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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092639/lithographic-patterning-of-antibodies-by-direct-lift-off-and-improved-surface-adhesion
#1
Sankalp Verma, Vivek Verma
The inherent property of antibodies binding to their antigen with high specificity makes them a strong candidate for sensing and detection applications. Microscale patterning of antibodies is desired for the miniaturization of sensors and fundamental cell biology studies. However, existing methodologies to pattern antibodies at the microscale are multi-step. In this work, we demonstrate microscale patterning of antibodies on a glass coverslip in a single step photolithography process. The microscale features of the photoresist were generated on the coverslip using photolithography, and the antibody solution was incubated...
January 16, 2017: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090561/diversity-in-rotavirus-host-glycan-interactions-a-sweet-spectrum
#2
REVIEW
Sasirekha Ramani, Liya Hu, B V Venkataram Prasad, Mary K Estes
Interaction with cellular glycans is a critical initial step in the pathogenesis of many infectious agents. Technological advances in glycobiology have expanded the repertoire of studies delineating host glycan-pathogen interactions. For rotavirus, the VP8* domain of the outer capsid spike protein VP4 is known to interact with cellular glycans. Sialic acid was considered the key cellular attachment factor for rotaviruses for decades. Although this is true for many rotavirus strains causing infections in animals, glycan array screens show that many human rotavirus strains bind nonsialylated glycoconjugates, called histo-blood group antigens, in a strain-specific manner...
May 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067370/automated-3d-printed-unibody-immunoarray-for-chemiluminescence-detection-of-cancer-biomarker-proteins
#3
C K Tang, A Vaze, J F Rusling
A low cost three-dimensional (3D) printed clear plastic microfluidic device was fabricated for fast, low cost automated protein detection. The unibody device features three reagent reservoirs, an efficient 3D network for passive mixing, and an optically transparent detection chamber housing a glass capture antibody array for measuring chemiluminescence output with a CCD camera. Sandwich type assays were built onto the glass arrays using a multi-labeled detection antibody-polyHRP (HRP = horseradish peroxidase)...
January 9, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058210/biology-of-chronic-graft-vs-host-disease-immune-mechanisms-and-progress-in-biomarker-discovery
#4
REVIEW
Richard B Presland
Chronic graft-vs-host disease (cGVHD) is the leading cause of long-term morbidity and mortality following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. It presents as a chronic inflammatory and sclerotic autoimmune-like condition that most frequently affects the skin, oral mucosa, liver, eyes and gastrointestinal tract. Both clinical and animal studies have shown that multiple T cell subsets including Th1, Th2, Th17, T follicular helper cells and regulatory T-cells play some role in cGVHD development and progression; B cells also play an important role in the disease including the production of antibodies to HY and nuclear antigens that can cause serious tissue damage...
December 24, 2016: World Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039295/third-generation-cd28-4-1bb-chimeric-antigen-receptor-t-cells-for-chemotherapy-relapsed-or-refractory-acute-lymphoblastic-leukaemia-a-non-randomised-open-label-phase-i-trial-protocol
#5
Xiao-Yi Tang, Yao Sun, Ang Zhang, Guo-Liang Hu, Wei Cao, Dan-Hong Wang, Bin Zhang, Hu Chen
INTRODUCTION: There is no curative treatment available for patients with chemotherapy relapsed or refractory CD19+ B cells-derived acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (r/r B-ALL). Although CD19-targeting second-generation (2nd-G) chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells carrying CD28 or 4-1BB domains have demonstrated potency in patients with advanced B-ALL, these 2 signalling domains endow CAR-T cells with different and complementary functional properties. Preclinical results have shown that third-generation (3rd-G) CAR-T cells combining 4-1BB and CD28 signalling domains have superior activation and proliferation capacity compared with 2nd-G CAR-T cells carrying CD28 domain...
December 30, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036258/epstein-barr-virus-ebna2-directs-doxorubicin-resistance-of-b-cell-lymphoma-through-ccl3-and-ccl4-mediated-activation-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-btk
#6
Joo Hyun Kim, Won Seog Kim, Jung Yong Hong, Kung Ju Ryu, Seok Jin Kim, Chaehwa Park
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded nuclear antigen, EBNA2, expressed in EBV-infected B lymphocytes is critical for lymphoblastoid cell growth. Microarray profiling and cytokine array screening revealed that EBNA2 is associated with upregulation of the chemokines CCL3 and CCL4 in lymphoma cells. Depletion or inactivation of CCL3 or CCL4 sensitized DLBCL cells to doxorubicin. Our results indicate that EBV influences cell survival via an autocrine mechanism whereby EBNA2 increases CCL3 and CCL4, which in turn activate the Btk and NF-κB pathways, contributing to doxorubicin resistance of B lymphoma cells...
December 27, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031369/mapping-the-human-memory-b-cell-and-serum-neutralizing-antibody-responses-to-denv4-infection-and-vaccination
#7
Usha K Nivarthi, Nurgun Kose, Gopal Sapparapu, Douglas Widman, Emily Gallichotte, Jennifer M Pfaff, Benjamin J Doranz, Daniela Weiskopf, Alessandro Sette, Anna P Durbin, Steve S Whitehead, Ralph Baric, James E Crowe, Aravinda M de Silva
: The four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes are mosquito-borne flaviviruses responsible for dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever. People exposed to DENV develop antibodies that strongly neutralize the serotype responsible for infection. Historically, infection with DENV serotype 4 (DENV4) has been less common and understudied in comparison to the other three serotypes. However, DENV4 has been responsible for recent large and sustained epidemics in Asia and Latin America. The neutralizing antibody responses and the epitopes targeted against DENV4 are not characterized in human infection...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026090/the-mesenchymal-precursor-cell-marker-antibody-stro-1-binds-to-cell-surface-heat-shock-cognate-70
#8
Stephen Fitter, Stan Gronthos, Soo Siang Ooi, Andrew C W Zannettino
Since its discovery more than 25 years ago, the STRO-1 antibody has played a fundamental role in defining the hierarchical nature of mesenchymal precursor cells (MPC) and their progeny. STRO-1 antibody binding remains a hallmark of immature pluripotent MPC. Despite the significance of STRO-1 in the MPC field, the identity of the antigen has remained elusive. Using a combination of 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, coupled with Western blotting and Tandem mass spectroscopy, we have identified the STRO-1 antigen as heat shock cognate 70 (HSC70;HSPA8)...
December 27, 2016: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008331/a-meningococcal-outer-membrane-vesicle-vaccine-incorporating-genetically-attenuated-endotoxin-dissociates-inflammation-from-immunogenicity
#9
David J Dowling, Holly Sanders, Wing Ki Cheng, Sweta Joshi, Spencer Brightman, Ilana Bergelson, Carlo Pietrasanta, Simon D van Haren, Sandra van Amsterdam, Jeffrey Fernandez, Germie P J M van den Dobbelsteen, Ofer Levy
BACKGROUND: Group B Neisseria meningitidis, an endotoxin-producing Gram-negative bacterium, causes the highest incidence of group B meningococcus (MenB) disease in the first year of life. The Bexsero vaccine is indicated in Europe from 8 weeks of age. Endotoxin components of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) or soluble lipopolysaccharide (LPS) represent a potential source of inflammation and residual reactogenicity. The purpose of this study was to compare novel candidate MenB vaccine formulations with licensed vaccines, including Bexsero, using age-specific human in vitro culture systems...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004818/3-d-microwell-array-system-for-culturing-virus-infected-tumor-cells
#10
Rami El Assal, Umut A Gurkan, Pu Chen, Franceline Juillard, Alessandro Tocchio, Thiruppathiraja Chinnasamy, Chantal Beauchemin, Sebnem Unluisler, Serli Canikyan, Alyssa Holman, Srikar Srivatsa, Kenneth M Kaye, Utkan Demirci
Cancer cells have been increasingly grown in pharmaceutical research to understand tumorigenesis and develop new therapeutic drugs. Currently, cells are typically grown using two-dimensional (2-D) cell culture approaches, where the native tumor microenvironment is difficult to recapitulate. Thus, one of the main obstacles in oncology is the lack of proper infection models that recount main features present in tumors. In recent years, microtechnology-based platforms have been employed to generate three-dimensional (3-D) models that better mimic the native microenvironment in cell culture...
December 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002790/establishment-and-application-of-a-novel-patient-derived-kiaa1549-braf-driven-pediatric-pilocytic-astrocytoma-model-for-preclinical-drug-testing
#11
Florian Selt, Juliane Hohloch, Thomas Hielscher, Felix Sahm, David Capper, Andrey Korshunov, Diren Usta, Sebastian Brabetz, Johannes Ridinger, Jonas Ecker, Ina Oehme, Jan Gronych, Viktoria Marquardt, David Pauck, Heidi Bächli, Charles D Stiles, Andreas von Deimling, Marc Remke, Martin U Schuhmann, Stefan M Pfister, Tilman Brummer, David T W Jones, Olaf Witt, Till Milde
Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is the most frequent pediatric brain tumor. Activation of the MAPK pathway is well established as the oncogenic driver of the disease. It is most frequently caused by KIAA1549:BRAF fusions, and leads to oncogene induced senescence (OIS). OIS is thought to be a major reason for growth arrest of PA cells in vitro and in vivo, preventing establishment of PA cultures. Hence, valid preclinical models are currently very limited, but preclinical testing of new compounds is urgently needed...
December 17, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002239/feasibility-of-multiparametric-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-the-prostate-at-7-t
#12
Miriam W Lagemaat, Bart W J Philips, Eline K Vos, Mark J van Uden, Jurgen J Fütterer, Sjoerd F Jenniskens, Tom W J Scheenen, Marnix C Maas
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the technical feasibility of prostate multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) at a magnetic field strength of 7 T. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective institutional review board-approved study, 14 patients with biopsy-proven prostate cancer (mean age, 65.2 years; median prostate-specific antigen [PSA], 6.2 ng/mL), all providing signed informed consent, underwent 7 T mpMRI with an external 8-channel body-array transmit coil and an endorectal receive coil between September 2013 and October 2014...
December 20, 2016: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998952/fine-mapping-the-mhc-locus-in-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis-jia-reveals-genetic-heterogeneity-corresponding-to-distinct-adult-inflammatory-arthritic-diseases
#13
A Hinks, J Bowes, J Cobb, H C Ainsworth, M C Marion, M E Comeau, M Sudman, B Han, M L Becker, J F Bohnsack, P I W de Bakker, J P Haas, M Hazen, D J Lovell, P A Nigrovic, E Nordal, M Punnaro, A M Rosenberg, M Rygg, S L Smith, C A Wise, V Videm, L R Wedderburn, A Yarwood, R S M Yeung, S Prahalad, C D Langefeld, S Raychaudhuri, S D Thompson, W Thomson
OBJECTIVES: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a heterogeneous group of diseases, comprising seven categories. Genetic data could potentially be used to help redefine JIA categories and improve the current classification system. The human leucocyte antigen (HLA) region is strongly associated with JIA. Fine-mapping of the region was performed to look for similarities and differences in HLA associations between the JIA categories and define correspondences with adult inflammatory arthritides...
December 20, 2016: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997366/spr-platform-based-on-image-acquisition-for-her2-antigen-detection
#14
Johny P Monteiro, Sheila M Predabon, Elton G Bonafé, Alessandro F Martins, Alexandre G Brolo, Eduardo Radovanovic, Emerson M Girotto
HER2 antigen is a marker used for breast cancer diagnosis and prevention. Its determination has great importance since breast cancer is one of the most insidious types of cancer in women. HER2 antigen assessment in human serum is traditionally achieved by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method), but it has some disadvantages, such as suppressing the thermodynamic-kinetic studies regarding the antibody-antigen interaction, and the use of labeled molecules that can promote false positive responses. Biosensors based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) are sensitive optical techniques widely applied on bioassays...
January 27, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993085/vaccine-strategies-for-the-treatment-of-lymphoma-preclinical-progress-and-clinical-trial-update
#15
Thomas U Marron, Lukas Ronner, Peter E Martin, Christopher R Flowers, Joshua D Brody
The clonal B-cell immunoglobulin idiotype found on the surface of lymphomas was the first targeted tumor-specific antigen, and combinations of idiotype with classical and novel adjuvants were shown to stimulate robust humoral and cellular responses, though clinical efficacy was more variable. Cellular and in situ vaccination to help target a wider array of tumor-specific antigens have also been able to stimulate tumor-specific cellular responses, though their clinical success has also been limited. Our growing understanding of the role of regulatory cells and the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, along with a wide variety of immunomodulatory agents developed as of late, offer promising adjuvants to potentiate the immune responses elicited by these vaccine protocols and to achieve durable remissions...
November 2016: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992487/changes-in-host-cytokine-patterns-of-tb-patients-with-different-bacterial-loads-detected-using-16s-rrna-analysis
#16
Rhiannon Heslop, Adama L Bojang, Sheikh Jarju, Joseph Mendy, Sarah Mulwa, Ousman Secka, Francis S Mendy, Olumuyiwa Owolabi, Beate Kampmann, Jayne S Sutherland
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) has overtaken HIV as the biggest infectious disease killer, with the majority of deaths occurring in sub-Saharan Africa. However it is unknown how differences in bacterial load alter host immune profiles in the sputum and blood of TB patients. METHODS: 16S ribosomal RNA analysis was used to determine bacterial load in sputum samples obtained from 173 patients with active TB (57 pre-treatment and 116 post-treatment). Host analyte concentrations in sputum and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) antigen stimulated whole blood assay supernatants were analysed using multiplex cytokine arrays...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990284/a-structure-function-approach-to-optimizing-tlr4-ligands-for-human-vaccines
#17
Darrick Carter, Christopher B Fox, Tracey A Day, Jeffrey A Guderian, Hong Liang, Tom Rolf, Julie Vergara, Zachary K Sagawa, Greg Ireton, Mark T Orr, Anthony Desbien, Malcolm S Duthie, Rhea N Coler, Steven G Reed
Adjuvants are combined with vaccine antigens to enhance and modify immune responses, and have historically been primarily crude, undefined entities. Introducing toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands has led to a new generation of adjuvants, with TLR4 ligands being the most extensively used in human vaccines. The TLR4 crystal structures demonstrate extensive contact with their ligands and provide clues as to how they discriminate a broad array of molecules and activate or attenuate innate, as well as adaptive, responses resulting from these interactions...
November 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986552/combining-different-types-of-multifunctional-liposomes-loaded-with-ammonium-bicarbonate-to-fabricate-microneedle-arrays-as-a-vaginal-mucosal-vaccine-adjuvant-dual-delivery-system-vadds
#18
Ning Wang, Yuanyuan Zhen, Yiguang Jin, Xueting Wang, Ning Li, Shaohong Jiang, Ting Wang
To develop effective mucosal vaccines, two types of multifunctional liposomes, the mannosylated lipid A-liposomes (MLLs) with a size of 200nm and the stealth lipid A-liposomes (SLLs) of 50nm, both loaded with a model antigen and NH4HCO3, were fabricated together into microneedles, forming the proSLL/MLL-constituted microneedle array (proSMMA), which upon rehydration dissolved rapidly recovering the initial MLLs and SLLs. Mice vaccinated with proSMMAs by vaginal mucosa patching other than conventional intradermal administration established robust antigen-specific humoral and cellular immunity at both systemic and mucosal levels, especially, in the reproductive and intestinal ducts...
December 13, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984233/dermatofibrosarcoma-protuberans-like-tumor-with-col1a1-copy-number-gain-in-the-absence-of-t-17-22
#19
Jad Saab, Ian M Rosenthal, Lu Wang, Klaus J Busam, Kishwer S Nehal, Mark A Dickson, Meera R Hameed, Travis J Hollmann
A 57-year-old woman presented with a 3-year history of a progressive firm plaque on the right cheek. Skin biopsies revealed a bland, storiform, spindle-cell proliferation involving the deep dermis and subcutaneous fat. By immunohistochemistry, the tumor cells were diffusely positive for CD34 and caldesmon with multifocal reactivity for epithelial membrane antigen and focal, weak staining for smooth muscle actin. Retinoblastoma protein expression was not detectable in tumor cells by immunohistochemistry. An interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis for platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGFB) gene rearrangement was negative...
December 14, 2016: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981498/humoral-immunity-profiling-of-subjects-with-myalgic-encephalomyelitis-using-a-random-peptide-microarray-differentiates-cases-from-controls-with-high-specificity-and-sensitivity
#20
Sahajpreet Singh, Phillip Stafford, Karen A Schlauch, Richard R Tillett, Martin Gollery, Stephen Albert Johnston, Svetlana F Khaiboullina, Kenny L De Meirleir, Shanti Rawat, Tatjana Mijatovic, Krishnamurthy Subramanian, András Palotás, Vincent C Lombardi
Myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) is a complex, heterogeneous illness of unknown etiology. The search for biomarkers that can delineate cases from controls is one of the most active areas of ME research; however, little progress has been made in achieving this goal. In contrast to identifying biomarkers that are directly involved in the pathological process, an immunosignature identifies antibodies raised to proteins expressed during, and potentially involved in, the pathological process. Although these proteins might be unknown, it is possible to detect antibodies that react to these proteins using random peptide arrays...
December 15, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
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