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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938079/comparing-climate-sensitivity-past-and-present
#1
Eelco J Rohling, Gianluca Marino, Gavin L Foster, Philip A Goodwin, Anna S von der Heydt, Peter Köhler
Climate sensitivity represents the global mean temperature change caused by changes in the radiative balance of climate; it is studied for both present/future (actuo) and past (paleo) climate variations, with the former based on instrumental records and/or various types of model simulations. Paleo-estimates are often considered informative for assessments of actuo-climate change caused by anthropogenic greenhouse forcing, but this utility remains debated because of concerns about the impacts of uncertainties, assumptions, and incomplete knowledge about controlling mechanisms in the dynamic climate system, with its multiple interacting feedbacks and their potential dependence on the climate background state...
September 22, 2017: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938024/perspectives-on-invasive-amphibians-in-brazil
#2
Lucas Rodriguez Forti, C Guilherme Becker, Leandro Tacioli, Vânia Rosa Pereira, André Cid F A Santos, Igor Oliveira, Célio F B Haddad, Luís Felipe Toledo
Introduced species have the potential to become invasive and jeopardize entire ecosystems. The success of species establishing viable populations outside their original extent depends primarily on favorable climatic conditions in the invasive ranges. Species distribution modeling (SDM) can thus be used to estimate potential habitat suitability for populations of invasive species. Here we review the status of six amphibian species with invasive populations in Brazil (four domestic species and two imported species)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937978/a-new-discrete-dynamic-model-of-aba-induced-stomatal-closure-predicts-key-feedback-loops
#3
Réka Albert, Biswa R Acharya, Byeong Wook Jeon, Jorge G T Zañudo, Mengmeng Zhu, Karim Osman, Sarah M Assmann
Stomata, microscopic pores in leaf surfaces through which water loss and carbon dioxide uptake occur, are closed in response to drought by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). This process is vital for drought tolerance and has been the topic of extensive experimental investigation in the last decades. Although a core signaling chain has been elucidated consisting of ABA binding to receptors, which alleviates negative regulation by protein phosphatases 2C (PP2Cs) of the protein kinase OPEN STOMATA 1 (OST1) and ultimately results in activation of anion channels, osmotic water loss, and stomatal closure, over 70 additional components have been identified, yet their relationships with each other and the core components are poorly elucidated...
September 22, 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937863/bullying-victimization-binge-drinking-and-marijuana-use-among-adolescents-results-from-the-2013-national-youth-risk-behavior-survey
#4
Emily Priesman, Rameika Newman, Jason A Ford
The current research examines the association between bullying victimization, binge drinking, and marijuana use among adolescents. We seek to determine if this association varies based on the type of bullying experienced, traditional or cyberbullying. We used data from the 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationally representative sample of high school students in the United States. The dependent variables were binge drinking and marijuana use. Our key independent variable, bullying victimization, included both traditional and cyberbullying...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937631/cellular-entry-of-the-diphtheria-toxin-does-not-require-the-formation-of-the-open-channel-state-by-its-translocation-domain
#5
Alexey S Ladokhin, Mauricio Vargas-Uribe, Mykola V Rodnin, Chiranjib Ghatak, Onkar Sharma
Cellular entry of diphtheria toxin is a multistage process involving receptor targeting, endocytosis, and translocation of the catalytic domain across the endosomal membrane into the cytosol. The latter is ensured by the translocation (T) domain of the toxin, capable of undergoing conformational refolding and membrane insertion in response to the acidification of the endosomal environment. While numerous now classical studies have demonstrated the formation of an ion-conducting conformation-the Open-Channel State (OCS)-as the final step of the refolding pathway, it remains unclear whether this channel constitutes an in vivo translocation pathway or is a byproduct of the translocation...
September 22, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936725/ampa-receptors-at-ribbon-synapses-in-the-mammalian-retina-kinetic-models-and-molecular-identity
#6
Espen Hartveit, Bas-Jan Zandt, Eirik Madsen, Áurea Castilho, Svein Harald Mørkve, Margaret Lin Veruki
In chemical synapses, neurotransmitter molecules released from presynaptic vesicles activate populations of postsynaptic receptors that vary in functional properties depending on their subunit composition. Differential expression and localization of specific receptor subunits are thought to play fundamental roles in signal processing, but our understanding of how that expression is adapted to the signal processing in individual synapses and microcircuits is limited. At ribbon synapses, glutamate release is independent of action potentials and characterized by a high and rapidly changing rate of release...
September 21, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936493/modeling-dialogue-acts-with-content-word-filtering-and-speaker-preferences
#7
Yohan Jo, Michael Miller Yoder, Hyeju Jang, Carolyn P Rosé
We present an unsupervised model of dialogue act sequences in conversation. By modeling topical themes as transitioning more slowly than dialogue acts in conversation, our model de-emphasizes content-related words in order to focus on conversational function words that signal dialogue acts. We also incorporate speaker tendencies to use some acts more than others as an additional predictor of dialogue act prevalence beyond temporal dependencies. According to the evaluation presented on two dissimilar corpora, the CNET forum and NPS Chat corpus, the effectiveness of each modeling assumption is found to vary depending on characteristics of the data...
September 2017: Proceedings of the Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing. Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936470/porcine-esophageal-submucosal-gland-culture-model-shows-capacity-for-proliferation-and-differentiation
#8
Richard J von Furstenberg, Joy Li, Christina Stolarchuk, Rachel Feder, Alexa Campbell, Leandi Kruger, Liara M Gonzalez, Anthony T Blikslager, Diana M Cardona, Shannon J McCall, Susan J Henning, Katherine S Garman
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Although cells comprising esophageal submucosal glands (ESMGs) represent a potential progenitor cell niche, new models are needed to understand their capacity to proliferate and differentiate. By histologic appearance, ESMGs have been associated with both overlying normal squamous epithelium and columnar epithelium. Our aim was to assess ESMG proliferation and differentiation in a 3-dimensional culture model. METHODS: We evaluated proliferation in human ESMGs from normal and diseased tissue by proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry...
November 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936134/cost-effectiveness-of-an-intervention-focused-on-reducing-bathing-disability
#9
Magnus Zingmark, Ingeborg Nilsson, Fredrik Norström, Klas Göran Sahlén, Lars Lindholm
The onset of bathing disability among older people is critical for a decline in functioning and has implications for both the individuals' quality of life and societal costs. The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term cost effectiveness of an intervention targeting bathing disability among older people. For hypothetical cohorts of community-dwelling older people with bathing disability, transitions between states of dependency and death were modelled over 8 years including societal costs. A five-state Markov model based on states of dependency was used to evaluate Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and costs from a societal perspective...
September 2017: European Journal of Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935998/theory-of-amyloid-fibril-nucleation-from-folded-proteins
#10
Lingyun Zhang, Jeremy D Schmit
We present a theoretical model for the nucleation of amyloid fibrils. In our model we use helix-coil theory to describe the equilibrium between a soluble native state and an aggregation-prone unfolded state. We then extend the theory to include oligomers with β-sheet cores and calculate the free energy of these states using estimates for the energies of H-bonds, steric zipper interactions, and the conformational entropy cost of forming secondary structure. We find that states with fewer than ~10 β-strands are unstable relative to the dissociated state and three β-strands is the highest free energy state...
July 2017: Israel Journal of Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935857/sensorimotor-computation-underlying-phototaxis-in-zebrafish
#11
Sébastien Wolf, Alexis M Dubreuil, Tommaso Bertoni, Urs Lucas Böhm, Volker Bormuth, Raphaël Candelier, Sophia Karpenko, David G C Hildebrand, Isaac H Bianco, Rémi Monasson, Georges Debrégeas
Animals continuously gather sensory cues to move towards favourable environments. Efficient goal-directed navigation requires sensory perception and motor commands to be intertwined in a feedback loop, yet the neural substrate underlying this sensorimotor task in the vertebrate brain remains elusive. Here, we combine virtual-reality behavioural assays, volumetric calcium imaging, optogenetic stimulation and circuit modelling to reveal the neural mechanisms through which a zebrafish performs phototaxis, i.e...
September 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935802/angular-momentum-induced-delays-in-solid-state-photoemission-enhanced-by-intra-atomic-interactions
#12
Fabian Siek, Sergej Neb, Peter Bartz, Matthias Hensen, Christian Strüber, Sebastian Fiechter, Miquel Torrent-Sucarrat, Vyacheslav M Silkin, Eugene E Krasovskii, Nikolay M Kabachnik, Stephan Fritzsche, Ricardo Díez Muiño, Pedro M Echenique, Andrey K Kazansky, Norbert Müller, Walter Pfeiffer, Ulrich Heinzmann
Attosecond time-resolved photoemission spectroscopy reveals that photoemission from solids is not yet fully understood. The relative emission delays between four photoemission channels measured for the van der Waals crystal tungsten diselenide (WSe2) can only be explained by accounting for both propagation and intra-atomic delays. The intra-atomic delay depends on the angular momentum of the initial localized state and is determined by intra-atomic interactions. For the studied case of WSe2, the photoemission events are time ordered with rising initial-state angular momentum...
September 22, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935624/the-brain-thermal-response-as-a-potential-neuroimaging-biomarker-of-cerebrovascular-impairment
#13
C C Fleischer, J Wu, D Qiu, S-E Park, F Nahab, S Dehkharghani
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Brain temperature is critical for homeostasis, relating intimately to cerebral perfusion and metabolism. Cerebral thermometry is historically challenged by the cost and invasiveness of clinical and laboratory methodologies. We propose the use of noninvasive MR thermometry in patients with cerebrovascular disease, hypothesizing the presence of a measurable brain thermal response reflecting the tissue hemodynamic state. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Contemporaneous imaging and MR thermometry were performed in 10 patients (32-68 years of age) undergoing acetazolamide challenge for chronic, anterior circulation steno-occlusive disease...
September 21, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935145/determinants-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome-pro-inflammatory-state-and-dysfunction-of-high-density-lipoprotein
#14
Yusuf Karadeniz, Altan Onat, Tuğba Akbaş, Barış Şimşek, Hüsniye Yüksel, Günay Can
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to determine variables preceding and predicting incident obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in the population at large. METHODS: Anthropometric, lipid, and non-lipid variables in participants with newly developing OSAS (n = 131) were compared with those of a cohort sample (n = 2615) of the Turkish Adult Risk Factor study. Available values preceding (by a median of 32 mo) the development of OSAS were used in multivariable Cox regression models...
November 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934926/irs-1-py612-and-akt-1-pkb-pt308-phosphorylation-and-antiinflammatory-effect-of-diindolylmethane-in-adipocytes-cocultured-with-macrophages
#15
Lopez-Vazquez Alfonso, Garcia B J Javier, Gonzalez G A Sofía, Urzua L P Ernesto, Del T A Susana, Bueno T M Ruth, Sanchez E Sergio, Munoz V J Francisco, Jave S L Felipe, Armendariz B J Socorro, Bastidas R B Estela
BACKGROUND: 3,3'-Diindolylmethane (DIM) is a condensation product of indole-3-carbinol, a glucosinolate naturally occurring in Brassica genus vegetables. The antiinflammatory properties of DIM through the inhibition of NF-κB, as well as its ameliorating effects on glucose tolerance and hyperglicemic states, have been described. A subclinical proinflammatory profile resultant from the interaction of adipocytes and macrophages have been reported in obesity, affecting the insulin signaling pathway, contributing to insulin resistance...
September 21, 2017: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933829/synthesis-crystal-structure-and-magnetic-properties-of-the-highly-frustrated-orthorhombic-li4mgreo6
#16
JoAnna Milam-Guerrero, Charles J Bloed, Phuong-Hieu T Nguyen, Gia T Tran, William P Martin, Demetrios V Papakostas, Jefferson Toro, Murray N Wilson, Jeremy P Carlo, Graeme M Luke, Brent C Melot, Jiyeong Gu, Shahab Derakhshan
In an effort to understand the structure-property relationship in magnetically frustrated systems, an orthorhombic analog of the S = 1/2 Re-based oxide Li4MgReO6 has been successfully synthesized and its physical properties were investigated. Li4MgReO6 had been previously synthesized in a monoclinic system in an ordered NaCl structure type. That system was shown to exhibit spin glass behavior below ∼12 K. The crystal structure of the latter phase was determined using powder X-ray diffraction data. A structural model was refined in the orthorhombic Fddd space group that resulted in cell dimensions of a = 5...
September 21, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932856/on-the-apparent-yield-stress-in-non-brownian-magnetorheological-fluids
#17
Daniel Vågberg, Brian P Tighe
We use simulations to probe the flow properties of dense two-dimensional magnetorheological fluids. Prior results from both experiments and simulations report that the shear stress σ scales with strain rate [small gamma, Greek, dot above] as σ ∼ [small gamma, Greek, dot above](1-Δ), with values of the exponent ranging between 2/3 < Δ ≤ 1. However it remains unclear what properties of the system select the value of Δ, and in particular under what conditions the system displays a yield stress (Δ = 1)...
September 21, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932829/exploring-coherent-electron-excitation-and-migration-dynamics-by-electron-diffraction-with-ultrashort-x-ray-pulses
#18
Kai-Jun Yuan, André D Bandrauk
Exploring ultrafast charge migration is of great importance in biological and chemical reactions. We present a scheme to monitor attosecond charge migration in molecules by electron diffraction with spatial and temporal resolutions from ab initio numerical simulations. An ultraviolet pulse creates a coherent superposition of electronic states, after which a time-delayed attosecond X-ray pulse is used to ionize the molecule. It is found that diffraction patterns in the X-ray photoelectron spectra show an asymmetric structure, which is dependent on the time delay between the pump-probe pulses, encoding the information of molecular orbital symmetry and chemical bonding...
September 21, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932669/interlayer-state-coupling-dependent-ultrafast-charge-transfer-in-mos2-ws2-bilayers
#19
Jin Zhang, Hao Hong, Chao Lian, Wei Ma, Xiaozhi Xu, Xu Zhou, Huixia Fu, Kaihui Liu, Sheng Meng
Light-induced interlayer ultrafast charge transfer in 2D heterostructures provides a new platform for optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications. The charge separation process is generally hypothesized to be dependent on the interlayer stackings and interactions, however, the quantitative characteristic and detailed mechanism remain elusive. Here, a systematical study on the interlayer charge transfer in model MoS2/WS2 bilayer system with variable stacking configurations by time-dependent density functional theory methods is demonstrated...
September 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931836/matching-dmft-calculations-with-photoemission-spectra-of-heavy-fermion-insulators-universal-properties-of-the-near-gap-spectra-of-smb6
#20
Chul-Hee Min, F Goth, P Lutz, H Bentmann, B Y Kang, B K Cho, J Werner, K-S Chen, F Assaad, F Reinert
Paramagnetic heavy fermion insulators consist of fully occupied quasiparticle bands inherent to Fermi liquid theory. The gap emergence below a characteristic temperature is the ultimate sign of coherence for a many-body system, which in addition can induce a non-trivial band topology. Here, we demonstrate a simple and efficient method to compare a model study and an experimental result for heavy fermion insulators. The temperature dependence of the gap formation in both local moment and mixed valence regimes is captured within the dynamical mean field (DMFT) approximation to the periodic Anderson model (PAM)...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
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