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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217868/an-anti-nicotinic-cognitive-challenge-model-using-mecamylamine-in-comparison-with-the-anti-muscarinic-cognitive-challenge-using-scopolamine
#1
A C Baakman, R Alvarez-Jimenez, R Rissmann, E S Klaassen, J Stevens, S C Goulooze, J Burger, E L Swart, J M A van Gerven, G J Groeneveld
INTRODUCTION: The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist scopolamine is often used for proof-of-pharmacology studies with pro-cognitive compounds. From a pharmacological point of view, it would seem more rational to use a nicotinic rather than a muscarinic anticholinergic challenge to prove pharmacology of a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist. This study aims to characterize a nicotinic anticholinergic challenge model using mecamylamine and to compare it to the scopolamine model...
February 20, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213446/acetylcholine-release-in-prefrontal-cortex-promotes-gamma-oscillations-and-theta-gamma-coupling-during-cue-detection
#2
W M Howe, H J Gritton, N Lusk, Erik A Roberts, Vaughn L Hetrick, Joshua D Berke, Martin Sarter
The capacity for using external cues to guide behavior ("cue detection") constitutes an essential aspect of attention and goal-directed behavior. The cortical cholinergic input system, via phasic increases in prefrontal acetylcholine release, plays an essential role in attention by mediating such cue detection. However, the relationship between cholinergic signaling during cue detection and neural activity dynamics in prefrontal networks remains unclear. Here we combined sub-second measures of cholinergic signaling, neurophysiological recordings, and cholinergic receptor blockade to delineate the cholinergic contributions to prefrontal oscillations during cue detection in rats...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209560/from-the-experience-of-interactivity-and-entertainment-to-lower-intention-to-smoke-a-randomized-controlled-trial-and-path-analysis-of-a-web-based-smoking-prevention-program-for-adolescents
#3
Georges Elias Khalil, Hua Wang, Karen Sue Calabro, Natasha Mitra, Ross Shegog, Alexander V Prokhorov
BACKGROUND: Web-based programs for smoking prevention are being increasingly used with some success among adolescents. However, little is known about the mechanisms that link the experience of such programs to intended nicotine or tobacco control outcomes. OBJECTIVE: Based on the experiential learning theory and extended elaboration likelihood model, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of a Web-based intervention, A Smoking Prevention Interactive Experience (ASPIRE), on adolescents' intention to smoke, while considering the experience of interactivity and entertainment as predictors of reduced intention to smoke, under a transitional user experience model...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146250/effect-of-selective-inhibition-of-reactivated-nicotine-associated-memories-with-propranolol-on-nicotine-craving
#4
Yan-Xue Xue, Jia-Hui Deng, Ya-Yun Chen, Li-Bo Zhang, Ping Wu, Geng-Di Huang, Yi-Xiao Luo, Yan-Ping Bao, Yu-Mei Wang, Yavin Shaham, Jie Shi, Lin Lu
Importance: A relapse into nicotine addiction during abstinence often occurs after the reactivation of nicotine reward memories, either by acute exposure to nicotine (a smoking episode) or by smoking-associated conditioned stimuli (CS). Preclinical studies suggest that drug reward memories can undergo memory reconsolidation after being reactivated, during which they can be weakened or erased by pharmacological or behavioral manipulations. However, translational clinical studies using CS-induced memory retrieval-reconsolidation procedures to decrease drug craving reported inconsistent results...
February 1, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146248/disruption-of-reward-processing-in-addiction-an-image-based-meta-analysis-of-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-studies
#5
Maartje Luijten, Arnt F Schellekens, Simone Kühn, Marise W J Machielse, Guillaume Sescousse
Importance: Disrupted reward processing, mainly driven by striatal dysfunction, is a key characteristic of addictive behaviors. However, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have reported conflicting results, with both hypoactivations and hyperactivations during anticipation and outcome notification of monetary rewards in addiction. Objective: To determine the nature and direction of reward-processing disruptions during anticipation and outcome notification of monetary rewards in individuals with addiction using image-based meta-analyses of fMRI studies...
February 1, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146243/effect-of-a-brief-memory-updating-intervention-on-smoking-behavior-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#6
Lisa J Germeroth, Matthew J Carpenter, Nathaniel L Baker, Brett Froeliger, Steven D LaRowe, Michael E Saladin
Importance: Recent research on addiction-related memory processes suggests that protracted extinction training following brief cue-elicited memory retrieval (ie, retrieval-extinction [R-E] training) can attenuate/eradicate the ability of cues to elicit learned behaviors. One study reported that cue-elicited craving among detoxified heroin addicts was substantially attenuated following R-E training and through 6-month follow-up. Objective: To build on these impressive findings by examining whether R-E training could attenuate smoking-related craving and behavior...
February 1, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126511/efficacy-of-mindfulness-meditation-for-smoking-cessation-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Margaret A Maglione, Alicia Ruelaz Maher, Brett Ewing, Benjamin Colaiaco, Sydne Newberry, Ryan Kandrack, Roberta M Shanman, Melony E Sorbero, Susanne Hempel
BACKGROUND: Smokers increasingly seek alternative interventions to assist in cessation or reduction efforts. Mindfulness meditation, which facilitates detached observation and paying attention to the present moment with openness, curiosity, and acceptance, has recently been studied as a smoking cessation intervention. AIMS: This review synthesizes randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of mindfulness meditation (MM) interventions for smoking cessation. METHODS: Five electronic databases were searched from inception to October 2016 to identify English-language RCTs evaluating the efficacy and safety of MM interventions for smoking cessation, reduction, or a decrease in nicotine cravings...
January 18, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126277/weight-of-evidence-evaluation-of-a-network-of-adverse-outcome-pathways-linking-activation-of-the-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-in-honey-bees-to-colony-death
#8
REVIEW
Carlie A LaLone, Daniel L Villeneuve, Judy Wu-Smart, Rebecca Y Milsk, Keith Sappington, Kristina V Garber, Justin Housenger, Gerald T Ankley
Ongoing honey bee (Apis mellifera) colony losses are of significant international concern because of the essential role these insects play in pollinating crops. Both chemical and non-chemical stressors have been implicated as possible contributors to colony failure; however, the potential role(s) of commonly-used neonicotinoid insecticides has emerged as particularly concerning. Neonicotinoids act on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the central nervous system to eliminate pest insects. However, mounting evidence indicates that neonicotinoids also may adversely affect beneficial pollinators, such as the honey bee, via impairments on learning and memory, and ultimately foraging success...
January 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105289/development-of-4-heteroarylamino-1-azaspiro-oxazole-5-3-bicyclo-2-2-2-octanes-as-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-receptor-agonists
#9
Matthew D Hill, Haiquan Fang, H Dalton King, Christiana I Iwuagwu, Ivar M McDonald, James Cook, F Christopher Zusi, Robert A Mate, Ronald J Knox, Debra Post-Munson, Amy Easton, Regina Miller, Kimberley Lentz, Wendy Clarke, Yulia Benitex, Nicholas Lodge, Robert Zaczek, Rex Denton, Daniel Morgan, Linda Bristow, John E Macor, Richard Olson
We describe the synthesis of quinuclidine-containing spiroimidates and their utility as α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) partial agonists. A convergent synthetic route allowed for rapid SAR investigation and provided a diverse set of fused 6,5-heteroaryl analogs. Two potent and selective α7 nAChR partial agonists, (1'S,3'R,4'S)-N-(7-bromopyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazin-4-yl)-4H-1'-azaspiro[oxazole-5,3'-bicyclo[2.2.2]octan]-2-amine (20) and (1'S,3'R,4'S)-N-(7-chloropyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazin-4-yl)-4H-1'-azaspiro[oxazole-5,3'-bicyclo[2...
January 12, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101715/cortex-and-amygdala-dependent-learning-and-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-gene-expression-is-severely-impaired-in-mice-orally-treated-with-alcl3
#10
Syeda Mehpara Farhat, Aamra Mahboob, Touqeer Ahmed
Recent industrialization has increased human exposure to bio-available aluminum (Al). If more Al enters the brain than leaves, Al concentration will rise in the brain leading to neurodegenerative disorders. The aim of the present study was to determine Al concentration, neurodegeneration, and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) gene expression in the cortex and amygdala after oral ingestion of Al salt. The effect of Al on cortex- and amygdala-dependent learning and memory functions was also assessed. Mice were given AlCl3 (250 mg/kg) in drinking water for 42 days...
January 18, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078612/ameliorative-effect-of-ginsenoside-rg1-on-lipopolysaccharide-induced-cognitive-impairment-role-of-cholinergic-system
#11
Yang Jin, Jian Peng, Xiaona Wang, Dong Zhang, Tianyin Wang
Bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can induce systemic inflammation, and therefore disrupt learning and memory processes. Ginsenoside Rg1, a major bioactive component of ginseng, is shown to greatly improve cognitive function. The present study was designed to further investigate whether administration of ginsenoside Rg1 can ameliorate LPS-induced cognitive impairment in the Y-maze and Morris water maze (MWM) task, and to explore the underlying mechanisms. Results showed that exposure to LPS (500 μg/kg) significantly impaired working and spatial memory and that repeated treatment with ginsenoside Rg1 (200 mg/kg/day, for 30 days) could effectively alleviate the LPS-induced cognitive decline as indicated by increased working and spatial memory in the Y-maze and MWM tests...
January 11, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072454/non-neuronal-acetylcholine-involved-in-reproduction-in-mammals-and-honeybees
#12
REVIEW
Ignaz Wessler, Charles James Kirkpatrick
Bacteria and archaea synthesize acetylcholine (ACh). Thus it can be postulated that ACh was created by nature roughly 3 billion years ago. Therefore, the wide expression of ACh in nature (i.e. in bacteria, archaea, unicellular organisms, plants, fungi, non-vertebrates and vertebrates and the abundance of non-neuronal cells of mammals) is not surprising. The term non-neuronal ACh and non-neuronal cholinergic system have been introduced to describe the auto- and paracrine, i.e. local regulatory actions of cells not innervated by neuronal cholinergic fibers to communicate among themselves...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049095/riluzole-ameliorates-learning-and-memory-deficits-in-a%C3%AE-25-35-induced-rat-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-and-is-independent-of-cholinoceptor-activation
#13
Zahra Mokhtari, Tourandokht Baluchnejadmojarad, Farnaz Nikbakht, Monireh Mansouri, Mehrdad Roghani
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major global public health concern and social care problem that is associated with learning, memory, and cognitive deficits. Riluzole is a glutamate modulator which has shown to improve memory performance in aged rats and may be of benefit in Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, its beneficial effect on attenuation of learning and memory deficits in Aβ25-35-induced rat model of AD was assessed. Riluzole administration at a dose of 10mg/kg/day p.o. improved spatial memory in Morris water maze and retention and recall in passive avoidance task and its protective effect was not neutralized following intracerebroventricular microinjection of muscarinic or nicotinic receptor antagonists...
March 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045139/chrna7-deficient-mice-manifest-no-consistent-neuropsychiatric-and-behavioral-phenotypes
#14
Jiani Yin, Wu Chen, Hongxing Yang, Mingshan Xue, Christian P Schaaf
The alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, encoded by the CHRNA7 gene, has been implicated in various psychiatric and behavioral disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, epilepsy, autism, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease, and is considered a potential target for therapeutic intervention. 15q13.3 microdeletion syndrome is a rare genetic disorder, caused by submicroscopic deletions on chromosome 15q. CHRNA7 is the only gene in this locus that has been deleted entirely in cases involving the smallest microdeletions...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029335/enhanced-susceptibility-of-ca3-hippocampus-to-prenatal-nicotine-exposure
#15
O O Kalejaiye, M C Gondré-Lewis
The brain is highly susceptible to adverse effects of drugs of abuse during early phases of life. Prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE), a preventable cause of gestational and infant mortality, can alter neuron wiring and induce sustained deficits in attention and learning. Here, a rat model of PNE (embryonic days 7-21) was used to examine the maturing hippocampus, which encodes new memories and processes emotional memory. Components of synaptic signaling were evaluated at postnatal day 14 (P14), a period of prolific synaptogenesis in rats, to determine if glutamatergic transmission-associated molecules are regulated in subregions of hippocampus as early as P14...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004072/-temporal-and-spatial-changes-of-%C3%AE-7nachr-and-nnos-in-cerebral-cortex-and-hippocampus-of-a%C3%AE-induced-cognitive-dysfunction-rats
#16
Yan-Li Wang, Li-Xia Liu, Shao-Hu Wang, Wen-Xiu Qi
The present study was to explore the temporal and spatial distributions and variations of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) and neuronal nitric oxide synthetase (nNOS) in cerebral cortex and hippocampus of Aβ-induced cognitive dysfunction rats. Sixty Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into six groups. Three experimental groups were intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) injected with condensed-amyloid beta peptides 1-42 (Aβ1-42, 2.5 µg/µL, 4 µL) and were observed on day 7 (7 d Aβ group), day 14 (14 d Aβ group) and day 21 (21 d Aβ group), respectively...
December 25, 2016: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997162/carbohydrate-neuroactive-hybrid-strategy-for-metabolic-glycan-engineering-of-the-central-nervous-system-in-vivo
#17
Asif Shajahan, Shubham Parashar, Surbhi Goswami, Syed Meheboob Ahmed, Perumal Nagarajan, Srinivasa-Gopalan Sampathkumar
Sialic acids are abundant in the central nervous system (CNS) and are essential for brain development, learning, and memory. Dysregulation in biosynthesis of sialo-glycoconjugates is known to be associated with neurological disorders, CNS injury, and brain cancer. Metabolic glycan engineering (MGE) and bioorthogonal ligation have enabled study of biological roles of glycans in vivo; however, direct investigations of sialoglycans in brain have been intractable. We report a simple strategy utilizing carbohydrate-neuroactive hybrid (CNH) molecules, which exploit carrier-mediated transport systems available at the blood-brain barrier, to access brain via tail vein injection in mice...
January 18, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935787/e-cigarette-nicotine-delivery-data-and-learnings-from-pharmacokinetic-studies
#18
Ian M Fearon, Alison Eldridge, Nathan Gale, Christopher J Shepperd, Mike McEwan, Oscar M Camacho, Mitch Nides, Kevin McAdam, Christopher J Proctor
OBJECTIVES: E-cigarettes could potentially play a major role in tobacco harm reduction by delivering nicotine in a vapor containing significantly fewer toxicants than cigarette smoke and may aid smoking behavior changes such as reduction or cessation. METHODS: We examined blood nicotine levels in smokers who were non-accustomed to e-cigarette use (Study 1) and accustomed e-cigarette users (Study 2). We compared nicotine levels when participants used a closed modular system e-cigarette to those when participants smoked a cigarette...
January 2017: American Journal of Health Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931777/effects-of-maternal-separation-on-nicotine-induced-conditioned-place-preference-and-subsequent-learning-and-memory-in-adolescent-female-rats
#19
Fatemeh Dalaveri, Nouzar Nakhaee, Khadijeh Esmaeilpour, Saeed Esmaeili Mahani, Vahid Sheibani
Adverse early life experiences can potentially increase risk for drug abuse later in life. However, little research has been conducted studying the effects of maternal separation (MS), an experimental model for early life stress, on the rewarding effects of nicotine. Cognitive function may be affected by MS. So, we also investigated whether nicotine administration affect spatial learning and memory in MS adolescent female rats. Rat pups were subjected to daily MS for 15min (MS15) or 180min (MS180) during the first 2 weeks of life or reared under normal animal facility rearing (AFR) conditions...
February 3, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923160/adolescent-and-adult-mice-display-differential-sensitivity-to-the-effects-of-bupropion-on-the-acquisition-of-a-water-maze-task
#20
Carmen Gómez, Carmen Carrasco, Rosa Redolat
BACKGROUND: Adolescence is characterized by major neurobiological changes, and the effects of some psychoactive drugs seem to differ between adolescents and adults. Bupropion, an antidepressant that is also used to treat nicotine addiction, induces behavioral actions in both adolescent and adult rodents. However, the effects of this drug on spatial ability have not been compared in animals at different stages of their development. The present study was conducted to assess the effects of bupropion on spatial learning and memory in adolescent and adult mice...
February 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
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