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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819856/fiber-optic-array-scanning-technology-fast-for-detection-and-molecular-characterization-of-circulating-tumor-cells
#1
Zheng Ao, Xiaohe Liu
Circulating tumor cell (CTC) as an important component in "liquid biopsy" holds crucial clinical relevance in cancer prognosis, treatment efficiency evaluation, prediction and potentially early detection. Here, we present a Fiber-optic Array Scanning Technology (FAST) that enables antigen-agnostic, size-agnostic detection of CTC. By immunofluorescence staining detection of a combination of a panel of markers, FAST technology can be applied to detect rare CTC in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) setting with high sensitivity and specificity...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817637/genetic-diversity-of-the-o-antigens-of-proteus-species-and-the-development-of-a-suspension-array-for-molecular-serotyping
#2
Xiang Yu, Agnieszka Torzewska, Xinjie Zhang, Zhiqiu Yin, Dominika Drzewiecka, Hengchun Cao, Bin Liu, Yuriy A Knirel, Antoni Rozalski, Lei Wang
Proteus species are well-known opportunistic pathogens frequently associated with skin wound and urinary tract infections in humans and animals. O antigen diversity is important for bacteria to adapt to different hosts and environments, and has been used to identify serotypes of Proteus isolates. At present, 80 Proteus O-serotypes have been reported. Although the O antigen structures of most Proteus serotypes have been identified, the genetic features of these O antigens have not been well characterized. The O antigen gene clusters of Proteus species are located between the cpxA and secB genes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817402/the-importance-of-natural-killer-cell-killer-immunoglobulin-like-receptor-mismatch-in-transplant-outcomes
#3
Kate Stringaris, Austin J Barrett
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In recent years, the rules of engagement between natural killer (NK) cells and their targets have become better defined with the identification of an array of NK surface molecules, notably the killer immunoglobulin-like (KIR) receptors and their ligands on target cells through which signals of activation or suppression of NK function are mediated. After allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT), the opportunity for NK cell activation can occur both in human leucocyte antigen (HLA) matched and HLA mismatched pairs...
August 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815001/serogrouping-and-seroepidemiology-of-north-european-hantaviruses-using-a-novel-broadly-targeted-synthetic-nucleoprotein-antigen-array
#4
Bengt Rönnberg, Olli Vapalahti, Marco Goeijenbier, Chantal Reusken, Åke Gustafsson, Jonas Blomberg, Åke Lundkvist
Introduction: Hantaviruses are globally distributed zoonotic pathogens. Great diversity and high antigenic cross-reactivity makes diagnosis by traditional methods cumbersome. Materials and methods: 'Megapeptides', 119-120-mers from the amino terminus of the nucleoprotein of 16 hantaviruses, representing the four major branches of the hantavirus phylogenetic tree, were utilized in a novel IgG-based hantavirus suspension multiplex immunoassay (HSMIA) for detection of past hantavirus infections in 155 North European human samples...
2017: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811980/erap1-overexpression-in-hpv-induced-malignancies-a-possible-novel-immune-evasion-mechanism
#5
Alina Steinbach, Jan Winter, Miriam Reuschenbach, Renata Blatnik, Alexandra Klevenz, Miriam Bertrand, Stephanie Hoppe, Magnus von Knebel Doeberitz, Agnieszka K Grabowska, Angelika B Riemer
Immune evasion of tumors poses a major challenge for immunotherapy. For human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced malignancies, multiple immune evasion mechanisms have been described, including altered expression of antigen processing machinery (APM) components. These changes can directly influence epitope presentation and thus T-cell responses against tumor cells. To date, the APM had not been studied systematically in a large array of HPV(+) tumor samples. Therefore in this study, systematic expression analysis of the APM was performed on the mRNA and protein level in a comprehensive collection of HPV16(+) cell lines...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811364/mechanosensing-drives-acuity-of-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-recognition
#6
Yinnian Feng, Kristine N Brazin, Eiji Kobayashi, Robert J Mallis, Ellis L Reinherz, Matthew J Lang
T lymphocytes use surface [Formula: see text] T-cell receptors (TCRs) to recognize peptides bound to MHC molecules (pMHCs) on antigen-presenting cells (APCs). How the exquisite specificity of high-avidity T cells is achieved is unknown but essential, given the paucity of foreign pMHC ligands relative to the ubiquitous self-pMHC array on an APC. Using optical traps, we determine physicochemical triggering thresholds based on load and force direction. Strikingly, chemical thresholds in the absence of external load require orders of magnitude higher pMHC numbers than observed physiologically...
August 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811324/the-transcriptional-program-functional-heterogeneity-and-clinical-targeting-of-mast-cells
#7
REVIEW
Gökhan Cildir, Harshita Pant, Angel F Lopez, Vinay Tergaonkar
Mast cells are unique tissue-resident immune cells that express an array of receptors that can be activated by several extracellular cues, including antigen-immunoglobulin E (IgE) complexes, bacteria, viruses, cytokines, hormones, peptides, and drugs. Mast cells constitute a small population in tissues, but their extraordinary ability to respond rapidly by releasing granule-stored and newly made mediators underpins their importance in health and disease. In this review, we document the biology of mast cells and introduce new concepts and opinions regarding their role in human diseases beyond IgE-mediated allergic responses and antiparasitic functions...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805015/stromelysin-2-mmp-10-a-novel-mediator-of-vascular-remodeling-underlying-pulmonary-hypertension-associated-with-systemic-sclerosis
#8
Jérôme Avouac, Christophe Guignabert, Anna Maria Hoffmann-Vold, Barbara Ruiz, Peter Dorfmuller, Sonia Pezet, Olivia Amar, Ly Tu, Jérôme Van Wassenhove, Jérémy Sadoine, David Launay, Muriel Elhai, Anne Cauvet, Arun Subramaniam, Robert Resnick, Eric Hachulla, Øyvind Molberg, André Kahan, Marc Humbert, Yannick Allanore
OBJECTIVE: To decipher the role of gene candidates involved in pulmonary hypertension (PH) associated with systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: Gene candidates were identified through microarray experiments performed on Affymetrix GeneChip(®) Human Exon 1.0 ST Arrays in endothelial progenitor cell (EPC)-derived endothelial cells (ECs) issued from patients with SSc-PH, SSc without PH and controls. Expression of identified candidates was assessed by quantitative sandwich ELISA in the serum and by immunohistochemistry in lesional lung tissue...
August 13, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804556/anti-tumor-efficacy-evaluation-of-a-novel-monoclonal-antibody-targeting-neutral-amino-acid-transporter-asct2-using-patient-derived-xenograft-mouse-models-of-gastric-cancer
#9
Noriyuki Kasai, Aya Sasakawa, Kenta Hosomi, Tze Wei Poh, Bernadette Lynn Chua, Wei Peng Yong, Jimmy So, Shing Leng Chan, Richie Soong, Koji Kono, Toshihiko Ishii, Kazuya Yamano
ASC amino acid transporter 2 (ASCT2), also known as solute linked carrier family 1 member A5 (SLC1A5) is a Na+-dependent glutamine/neutral amino acid transporter. ASCT2 acts as a high-affinity transporter of L-glutamine (Gln) and has been reported to be up-regulated in a variety of cancerous tissues including stomach, liver, and kidney. In this study, we evaluated anti-tumor efficacy of a novel anti-ASCT2 humanized monoclonal antibody, KM8094, which has a neutralizing activity against glutamine uptake, as a therapeutic antibody against gastric cancer and explored clinical predictive biomarker candidates by utilizing patient-derived xenograft (PDX) mouse models...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804489/normalized-synergy-predicts-that-cd8-co-receptor-contribution-to-t-cell-receptor-tcr-and-pmhc-binding-decreases-as-tcr-affinity-increases-in-human-viral-specific-t-cells
#10
Chad M Williams, Alexandra A Schonnesen, Shu-Qi Zhang, Ke-Yue Ma, Chenfeng He, Tori Yamamoto, S Gail Eckhardt, Christopher A Klebanoff, Ning Jiang
The discovery of naturally occurring T cell receptors (TCRs) that confer specific, high-affinity recognition of pathogen and cancer-associated antigens remains a major goal in cellular immunotherapies. The contribution of the CD8 co-receptor to the interaction between the TCR and peptide-bound major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) has previously been correlated with the activation and responsiveness of CD8(+) T cells. However, these studies have been limited to model systems of genetically engineered hybridoma TCRs or transgenic mouse TCRs against either a single epitope or an array of altered peptide ligands...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803843/high-throughput-screening-of-hybridoma-supernatants-using-multiplexed-fluorescent-cell-barcoding-on-live-cells
#11
Mei Lu, Brian M Chan, Peter W Schow, Wesley S Chang, Chadwick T King
With current available assay formats using either immobilized protein (ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) or immunostaining of fixed cells for primary monoclonal antibody (mAb) screening, researchers often fail to identify and characterize antibodies that recognize the native conformation of cell-surface antigens. Therefore, screening using live cells has become an integral and important step contributing to the successful identification of therapeutic antibody candidates. Thus the need for developing high-throughput screening (HTS) technologies using live cells has become a major priority for therapeutic mAb discovery and development...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803740/vorinostat-renders-the-replication-competent-latent-reservoir-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-vulnerable-to-clearance-by-cd8-t-cells
#12
Julia A Sung, Katherine Sholtis, Jennifer Kirchherr, Joann D Kuruc, Cynthia L Gay, Jeffrey L Nordstrom, Catherine M Bollard, Nancie M Archin, David M Margolis
Latently human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected cells are transcriptionally quiescent and invisible to clearance by the immune system. To demonstrate that the latency reversing agent vorinostat (VOR) induces a window of vulnerability in the latent HIV reservoir, defined as the triggering of viral antigen production sufficient in quantity and duration to allow for recognition and clearance of persisting infection, we developed a latency clearance assay (LCA). The LCA is a quantitative viral outgrowth assay (QVOA) that includes the addition of immune effectors capable of clearing cells expressing viral antigen...
July 29, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800944/systematic-review-tumor-associated-antigen-autoantibodies-and-ovarian-cancer-early-detection
#13
REVIEW
Renée Turzanski Fortner, Antje Damms-Machado, Rudolf Kaaks
OBJECTIVES: Tumor-associated autoantibodies (AAbs), produced as an immune response to tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), are a novel pathway of early detection markers. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review on AAbs and ovarian cancer to summarize the diagnostic performance of individual AAbs and AAb panels. A total of 29 studies including 85 AAbs were included; 27 of the studies were conducted in prevalent cases and cancer-free controls and 2 investigations included pre-diagnosis samples...
August 8, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800929/directing-t-cell-fate-how-thymic-antigen-presenting-cells-coordinate-thymocyte-selection
#14
REVIEW
Elise R Breed, S Thera Lee, Kristin A Hogquist
The development of a self-tolerant and effective T cell receptor repertoire is dependent on interactions coordinated by various antigen presenting cells (APC) within the thymus. T cell receptor-self-peptide-MHC interactions are essential for determining T cell fate, however different cytokine and co-stimulatory signals provided by the diverse APCs within the thymus are also critical. Here, we outline the different localization and functional capabilities of thymic APCs. We also discuss how these distinct APCs work collectively to facilitate the establishment of a diverse T cell receptor repertoire that is tolerant to an array of different self-antigens...
August 8, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794178/potential-of-high-affinity-slow-off-rate-modified-aptamer-somamer-reagents-for-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-proteins-as-tools-for-infection-models-and-diagnostic-applications
#15
Theresa Russell, Louis S Green, Taylor Rice, Nicole A Kruh-Garcia, Karen Dobos, Mary A DeGroote, Thomas Hraha, David G Sterling, Nebojsa Janjic, Urs A Ochsner
Direct pathogen detection in blood to diagnose active tuberculosis (TB) has been difficult, due to low levels of circulating antigens or due to the lack of specific, high-affinity binding reagents and reliable assays with adequate sensitivity. We sought to determine whether slow off-rate modified aptamer (SOMAmer) reagents with sub-nanomolar affinity for M. tuberculosis (Mtb) proteins (antigen 85A, 85B, 85C, GroES, GroEL2, DnaK, CFP10, KAD, CFP2, RplL and Tpx) could be useful to diagnose tuberculosis. When incorporated into the multiplexed, array-based proteomic SOMAscan assay, limits of detection reached the sub-picomolar range in 40% serum...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792526/cryptosporidium-parvum-vaccine-candidates-are-incompletely-modified-with-o-linked-n-acetylgalactosamine-or-contain-n-terminal-n-myristate-and-s-palmitate
#16
John R Haserick, Joshua A Klein, Catherine E Costello, John Samuelson
Cryptosporidium parvum (studied here) and Cryptosporidium hominis are important causes of diarrhea in infants and immunosuppressed persons. C. parvum vaccine candidates, which are on the surface of sporozoites, include glycoproteins with Ser- and Thr-rich domains (Gp15, Gp40, and Gp900) and a low complexity, acidic protein (Cp23). Here we used mass spectrometry to determine that O-linked GalNAc is present in dense arrays on a glycopeptide with consecutive Ser derived from Gp40 and on glycopeptides with consecutive Thr derived from Gp20, a novel C...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781959/structure-based-design-of-ferritin-nanoparticle-immunogens-displaying-antigenic-loops-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae
#17
Liqin Wang, Daniel Xing, Adriana Le Van, Ann E Jerse, Shuishu Wang
Effective vaccines are urgently needed to combat gonorrhea, a common sexually transmitted bacterial infection, for which treatment options are diminishing due to rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance. We have used a rational approach to the development of gonorrhea vaccines, and genetically engineered nanoparticles to present antigenic peptides of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the causative agent of gonorrhea. We hypothesized that the ferritin nanocage could be used as a platform to display an ordered array of N...
August 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769934/human-leukocyte-antigen-hla-and-immune-regulation-how-do-classical-and-non-classical-hla-alleles-modulate-immune-response-to-human-immunodeficiency-virus-and-hepatitis-c-virus-infections
#18
REVIEW
Nicole B Crux, Shokrollah Elahi
The genetic factors associated with susceptibility or resistance to viral infections are likely to involve a sophisticated array of immune response. These genetic elements may modulate other biological factors that account for significant influence on the gene expression and/or protein function in the host. Among them, the role of the major histocompatibility complex in viral pathogenesis in particular human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), is very well documented. We, recently, added a novel insight into the field by identifying the molecular mechanism associated with the protective role of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27/B57 CD8(+) T cells in the context of HIV-1 infection and why these alleles act as a double-edged sword protecting against viral infections but predisposing the host to autoimmune diseases...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769561/nanoparticle-orientationally-displayed-antigen-epitopes-improve-neutralizing-antibody-level-in-a-model-of-porcine-circovirus-type-2
#19
Peiyang Ding, Teng Zhang, Yafei Li, Man Teng, Yaning Sun, Xiao Liu, Shujun Chai, Enmin Zhou, Qianyue Jin, Gaiping Zhang
Recent advancements in biotechnology have enabled the rapid identification and subsequent expression of pathogenic microbial major antigens that induce protective immune responses. However, subunit vaccines have not been successfully commercialized mainly due to the lack of sufficient levels of neutralizing antibodies (NAs). High levels of NA rely on the efficient recognition and cross-linking of multiple neutralizing epitopes with B-cell receptors (BCRs). Nanoparticles are able to display coupled antigenic arrays at high density and provide multiple binding molecular scenarios with BCRs...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763347/ex-vivo-induction-of-multiple-myeloma-specific-immune-responses-by-monocyte-derived-dendritic-cells-following-stimulation-by-whole-tumor-antigen-of-autologous-myeloma-cells
#20
Spyridoula Vasileiou, Ioannis Baltadakis, Sosanna Delimpasi, Maria-Helena Karatza, Konstantinos Liapis, Maria Garofalaki, Eirini Tziotziou, Zoe Poulopoulou, Dimitri Karakasis, Nicholas Harhalakis
The introduction of novel agents has significantly expanded treatment options for multiple myeloma (MM), albeit long-term disease control cannot be achieved in the majority of patients. Vaccination with MM antigen-loaded dendritic cells (DCs) represents an alternative strategy that is currently being explored. The aim of this study was to assess the immunogenic potential of ex vivo-generated monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs), following stimulation with the whole-antigen array of autologous myeloma cells (AMC). MoDCs were loaded with antigens of myeloma cells by 2 different methods: phagocytosis of apoptotic bodies from γ-irradiated AMC, or transfection with AMC total RNA by square-wave electroporation...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Immunotherapy
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