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management cholestasis of pregnancy

Xiang Kong, Yan Kong, Fangyuan Zhang, Tingting Wang, Jin Yan
BACKGROUND: Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a specific pregnancy-related disorder without standard medical therapies. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is the most used medicine, but the efficacy and safety of UDCA remain uncertain. Several meta-analyses had been made to assess the effects of UDCA in ICP. However, the samples were not large enough to convince obstetricians to use UDCA. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the effects and safety of UDCA in patients with ICP, which included only randomized controlled trials (RCTs)...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Dan Shan, Yayi Hu, Peiyuan Qiu, Bechu Shelley Mathew, Yun Chen, Si Li, Yuan Hu, Lijun Lin, Zhi Wang, Luping Li
The aim of the present work was to determine maternal and fetal outcomes of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) in twin pregnancies. All twin pregnancies delivered above 28 gestational weeks in West China Second University Hospital from January 2013 to May 2015 were included. Data on maternal demographics and obstetric complications together with fetal outcomes were collected. The risk of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes were determined in relation to ICP by crude odds ratios (OR) and adjusted ORs (aOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI)...
September 28, 2016: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
Nalini Sharma, S Panda, Ahanthem Santa Singh
OBJECTIVE: To study the incidence, maternal, and perinatal outcomes in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy with active management. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This observational study included 48 cases diagnosed as intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Medical treatment and active management (fetal surveillance and termination of pregnancy at 37-38 weeks) were offered to all. Maternal and perinatal outcomes are studied. RESULTS: Incidence of ICP was 2...
October 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India
Asit Mittal
Cholestatic itch is a feature of numerous hepatobiliary disorders such as primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, the inherited form of cholestasis, and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Although undervalued by physicians, cholestatic itch can be a source of great discomfort to the patient and significantly affects quality of life. Many pruritogens such as bile salts, opioids, serotonin, and histamine have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cholestatic itch, but no causative link has ever been established...
2016: Current Problems in Dermatology
Katherine S Kohari, Rachel Carroll, Stephanie Capogna, Andrew Ditchik, Nathan S Fox, Lauren A Ferrara
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether the institution of a modern management strategy affected pregnancy outcomes for intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP). METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of women diagnosed with ICP at one hospital from 2005 - 2013. A new management protocol for ICP was instituted in 2009 for women with total bile acids >40 µmol/L at <36 weeks. This strategy included inpatient admission, continuous fetal heart rate monitoring, with delivery between 36-37 weeks...
July 15, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Caroline Ovadia, Catherine Williamson
Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, also known as obstetric cholestasis, is a pruritic condition of pregnancy characterized by an underlying elevation in circulating bile acids and liver derangement, and associated with adverse fetal outcomes, such as preterm labor and stillbirth. Limited understanding of the underlying pathophysiology and mechanisms involved in adverse outcomes has previously restricted treatment options and pregnancy management. Recent advances in these research fields provide tantalizing targets to improve the care of pregnant women affected by this condition...
May 2016: Clinics in Dermatology
Niharika Mehta, Kenneth K Chen, George Kroumpouzos
This review presents the approach of the obstetric medicine physician to skin disease in pregnancy. It elaborates on common skin-related problems during gestation, such as pruritus, with or without eruption, and drug eruptions. An algorithmic approach to the differential diagnosis of pruritus in pregnancy is outlined. Also, the review focuses on how to diagnose promptly endocrinopathies presenting with skin manifestations in pregnancy, such as Addison disease, diabetes, and hyperthyroidism. The prompt diagnosis of endocrine disorders can help to optimize management and improve outcomes...
May 2016: Clinics in Dermatology
Giacomo Corrado, Valentina Tabanelli, Roberto Biffi, Giuseppe Petralia, Andrea Tinelli, Fedro A Peccatori
We report the first case of sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation (SANT) of the spleen diagnosed during pregnancy, discussing differential diagnosis, immunohistochemical profile and treatment. A G2P1 37-year-old woman presented during the 19th week of gestation because of pruritus at lower limbs. To exclude cholestasis, an abdominal ultrasound and whole body magnetic resonance were performed and a single solid lesion with intrinsic vascularization was identified. Therefore, at 22 weeks gestation, after normal fetal assessment, the patient was referred for a splenectomy...
August 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
Andreas E Kremer, Barbara Namer, Ruth Bolier, Michael J Fischer, Ronald P Oude Elferink, Ulrich Beuers
Pruritus is a preeminent symptom in patients with chronic cholestatic liver disorders such as primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis. More than two-thirds of these patients experience itching during the course of their disease. This symptom is also frequently observed in patients with other causes of cholestasis such as cholangiocarcinoma, inherited forms of cholestasis and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, but may accompany almost any other liver disease. The pathogenesis of pruritus of cholestasis remains largely elusive...
2015: Digestive Diseases
Christine Sävervall, Freja Lærke Sand, Simon Francis Thomsen
Dermatoses unique to pregnancy are important to recognize for the clinician as they carry considerable morbidity for pregnant mothers and in some instances constitute a risk to the fetus. These diseases include pemphigoid gestationis, polymorphic eruption of pregnancy, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, and atopic eruption of pregnancy. This review discusses the pathogenesis, clinical importance, and management of the dermatoses of pregnancy.
2015: Dermatology Research and Practice
M Doret
OBJECTIVES: To propose guidelines for clinical practice for routine postnatal visit and after pathological pregnancies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bibliographic searches were performed with PubMed and Cochrane databases, and within international guidelines references. RESULTS: Postpartum visit should be planned 6 to 8 weeks after delivery and can be performed by an obstetrician, a gynecologist, a general practitioner or a midwife, when after normal pregnancy and delivery (Professional consensus)...
December 2015: Journal de Gynécologie, Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction
Spencer P Larson, Oormila Kovilam, Devendra K Agrawal
Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy poses a great risk to both maternal and fetal health. Despite extensive research, much of the pathogenesis of this disorder is unknown. The increase in bile acids observed in patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy has been noted to cause a change in the immune system from the normally mediated TH2 response to one that is more oriented towards TH1. In this literature review, we have critically reviewed the current literature regarding the changes in the immune system and the potential effects of immunological changes in the management of the patient...
2016: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Shadi Abu-Hayyeh, Caroline Ovadia, TinaMarie Lieu, Dane D Jensen, Jenny Chambers, Peter H Dixon, Anita Lövgren-Sandblom, Ruth Bolier, Dagmar Tolenaars, Andreas E Kremer, Argyro Syngelaki, Muna Noori, David Williams, Jose J G Marin, Maria J Monte, Kypros H Nicolaides, Ulrich Beuers, Ronald Oude-Elferink, Paul T Seed, Lucy Chappell, Hanns-Ulrich Marschall, Nigel W Bunnett, Catherine Williamson
UNLABELLED: A challenge in obstetrics is to distinguish pathological symptoms from those associated with normal changes of pregnancy, typified by the need to differentiate whether gestational pruritus of the skin is an early symptom of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) or due to benign pruritus gravidarum. ICP is characterized by raised serum bile acids and complicated by spontaneous preterm labor and stillbirth. A biomarker for ICP would be invaluable for early diagnosis and treatment and to enable its differentiation from other maternal diseases...
April 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
J T Maier, E Schalinski, C Häberlein, U Gottschalk, L Hellmeyer
Background: There are a number of threatening liver diseases that occur during pregnancy. Acute fatty liver of pregnancy is a rare disease associated with high maternal and foetal mortality. Case Report: We report on a young gravida 1 woman who presented to our level 1 perinatal centre in the 36 + 5 week of pregnancy with an isolated elevation of transaminases together with diffuse upper abdominal complaints. After comprehensive diagnostic work-up we performed an emergency delivery by Caesarean section...
August 2015: Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde
Hanns-Ulrich Marschall
Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is the most common liver disease during pregnancy, characterized by otherwise unexplained pruritus in late second and third trimester of pregnancy and elevated bile acids and/or transaminases. ICP is associated with an increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes for the fetus and the later development of hepatobiliary disease for the mother. Bile acids should be monitored throughout pregnancy since fetal risk is increased at serum bile acids >40 µmol/l. Management of ICP consists of treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid, which reduces pruritus...
2015: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Titta Joutsiniemi, Susanna Timonen, Maria Linden, Pia Suvitie, Ulla Ekblad
BACKGROUND: To exam the biochemical, obstetric management and pregnancy outcome in women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) and treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). METHODS: Pregnancy outcome in patients with ICP (N = 307) was studied and patients treated with UDCA (N = 208) vs. no UDCA were compared. The data of the antenatal visits, deliveries and neonatal outcome of 307 pregnancies with ICP was collected from the hospital computerized delivery room log book...
2015: BMC Gastroenterology
Sebiha Ozkan, Yasin Ceylan, Orhan Veli Ozkan, Sule Yildirim
Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a reversible pregnancy-specific cholestatic condition characterized by pruritus, elevated liver enzymes, and increased serum bile acids. It commences usually in the late second or third trimester, and quickly resolves after delivery. The incidence is higher in South American and Scandinavian countries (9.2%-15.6% and 1.5%, respectively) than in Europe (0.1%-0.2%). The etiology is multifactorial where genetic, endocrine, and environmental factors interact. Maternal outcome is usually benign, whereas fetal complications such as preterm labor, meconium staining, fetal distress, and sudden intrauterine fetal demise not infrequently lead to considerable perinatal morbidity and mortality...
June 21, 2015: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Walid M Ataalla, Dina H Ziada, Rania Gaber, Ahmed Ossman, Suzan Bayomy, Berihan R Elemary
AIM: The aim of this study was to assess total bile acid (TBA) levels and its impact on systolic and diastolic functions in fetuses of mothers with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) using tissue Doppler imaging (TDI), and to explore the correlation between TBA levels and fetal cardiac function. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study employed 98 pregnant women with ICP who were divided into two groups according to their bile acid levels. Fifty pregnant women without ICP represented the control group...
2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Kenya Kamimura, Hiroyuki Abe, Hirokazu Kawai, Hiroteru Kamimura, Yuji Kobayashi, Minoru Nomoto, Yutaka Aoyagi, Shuji Terai
Liver disease in pregnancy is rare but pregnancy-related liver diseases may cause threat to fetal and maternal survival. It includes pre-eclampsia; eclampsia; haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets syndrome; acute fatty liver of pregnancy; hyperemesis gravidarum; and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Recent basic researches have shown the various etiologies involved in this disease entity. With these advances, rapid diagnosis is essential for severe cases since the decision of immediate delivery is important for maternal and fetal survival...
May 7, 2015: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Xiao-Lin Luo, Wei-Yuan Zhang
BACKGROUND: No national research on maternal and fetal complications and outcomes has been carried out in the mainland of China in recent years. This study was to provide a scientific basis for better control of obstetrical and neonatal diseases and better allocation of medical resources by analyzing the epidemiological characteristics of obstetrical diseases in the mainland of China. METHODS: Hospitalized obstetrical cases from 19 tertiary and 20 secondary hospitals in 14 provinces (nationally representative) during the period January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2011 were randomly selected...
May 5, 2015: Chinese Medical Journal
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