Read by QxMD icon Read

State dependent model

Yuval B Simons, Kevin Bullaughey, Richard R Hudson, Guy Sella
Human genome-wide association studies (GWASs) are revealing the genetic architecture of anthropomorphic and biomedical traits, i.e., the frequencies and effect sizes of variants that contribute to heritable variation in a trait. To interpret these findings, we need to understand how genetic architecture is shaped by basic population genetics processes-notably, by mutation, natural selection, and genetic drift. Because many quantitative traits are subject to stabilizing selection and because genetic variation that affects one trait often affects many others, we model the genetic architecture of a focal trait that arises under stabilizing selection in a multidimensional trait space...
March 16, 2018: PLoS Biology
Audrey M Bernstein, Robert Ritch, J Mario Wolosin
Exfoliation syndrome (XFS) is an age-related disease involving the deposition of aggregated fibrillar material (XFM) at extracellular matrices in tissues that synthesize elastic fibers. Its main morbidity is in the eye, where XFM accumulations form on the surface of the ciliary body, iris and lens. Exfoliation glaucoma (XFG) occurs in a high proportion of persons with XFS and can be a rapidly progressing disease. Worldwide, XFG accounts for about 25% of open-angle glaucoma cases. XFS and XFG show a sharp age-dependence, similarly to the many age-related diseases classified as aggregopathies...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
Christian U Krägeloh, Oleg N Medvedev, Erin M Hill, Craig S Webster, Roger J Booth, Marcus A Henning
Measuring competitiveness is necessary to fully understand variables affecting student learning. The 14-item Revised Competitiveness Index has become a widely used measure to assess trait competitiveness. The current study reports on a Rasch analysis to investigate the psychometric properties of the Revised Competitiveness Index and to improve its precision for international comparisons. Students were recruited from medical studies at a university in New Zealand, undergraduate health sciences courses at another New Zealand university, and a psychology undergraduate class at a university in the United States...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
Marinho A Lopes, Mark P Richardson, Eugenio Abela, Christian Rummel, Kaspar Schindler, Marc Goodfellow, John R Terry
Recent studies have shown that mathematical models can be used to analyze brain networks by quantifying how likely they are to generate seizures. In particular, we have introduced the quantity termed brain network ictogenicity (BNI), which was demonstrated to have the capability of differentiating between functional connectivity (FC) of healthy individuals and those with epilepsy. Furthermore, BNI has also been used to quantify and predict the outcome of epilepsy surgery based on FC extracted from pre-operative ictal intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG)...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Xue Xiao, Juan Zou, Yin Fang, Yibo Meng, Chao Xiao, Jiaxin Fu, Shiyu Liu, Peng Bai, Yuan Yao
BACKGROUND: The anti-tumor activities of Natural compounds and their derivatives are of great interest to pharmaceutical industries. Fisetin is one of prospective natural compounds in this regard but unfortunately with poor hydrophilicity. METHODS: The effects of unmodified and modified fisetin in cultured ovarian cancer cells were compared by transmission electronmicroscopy to determine apoptotic bodies, MTT assay to quantitate cell numbers, and fluorescence activated cell sorting analyse of various markers to determine the apoptotic state...
March 15, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Wendy L St Peter, Haifeng Guo, Shaum Kabadi, David T Gilbertson, Yi Peng, Trudy Pendergraft, Suying Li
BACKGROUND: Anemia is common in non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (NDD-CKD) patients, but detailed information on prevalence and treatment is lacking. METHODS: We evaluated anemia prevalence and treatment using two datasets: the Medicare 20% random sample (ages 66-85 years), and the Truven Health MarketScan database (ages 18-63 years). We selected stage 3-5 NDD-CKD patients with and without anemia from both databases during 2011-2013. We evaluated anemia prevalence and treatment (erythropoietin stimulating agents [ESAs], intravenous [IV] iron, red blood cell [RBC] transfusions) following anemia diagnosis during a 1-year baseline period, and healthcare utilization during a 1-year follow-up period...
March 15, 2018: BMC Nephrology
Joseph Páez Chávez, Dirk Jungmann, Stefan Siegmund
The paper presents a comprehensive numerical study of mathematical models used to describe complex biological systems in the framework of integrated pest management. Our study considers two specific ecosystems that describe the application of control mechanisms based on pesticides and natural enemies, implemented in an impulsive and periodic manner, due to which the considered models belong to the class of impulsive differential equations. The present work proposes a numerical approach to study such type of models in detail, via the application of path-following (continuation) techniques for nonsmooth dynamical systems, via the novel continuation platform COCO (Dankowicz and Schilder)...
December 2018: Journal of Biological Dynamics
R J Charlton, R M Fogarty, S Bogatko, T J Zuehlsdorff, N D M Hine, M Heeney, A P Horsfield, P D Haynes
An ab initio study of the effects of implicit and explicit hosts on the excited state properties of pentacene and its nitrogen-based derivatives has been performed using ground state density functional theory (DFT), time-dependent DFT, and ΔSCF. We observe a significant solvatochromic redshift in the excitation energy of the lowest singlet state (S1 ) of pentacene from inclusion in a p-terphenyl host compared to vacuum; for an explicit host consisting of six nearest neighbour p-terphenyls, we obtain a redshift of 65 meV while a conductor-like polarisable continuum model (CPCM) yields a 78 meV redshift...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
David Picconi, Sergy Yu Grebenshchikov
This paper opens a series in which the photochemistry of the two lowest πσ* states of pyrrole and their interaction with each other and with the ground electronic state X̃ are studied using ab initio quantum mechanics. New 24-dimensional potential energy surfaces for the photodissociation of the N-H bond and the formation of the pyrrolyl radical are calculated using the multiconfigurational perturbation theory (CASPT2) for the electronic states X̃(ππ), 11 A2 (πσ*), and 11 B1 (πσ*) and locally diabatized...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Robert I Cukier
Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) sample a diverse conformational space. They are important to signaling and regulatory pathways in cells. An entropy penalty must be payed when an IDP becomes ordered upon interaction with another protein or a ligand. Thus, the degree of conformational disorder of an IDP is of interest. We create a dichotomic Markov model that can explore entropic features of an IDP. The Markov condition introduces local (neighbor residues in a protein sequence) rotamer dependences that arise from van der Waals and other chemical constraints...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Thomas Waltemate, Dominik Gall, Daniel Roth, Mario Botsch, Marc Erich Latoschik
This article reports the impact of the degree of personalization and individualization of users' avatars as well as the impact of the degree of immersion on typical psychophysical factors in embodied Virtual Environments. We investigated if and how virtual body ownership (including agency), presence, and emotional response are influenced depending on the specific look of users' avatars, which varied between (1) a generic hand-modeled version, (2) a generic scanned version, and (3) an individualized scanned version...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
P Wiegmann
We develop the quantum hydrodynamics of inner waves in the bulk of fractional quantum Hall states. We show that the inelastic light scattering by inner waves is a sole effect of the gravitational anomaly. We obtain the formula for the oscillator strength or mean energy of optical absorption expressed solely in terms of an independently measurable static structure factor. The formula does not explicitly depend on a model interaction potential.
February 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
J Kangara, Chingyun Cheng, S Pegahan, I Arakelyan, J E Thomas
We study the pairing of fermions in a one-dimensional lattice of tunable double-well potentials using radio-frequency spectroscopy. The spectra reveal the coexistence of two types of atom pairs with different symmetries. Our measurements are in excellent quantitative agreement with a theoretical model, obtained by extending the Green's function method of Orso et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 060402 (2005)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.95.060402] to a bichromatic 1D lattice with nonzero harmonic radial confinement...
February 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Mark G Alford, Kamal Pangeni, Andreas Windisch
It is generally believed that when Cooper pairing occurs between two different species of fermions, their Fermi surfaces become locked together so that the resultant state remains "neutral," with equal number densities of the two species, even when subjected to a chemical potential that couples to the difference in number densities. This belief is based on mean-field calculations in models with a zero-range interaction, where the anomalous self-energy is independent of energy and momentum. Following up on an early report of a deviation from neutrality in a Dyson-Schwinger calculation of color-flavor-locked quark matter, we investigate the neutrality of a two-species condensate using a Yukawa model which has a finite-range interaction...
February 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Simon K Schnyder, Jürgen Horbach
Molecular dynamics simulations of interacting soft disks confined in a heterogeneous quenched matrix of soft obstacles show dynamics which is fundamentally different from that of hard disks. The interactions between the disks can enhance transport when their density is increased, as disks cooperatively help each other over the finite energy barriers in the matrix. The system exhibits a transition from a diffusive to a localized state, but the transition is strongly rounded. Effective exponents in the mean-squared displacement can be observed over three decades in time but depend on the density of the disks and do not correspond to asymptotic behavior in the vicinity of a critical point, thus, showing that it is incorrect to relate them to the critical exponents in the Lorentz model scenario...
February 16, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Krzysztof B Beć, Yusuke Morisawa, Kenta Kobashi, Justyna Grabska, Ichiro Tanabe, Erika Tanimura, Harumi Sato, Marek J Wójcik, Yukihiro Ozaki
We investigated the surface (<50 nm) of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) and its nanocomposite with graphene by attenuated total reflection far- and deep-ultraviolet (ATR-FUV-DUV; 145-300 nm; 8.55-4.13 eV) spectroscopy and quantum mechanical calculations. The major absorption of polymers occurs in FUV and is related to Rydberg transitions. ATR-FUV-DUV spectroscopy allows for direct measurements of these transitions in the solid phase. Using ATR-FUV-DUV spectroscopy, periodic density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT), we explained the origins of the FUV-DUV absorption of PHB and provided insights into structural changes of PHB which occur upon formation of a graphene nanocomposite and upon heating of the pure polymer...
March 15, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Esther Heid, Patricia A Hunt, Christian Schröder
Ground and excited state dipoles and polarizabilities of the chromophores N-methyl-6-oxyquinolinium betaine (MQ) and coumarin 153 (C153) in solution have been evaluated using time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). A method for determining the atomic polarizabilities has been developed; the molecular dipole has been decomposed into atomic charge transfer and polarizability terms, and variation in the presence of an electric field has been used to evaluate atomic polarizabilities. On excitation, MQ undergoes very site-specific changes in polarizability while C153 shows significantly less variation...
March 15, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Pradipta Kr Das
An analytical model for the electrophoretic speed of DNA translocating through nanopore functionalized with polyelectrolyte brush is developed for the first time. The electrophoretic speed depends on DNA surface potential, applied electric field, viscosity and permittivity of solution along with velocity and electrostatic potential at liquid/ polyelectrolyte layer interface where the interface seemed to behave similar to that of a solid state nanopore wall. Under the limit of Debye-Hückel linearization, the electrostatic potential at liquid/ polyelectrolyte layer interface and at DNA surface have been calculated...
March 15, 2018: Electrophoresis
Adriano Luís Soares De Souza, Stefan Rudin, Rui Chang, Keith Mitchell, Timothy Crandall, Shuning Huang, Ji-Kyung Choi, Shinji L Okitsu, Danielle L Graham, Blake Tomkinson, Tammy Dellovade
INTRODUCTION: Antigen-specific immunotherapy could provide a targeted approach for the treatment of multiple sclerosis that removes the need for broad-acting immunomodulatory drugs. ATX-MS-1467 is a mixture of four peptides identified as the main immune-dominant disease-associated T-cell epitopes in myelin basic protein (MBP), an autoimmune target for activated autoreactive T cells in multiple sclerosis. Previous animal studies have shown that ATX-MS-1467 treatment prevented the worsening of signs of disease in experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE) in the humanized (DR2 × Ob1)F1 mouse in a dose-dependent fashion...
March 14, 2018: Neurology and Therapy
Dorothea L Floris, Meng-Chuan Lai, Tanmay Nath, Michael P Milham, Adriana Di Martino
Background: The male predominance in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has motivated research on sex differentiation in ASD. Multiple sources of evidence have suggested a neurophenotypic convergence of ASD-related characteristics and typical sex differences. Two existing, albeit competing, models provide predictions on such neurophenotypic convergence. These two models are testable with neuroimaging. Specifically, the Extreme Male Brain (EMB) model predicts that ASD is associated with enhanced brain maleness in both males and females with ASD (i...
2018: Molecular Autism
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"