholinergic activation regulates cognitive function, particularly long-term memory consolidation. This Review presents an overview of the anatomical, neurochemical, and pharmacological evidence supporting the cholinergic regulation of Pavlovian contextual and cue-conditioned fear learning and extinction. Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons provide inputs to neocortical regions and subcortical limbic structures such as the hippocampus and amygdala. Pharmacological manipulations of muscarinic and nicotinic receptors support the role of cholinergic processes in the amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex in modulating the learning and extinction of contexts or cues associated with threat...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Alexandra C Reed, Josette G Harris, Ann Olincy
Cognitive deficits and high rates of nicotine dependence are consistently documented in the schizophrenia literature. However, there is currently no consensus about how regular smoking influences cognition in schizophrenia or which cognitive domains are most affected by chronic smoking. Previous studies have also failed to disambiguate the effects of chronic nicotine from those of acute exposure. The current study uses a novel approach to testing nicotine addicted patients at a time-point between acute enhancement and withdrawal and implements the MATRICS Cognitive Consensus Battery (MCCB) to compare the overall cognitive performance of regular smokers (n=40) and nonsmokers (n=36) with schizophrenia...
September 9, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Munir Gunes Kutlu, Thomas J Gould
It has long been hypothesized that conditioning mechanisms play major roles in addiction. Specifically, the associations between rewarding properties of drugs of abuse and the drug context can contribute to future use and facilitate the transition from initial drug use into drug dependency. On the other hand, the self-medication hypothesis of drug abuse suggests that negative consequences of drug withdrawal result in relapse to drug use as an attempt to alleviate the negative symptoms. In this review, we explored these hypotheses and the involvement of the hippocampus in the development and maintenance of addiction to widely abused drugs such as cocaine, amphetamine, nicotine, alcohol, opiates, and cannabis...
October 2016: Learning & Memory
Erica D Holliday, Paul Nucero, Munir G Kutlu, Chicora Oliver, Krista L Connelly, Thomas J Gould, Ellen M Unterwald
Nicotine dependence is associated with increased risk for emotional, cognitive, and neurological impairments later in life. This study investigated the long-term effects of nicotine exposure during adolescence and adulthood on measures of depression, anxiety, learning, and hippocampal pyramidal cell morphology. Mice (C57BL/6J) received saline or nicotine for 12 days via pumps implanted on postnatal day 32 (adolescent) or 54 (adults). Thirty days after cessation of nicotine/saline, mice were tested for learning using contextual fear conditioning, depression-like behaviors using the forced swim test, or anxiety-like behaviors with the elevated plus maze...
September 13, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Erica D Holliday, Thomas J Gould
INTRODUCTION: Adolescent onset of nicotine abuse is correlated with worse chances at successful abstinence in adulthood. One reason for this may be due to enduring learning deficits resulting from nicotine use during adolescence. Previous work has indicated that chronic nicotine administration beginning in late adolescence (PND38) caused learning deficits in contextual fear when tested in adulthood. The purpose of this study was to determine if chronic nicotine treatment during adolescence would alter sensitivity to nicotine's cognitive enhancing properties in adulthood...
July 13, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Alanna C Bridgman, Mera S Barr, Michelle S Goodman, Reza Zomorrodi, Tarek Rajji, Bernard Le Foll, Robert Chen, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Tony P George
BACKGROUND: Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) have been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, and deficits in this system may contribute to high rates of cigarette smoking in this population. nAChR stimulation may modulate neuroplasticity, or long-term potentiation (LTP), which is a key mediator of cognitive performance. Varenicline is a nAChR partial agonist that may improve cognitive deficits in both smokers and non-smokers with schizophrenia; however, the mechanism by which varenicline alters cognition in schizophrenia remains unclear...
September 6, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Francis M Rotella, Kerstin Olsson, Nancy Martinez, Alexandra Mordo, Ilanna Kohen, Alon Aminov, Jeremy Pagirsky, Alice Yu, Vishal Vig, Richard J Bodnar
Rats display conditioned flavor preferences (CFP) for fats. Previous studies demonstrated that whereas expression of an already-acquired corn oil (CO)-CFP was mildly reduced by dopamine (DA) D1, DA D2, NMDA or opioid receptor antagonists, the acquisition or learning of CO-CFP was eliminated by NMDA antagonists, and significantly reduced by DA D1 and D2, but not opioid antagonists. Previous studies of fructose-CFP demonstrated that muscarinic (scopolamine) and nicotinic (mecamylamine) cholinergic receptor antagonists and GABAB (baclofen) receptor agonism reduced the expression of this acquired response, and that scopolamine, but not mecamylamine or baclofen eliminated the acquisition or learning of this response...
September 4, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Montserrat Bellés, Luis Heredia, Noemí Serra, José L Domingo, Victoria Linares
Radiation therapy is a major cause of long-term complications observed in survivors of pediatric brain tumors. However, the effects of low-doses of ionizing radiation (IR) to the brain are less studied. On the other hand, tobacco is one of the most heavily abused drugs in the world. Tobacco is not only a health concern for adults. It has also shown to exert deleterious effects on fetuses, newborns, children and adolescents. Exposure to nicotine (Nic) from smoking may potentiate the toxic effects induced by IR on brain development...
August 31, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Kazuyuki Fukushima, Kazuto Yamazaki, Norimasa Miyamoto, Kohei Sawada
Neurotransmission mediated by acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) plays an important role in learning and memory functions in the hippocampus. Impairment of the cholinergic system contributes to Alzheimer's disease (AD), indicating the importance of AChRs as drug targets for AD. To improve the success rates for AD drug development, human cell models that mimic the target brain region are important. Therefore, we characterized the functional expression of nicotinic and muscarinic AChRs (nAChRs and mAChRs, respectively) in human hippocampal neurons differentiated from hippocampal neural stem/progenitor cells (HIP-009 cells)...
August 29, 2016: Journal of Biomolecular Screening
Eriko Sugisaki, Yasuhiro Fukushima, Satoshi Fujii, Yoshihiko Yamazaki, Takeshi Aihara
Theneuromodulator acetylcholine (ACh) is considered to have a crucial effect on sensory inputs in the process of learning and memory, and ACh activates muscarinic (mAChR) and nicotinic (nAChR) acetylcholine receptors. Meanwhile in a hippocampal CA1 network including inhibitory connections, long-term potentiation (LTP) or long-term depression (LTD) is induced by the application of positive timing of the spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) protocol, while LTD is induced by negative timing protocol. In the previous study, the influence of ACh on LTD induced by the negative timing protocol application in the interneuron-blocked CA1 network was reported...
August 18, 2016: Brain Research
Sarah J Cross, Shahrdad Lotfipour, Frances M Leslie
Concurrent use of tobacco and alcohol or psychostimulants represents a major public health concern, with use of one substance influencing consumption of the other. Co-abuse of these drugs leads to substantial negative health outcomes, reduced cessation, and high economic costs, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Epidemiological data suggest that tobacco use during adolescence plays a particularly significant role. Adolescence is a sensitive period of development marked by major neurobiological maturation of brain regions critical for reward processing, learning and memory, and executive function...
August 17, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Ankur Joshi, Bopanna I Kalappa, Charles T Anderson, Thanos Tzounopoulos
UNLABELLED: The neuromodulator acetylcholine (ACh) is crucial for several cognitive functions, such as perception, attention, and learning and memory. Whereas, in most cases, the cellular circuits or the specific neurons via which ACh exerts its cognitive effects remain unknown, it is known that auditory cortex (AC) neurons projecting from layer 5B (L5B) to the inferior colliculus, corticocollicular neurons, are required for cholinergic-mediated relearning of sound localization after occlusion of one ear...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Marcela Waisman Campos, Debora Serebrisky, João Mauricio Castaldelli-Maia
Given the large availability of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) throughout the brain, and the wide range of neurotransmitter systems affected (norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine), nicotine influences a wide variety of cognitive domains such as sensorial, motor, attentional, executive, learning and memory. This article reviews current state of the art research on the effects of nicotine upon cognition. There are different neurobiological mechanisms involved in acute/chronic smoking and nicotine abstinence...
August 3, 2016: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
Beryl Y T Chung, Warren Bignell, Derek L Jacklin, Boyer D Winters, Craig D C Bailey
The hippocampus plays a key role in learning and memory. The normal development and mature function of hippocampal networks supporting these cognitive functions depends on afferent cholinergic neurotransmission mediated by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. While it is well-established that nicotinic receptors are present on GABAergic interneurons and on glutamatergic presynaptic terminals within the hippocampus, the ability of these receptors to mediate postsynaptic signaling in pyramidal neurons is not well understood...
August 3, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Marcella Reale, Ada Maria Tata
The α7 nicotinic receptor consists of identical subunits and is one of the most abundant acetylcholine receptor in the mammalian central nervous system. However its expression is also found in the peripheral nervous system as well as in the immune system and various peripheral tissues. Its function is involved in the regulation of a range of activities such as classical excitatory neurotransmission in some brain regions, modulation of the release of several neurotransmitters, regulation of neurite outgrowth, and even neuronal survival/death...
July 29, 2016: Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Yusuf S Althobaiti, Youssef Sari
Alcohol consumption with psychostimulants is very common among drug addicts. There is little known about the possible pharmacological interactions between alcohol and psychostimulants. Among most commonly co-abused psychostimulants with alcohol are methamphetamine, cocaine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetaminen, and nicotine. Co-abuse of alcohol with psychostimulants can lead to several neurophysiological dysfunctions such as decrease in brain antioxidant enzymes, disruption of learning and memory processes, cerebral hypo-perfusion, neurotransmitters depletion as well as potentiation of drug seeking behaviour...
June 2016: Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy
Xiaosi Gu, Terry Lohrenz, Ramiro Salas, Philip R Baldwin, Alireza Soltani, Ulrich Kirk, Paul M Cinciripini, P Read Montague
Little is known about the specific neural mechanisms through which cognitive factors influence craving and associated brain responses, despite the initial success of cognitive therapies in treating drug addiction. In this study, we investigated how cognitive factors such as beliefs influence subjective craving and neural activities in nicotine-addicted individuals using model-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and neuropharmacology. Deprived smokers (N = 24) participated in a two-by-two balanced placebo design, which crossed beliefs about nicotine (told "nicotine" vs...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Yan-Gang Sun, Vanessa Rupprecht, Li Zhou, Rajan Dasgupta, Frederik Seibt, Michael Beierlein
UNLABELLED: Acetylcholine (ACh) signaling is involved in a wide range of processes, including arousal, attention, and learning. An increasing number of studies indicate that cholinergic control of these functions is highly deterministic, mediated by synaptic afferents that generate reliable and precise responses in postsynaptic neurons. However, mechanisms that govern plastic changes of cholinergic synaptic strength are poorly understood, even though they are likely critical in shaping the impact of cholinergic inputs on neuronal networks...
July 27, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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