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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030431/distinctive-modulation-of-dopamine-release-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-shell-mediated-by-dopamine-and-acetylcholine-receptors
#1
Jung Hoon Shin, Martin F Adrover, Veronica A Alvarez
Nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell shows unique dopamine (DA) signals in vivo and plays a unique role in DA dependent behaviors, such as reward-motivated learning and the response to drugs of abuse. A di-synaptic mechanism for DA release was reported and shown to require synchronized firing of cholinergic interneurons (CINs) and activation of nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (nAChRs) in DA neuron (DAN) axons. The properties of this di-synaptic mechanism of DA transmission is not well understood in the NAc shell...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962173/tetramethylpyrazine-reduces-blood-brain-barrier-permeability-associated-with-enhancement-of-peripheral-cholinergic-anti-inflammatory-effects-for-treating-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
Aimin Wang, Guangbin Zhu, Ping Qian, Tao Zhu
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a diverse group of intracranial injuries resulting from external mechanical insults to the brain. While basic and clinical research for TBI has been conducted for decades, it has not identified cost-effective medical interventions for treating TBI. Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), which is derived from the Chinese herb, Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort (Chuan Xiong), has been clinically used for treating ischemic brain injury for years. However, whether TMP could provide effective benefits for improving the outcomes following TBI is unknown...
September 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957728/the-effects-of-nicotine-on-conditioning-extinction-and-reinstatement-in-humans
#3
Alexandra N Palmisano, Eleanor C Hudd, Courtney M McQuade, Harriet de Wit, Robert S Astur
Nicotine has been shown to enhance the reinforcement and reward-responsiveness of non-nicotine stimuli. To determine whether nicotine enhances the strength of conditioning to context, undergraduate participants with varying levels of nicotine dependence were recruited for a two-day study and tested on a virtual reality (VR) conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. On day one, participants explored two virtual rooms where they received multiple pairings of M&M rewards in one room and no rewards in the other room, followed by a free-access test session with no rewards...
September 18, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935940/layer-and-cell-type-selective-co-transmission-by-a-basal-forebrain-cholinergic-projection-to-the-olfactory-bulb
#4
Daniel T Case, Shawn D Burton, Jeremy Y Gedeon, Sean-Paul G Williams, Nathaniel N Urban, Rebecca P Seal
Cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain project heavily to the main olfactory bulb, the first processing station in the olfactory pathway. The projections innervate multiple layers of the main olfactory bulb and strongly influence odor discrimination, detection, and learning. The precise underlying circuitry of this cholinergic input to the main olfactory bulb remains unclear, however. Here, we identify a specific basal forebrain cholinergic projection that innervates select neurons concentrated in the internal plexiform layer of the main olfactory bulb...
September 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877410/neural-correlates-of-tobacco-cue-reactivity-predict-duration-to-lapse-and-continuous-abstinence-in-smoking-cessation-treatment
#5
Max M Owens, James MacKillop, Joshua C Gray, Steven R H Beach, Michael D Stein, Raymond S Niaura, Lawrence H Sweet
It has been hypothesized that neural reactivity to drug cues in certain limbic/paralimbic regions of the brain is an indicator of addiction severity and a marker for likelihood of success in treatment. To address this question, in the current study, 32 participants (44 percent female) completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging cigarette cue exposure paradigm 2 hours after smoking, and then enrolled in a 9-week smoking cessation treatment program. Neural activation to smoking cues was measured in five a priori defined limbic/paralimbic regions previously implicated with cue reactivity across substances...
September 6, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860980/chronic-nicotine-exposure-initiated-in-adolescence-and-unpaired-to-behavioral-context-fails-to-enhance-sweetened-ethanol-seeking
#6
Aric C Madayag, Kyle S Czarnecki, Lynde M Wangler, Donita L Robinson
Nicotine use in adolescence is pervasive in the United States and, according to the Gateway Hypothesis, may lead to progression towards other addictive substances. Given the prevalence of nicotine and ethanol comorbidity, it is difficult to ascertain if nicotine is a gateway drug for ethanol. Our study investigated the relationship between adolescent exposure to nicotine and whether this exposure alters subsequent alcohol seeking behavior. We hypothesized that rats exposed to nicotine beginning in adolescence would exhibit greater alcohol seeking behavior than non-exposed siblings...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857504/persistent-histone-modifications-at-the-bdnf-and-cdk-5-promoters-following-extinction-of-nicotine-seeking-in-rats
#7
Matthew R Castino, Danay Baker-Andresen, Vikram S Ratnu, Galina Shevchenko, Kevin V Morris, Timothy W Bredy, Neil A Youngson, Kelly J Clemens
Drugs of addiction lead to a wide range of epigenetic changes at the promoter regions of genes directly implicated in learning and memory processes. We have previously shown that the histone deactylase inhibitor, sodium butyrate (NaB), accelerates the extinction of nicotine-seeking and provides resistance to relapse. Here we explore the potential molecular mechanisms underlying this effect. Rats received intravenous nicotine or saline self-administration, followed by six days of extinction training, with each extinction session followed immediately by treatment with NaB or vehicle...
August 31, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842280/electroacupuncture-alleviates-surgery-induced-cognitive-dysfunction-by-increasing-%C3%AE-7-nachr-expression-and-inhibiting-inflammatory-pathway-in-aged-rats
#8
Pei-Rong Liu, Ying Zhou, Yu Zhang, Shu Diao
Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a common disorder of cognitive functions in aged patients following anesthesia and surgery. α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7-nAChR) plays a regulatory role in cognitive processes and is involved in cognitive deficits. This study aims to observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on the cognitive function in aged POCD rats, and its regulation on expressions of hippocampal α7-nAChR and proinflammatory factors. Ninety healthy Sprague-Dawley male aged rats were randomly divided into three groups (each n=30): control group (sham operation), model group (partial hepatectomy), and electroacupuncture (EA) group...
October 17, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828223/effects-of-haloperidol-olanzapine-ziprasidone-and-pha-543613-on-spatial-learning-and-memory-in-the-morris-water-maze-test-in-na%C3%A3-ve-and-mk-801-treated-mice
#9
Houxu Ning, Dong Cao, Haidong Wang, Bing Kang, Shiping Xie, Yujing Meng
INTRODUCTION: Cognitive impairment is the core symptom of schizophrenia, significantly impacting the functional outcome. Improvement of cognitive function has been an important aspect of the treatment of schizophrenia. Therefore, this study is to demonstrate the effects of first-generation antipsychotic haloperidol, second-generation antipsychotic olanzapine and ziprasidone, and alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist PHA-543613 on spatial learning and memory. MATERIAL AND METHODS: C57BL/6 mice received intraperitoneal injections of haloperidol (2 mg/kg), olanzapine (2...
August 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810545/electroacupuncture-attenuates-learning-and-memory-impairment-via-activation-of-%C3%AE-7nachr-mediated-anti-inflammatory-activity-in-focal-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injured-rats
#10
Jiao Liu, Chunyan Li, Hongwei Peng, Kunqiang Yu, Jing Tao, Ruhui Lin, Lidian Chen
Studies have reported that electroacupuncture (EA) may reduce learning and memory impairment following cerebral ischemic injury. However, the precise mechanism of action remains unclear. In the present study, the attenuation of focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by EA in rats was investigated. EA at the Baihui (DU 20) and Shenting (DU 24) acupoints was demonstrated to significantly improve performance in the Morris water maze task, with shortened latency time and increased frequency of passing the platform...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808247/social-learning-promotes-nicotine-self-administration-by-facilitating-the-extinction-of-conditioned-aversion-in-isogenic-strains-of-rats
#11
Wenyan Han, Tengfei Wang, Hao Chen
Both social environment and genetic factors are critical for smoking initiation and nicotine addiction. We reported that rats developed conditioned flavor (i.e., taste and odor) aversion to intravenously self-administered (IVSA) nicotine, and that social learning promoted nicotine IVSA with flavor cues. We thus tested the hypothesis that socially acquired nicotine IVSA is a heritable trait by using female rats of six inbred strains and six F1 hybrids. Each strain was tested for 10 daily IVSA sessions. We found that the intake of nicotine (15 and 30 μg/kg/inf) varied among these strains by 33...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791958/the-%C3%AE-7-nach-nicotinic-receptor-and-its-role-in-memory-and-selected-diseases-of-the-central-nervous-system
#12
REVIEW
Urszula Baranowska, Róża Julia Wiśniewska
α7-nACh is one of the major nicotinic cholinergic receptor subtypes found in the brain. It is broadly expressed in the hippocampal and cortical neurons, the regions which play a key role in memory formation. Although α7-nACh receptors may serve as postsynaptic receptors mediating classical neurotransmission, they usually function as presynaptic modulators responsible for the release of other neurotransmitters, such as glutamate, γ-aminobutyric acid, dopamine, and norepinephrine. They can, therefore, affect a wide array of neurobiological functions...
July 30, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780876/the-pituri-learning-circle-central-australian-aboriginal-women-s-knowledge-and-practices-around-the-use-of-i-nicotiana-i-spp-as-a-chewing-tobacco
#13
Angela M Ratsch, Andrea Mason, Linda Rive, Fiona E Bogossian, Kathryn J Steadman
INTRODUCTION: Tobacco smoking has a range of known and predictable adverse outcomes, and across the world sustained smoking reduction campaigns are targeted towards reducing individual and public risk and harm. Conversely, more than 87 million women, mostly in low- and middle-income countries, use smokeless tobacco, yet the research examining the effect of this form of tobacco exposure on women is remarkably scant. In central Australia, the chewing of wild <i>Nicotiana</i> spp...
July 2017: Rural and Remote Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747877/combining-multiple-resting-state-fmri-features-during-classification-optimized-frameworks-and-their-application-to-nicotine-addiction
#14
Xiaoyu Ding, Yihong Yang, Elliot A Stein, Thomas J Ross
Machine learning techniques have been applied to resting-state fMRI data to predict neurological or neuropsychiatric disease states. Existing studies have used either a single type of resting-state feature or a few feature types (<4) in the prediction model. However, resting-state data can be processed in many different ways, yielding different feature types containing complementary and/or novel information, leaving uncertain the most informative features to provide to the classifier. In this study, multiple resting-state features were calculated from two main analytical categories: local measures and network measures...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714396/differential-effects-of-nicotine-exposure-on-the-hippocampus-across-lifespan
#15
Dana Zeid, Munir Gunes Kutlu, Thomas J Gould
Nicotine exposure affects the hippocampus through activation of hippocampal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), which are present throughout excitatory and inhibitory hippocampal circuitry. The role of cholinergic functioning in the hippocampus varies across developmental stages so that nicotine exposure differentially affects this region depending upon timing of exposure, producing developmentally distinct changes in structure, function, and behavior. The hippocampus continues to mature well into adolescence, and this development is modulated by cholinergic activity...
July 13, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680285/lessons-learned-implementing-a-province-wide-smoking-cessation-initiative-in-ontario-s-cancer-centres
#16
W K Evans, R Truscott, E Cameron, A Peter, R Reid, P Selby, P Smith, A Hey
PURPOSE: A large body of evidence clearly shows that cancer patients experience significant health benefits with smoking cessation. Cancer Care Ontario, the provincial agency responsible for the quality of cancer services in Ontario, has undertaken a province-wide smoking cessation initiative. The strategies used, the results achieved, and the lessons learned are the subject of the present article. METHODS: Evidence related to the health benefits of smoking cessation in cancer patients was reviewed...
June 2017: Current Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675115/nicotine-disrupts-safety-learning-by-enhancing-fear-associated-with-a-safety-cue-via-the-dorsal-hippocampus
#17
David A Connor, Munir G Kutlu, Thomas J Gould
Learned safety, a learning process in which a cue becomes associated with the absence of threat, is disrupted in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A bi-directional relationship exists between smoking and PTSD and one potential explanation is that nicotine-associated changes in cognition facilitate PTSD emotional dysregulation by disrupting safety associations. Therefore, we investigated whether nicotine would disrupt learned safety by enhancing fear associated with a safety cue. In the present study, C57BL/6 mice were administered acute or chronic nicotine and trained over three days in a differential backward trace conditioning paradigm consisting of five trials of a forward conditioned stimulus (CS)+ (Light) co-terminating with a footshock unconditioned stimulus followed by a backward CS- (Tone) presented 20 s after cessation of the unconditioned stimulus...
July 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673548/inhibition-of-the-endocannabinoid-regulating-enzyme-monoacylglycerol-lipase-elicits-a-cb1-receptor-mediated-discriminative%C3%A2-stimulus-in-mice
#18
Robert A Owens, Mohammed A Mustafa, Bogna M Ignatowska-Jankowska, M Imad Damaj, Patrick M Beardsley, Jenny L Wiley, Micah J Niphakis, Benjamin F Cravatt, Aron H Lichtman
Substantial challenges exist for investigating the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1)-mediated discriminative stimulus effects of the endocannabinoids, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide; AEA), compared with exogenous CB1 receptor agonists, such as Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and the synthetic cannabinoid CP55,940. Specifically, each endocannabinoid is rapidly degraded by the respective hydrolytic enzymes, monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH)...
June 30, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658941/comparing-smoking-topography-and-subjective-measures-of-usual-brand-cigarettes-between-pregnant-and-non-pregnant-smokers
#19
Cecilia L Bergeria, Sarah H Heil, Janice Y Bunn, Stacey C Sigmon, Stephen T Higgins
Introduction: Most pregnant smokers report abruptly reducing their cigarettes per day (CPD) by ~50% after learning of pregnancy and making further smaller reductions over the remainder of their pregnancy. Laboratory and naturalistic studies with non-pregnant smokers have found that these types of reductions often lead to changes in smoking topography (i.e., changes in smoking intensity to maintain a desired blood-nicotine level). If pregnant women smoke more intensely, they may expose themselves and their offspring to similar levels of toxicants despite reporting reductions in CPD...
June 27, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647546/a-review-of-the-effects-of-very-low-nicotine-content-cigarettes-on-behavioral-and-cognitive-performance
#20
Diana R Keith, Allison N Kurti, Danielle R Davis, Ivori A Zvorsky, Stephen T Higgins
The present systematic review examines whether very low nicotine content (VLNC) cigarettes ameliorate withdrawal-induced impairments in behavioral/cognitive performance. PubMed, PsycInfo, and Web of Science were searched for performance effects of VLNC cigarettes. For inclusion, reports had to be in English, published in a peer-reviewed journal through June 2017, examine VLNC cigarettes (<0.2mg nicotine yield), include ≥2hour smoking abstinence or reduced nicotine exposure, and examine performance. 19 of 1243 articles reviewed met inclusion criteria...
June 21, 2017: Preventive Medicine
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