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Vascular dementia

K Rygiel
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease, in which an accumulation of toxic amyloid beta in the brain precedes the emergence of clinical symptoms. AD spectrum consists of presymptomatic, early symptomatic, and symptomatic phase of dementia. At present, no pharmacotherapy exists to modify or reverse a course of AD, and only symptomatic treatments are available. Many elderly patients, diagnosed with multiple medical conditions (such as cardiovascular diseases, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cerebrovascular diseases) are at increased risk of the development of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), AD, and vascular dementia...
October 2016: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Kamille Abdool, Karan Seegobin, Kanterpersad Ramcharan, Adrian Alexander, Leandra Julien-Legen, Stanley Lawrence Giddings, Samuel Aboh, Fidel Rampersad
We report a case of a 46-year-old man presenting with a progressive cognitive decline, ataxic gait, urinary incontinence for 4 months and neuroimaging consistent with normal pressure hydrocephalus. The atypical presentation of a progressively worsening dysphasia and a right hemiparesis dismissed as a vascular event 1 month earlier associated with normal pressure hydrocephalus prompted further investigations confirming neurosyphilis also manifesting as dementia paralytica. Treatment using consensus guidelines led to resumption of activities of daily living...
September 30, 2016: Neurology International
M Florencia Iulita, Hélène Girouard
Hypertension and dementia are two of the most prevalent and damaging diseases associated with aging. Chronic hypertension, particularly during mid-life, is a strong risk factor for late-life cognitive decline and impairment. Hypertension is also the number one risk factor for stroke and a major contributor to the pathogenesis of vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Despite the vast epidemiologic and mechanistic evidence linking hypertension to cognitive impairment, and the positive effects of blood pressure lowering on reducing the risk of post-stroke dementia, uncertainty remains about the benefit of antihypertensive medication on other forms of dementia...
October 19, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Seu Ping Guiraud, Ivan Montoliu, Laeticia Da Silva, Loïc Dayon, Antonio Núñez Galindo, John Corthésy, Martin Kussmann, Francois-Pierre Martin
The methionine cycle is a key pathway contributing to the regulation of human health, with well-established involvement in cardiovascular diseases and cognitive function. Changes in one-carbon cycle metabolites have also been associated with mild cognitive decline, vascular dementia, and Alzheimer's disease. Today, there is no single analytical method to monitor both metabolites and co-factors of the methionine cycle. To address this limitation, we here report for the first time a new method for the simultaneous quantitation of 17 metabolites in the methionine cycle, which are homocysteic acid, taurine, serine, cysteine, glycine, homocysteine, riboflavin, methionine, pyridoxine, cystathionine, pyridoxamine, S-adenosylhomocysteine, S-adenosylmethionine, betaine, choline, dimethylglycine, and 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid...
October 18, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Jeremy J Pruzin, Julie A Schneider, Ana W Capuano, Sue E Leurgans, Lisa L Barnes, Rexford S Ahima, Steven E Arnold, David A Bennett, Zoe Arvanitakis
We examined the relationship of diabetes and hemoglobin A1C (A1C) to 2 common causes of dementia. The study included 1228 subjects who underwent annual clinical evaluations and a brain autopsy at death, as part of a Rush longitudinal cohort study of aging. A total of 433 subjects had A1C data available. Neuropathologic evaluations documented the size and location of infarcts. Modified silver stain-based Alzheimer disease (AD) measures included global and regional scores. We used regression analyses to examine associations of diabetes and A1C with overall and regional neuropathology...
October 17, 2016: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
Akinori Higaki, Masaki Mogi, Jun Iwanami, Li-Juan Min, Hirotomo Nakaoka, Bao-Shuai Shan, Masayoshi Kukida, Toshihiro Yamauchi, Takafumi Okura, Jitsuo Higaki, Masatsugu Horiuchi
OBJECTIVE: Classical renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is mainly known as angiotensin (Ang) converting enzyme (ACE)/Ang II/Ang type 1 (AT1) receptor axis which induces various organ damages including cognitive decline. On the other hand, ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis has been known to exert antagonistic actions against the classical RAS axis in cardiovascular system. However, the roles of ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis in cognitive function remain to be elucidated. Here, we examined possible roles of ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis in cognitive function in vascular dementia model...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Yoshihiro Kokubo
Hypertension is one of the strongest risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Recently, accumulating evidence also indicates that hypertension has been linked with non-cardiovascular diseases including dementia, cancer, oral health diseases and so on. In general, elderly individuals tend to have multiple diseases as getting older. Preventing of hypertension is also benefit for other diseases.In the Hisayama Study, hypertension increased the risk of vascular dementia, but were not associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer disease, and that subjects with hypertension in midlife and normotension and hypertension in late-life increased risks of incident vascular dementia...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Karima Ait-Aissa, Joseph Hockenberry, David Gutterman, Aron Geurts, Andreas Beyer
OBJECTIVE: Flow mediated dilation (FMD) is the most physiological relevant form of endothelial-mediated vasodilation. Our laboratory has previously shown that telomerase, a ribo-nucleoprotein that counteracts telomere shortening, has a protective effect on endothelial function under conditions of oxidative stress in the human microcirculation. In the presence of coronary artery disease, decreased telomerase activity contributes to a shift in the mediator of FMD from atheroprotective nitric oxide (NO) to pro-inflammatory and atherogenic hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Leroy L Cooper, Gary F Mitchell
BACKGROUND: Aortic stiffness is associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events and cognitive decline. This mini-review focuses on relations of aortic stiffness with microvascular dysfunction and discusses the contribution of abnormal pulsatile hemodynamics to cerebrovascular damage and cognitive decline. We also provide a rationale for considering aortic stiffness as a putative and important contributor to memory impairment in older individuals. SUMMARY: Aging is associated with stiffening of the aorta but not the muscular arteries, which reduces wave reflection and increases the transmission of pulsatility into the periphery...
September 2016: Pulse (Basel, Switzerland)
Xiao-Juan Wang, Yin-Ping Gao, Nan-Nan Lu, Wei-Shuo Li, Ji-Fang Xu, Xiao-Ying Ying, Gang Wu, Mei-Hua Liao, Chao Tan, Ling-Xiao Shao, Ying-Mei Lu, Chen Zhang, Kohji Fukunaga, Feng Han, Yong-Zhong Du
Clinical treatment for vascular dementia still remains a challenge mainly due to Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB). Here, a micelle based on polysialic acid (PSA) which is a hydrophilic and endogenous carbohydrate polymer, was designed to deliver calmodulin antagonist for therapy of vascular dementia. PSA was firstly chemically conjugated with octadecylamine (ODA), and the obtained PSA-ODA copolymer could self-assemble into micelle in aqueous solution with a 120.0 μg/mL critical micelle concentration. The calmodulin antagonist loaded PSA-ODA micelle, featuring sustained drug release behaviour over a period of 72 h with 3...
October 17, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Marie-Hélène Pilon, Stéphane Poulin, Marie-Pierre Fortin, Michèle Houde, Louis Verret, Rémi W Bouchard, Robert Laforce
Few studies have explored the rate of cognitive decline and caregiver burden within the context of a specialized memory clinic. When this was done, the focus was largely on functional decline related to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our goal was to compare the longitudinal decline of AD patients to those with Vascular Dementia (VaD) on Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). We further explored the differential impact on caregiver burden. We retrospectively studied 237 charts from patients seen at our Memory Clinic between 2006 and 2012...
March 11, 2016: Neurology (ECronicon)
Christopher Rohde, Esben Agerbo, Philip Rising Nielsen
Increased prevalence of lifestyle risk factors or shared etiology may underlie the association between schizophrenia and the subsequent risk of dementia. We explored the association between having a spouse with schizophrenia and the risk of dementia. We found a positive relationship between having a spouse with schizophrenia and vascular dementia in individuals without a mental disorder themselves but no association between having a spouse with schizophrenia and Alzheimer's dementia. As spouses share environmental risk factors and lifestyle, this might suggest that the excess risk of dementia in probands with schizophrenia could be ascribed to the unhealthy living environment among individuals with schizophrenia...
October 15, 2016: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Kevin T Nead, Greg Gaskin, Cariad Chester, Samuel Swisher-McClure, Nicholas J Leeper, Nigam H Shah
Importance: A growing body of evidence supports a link between androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and cognitive dysfunction, including Alzheimer disease. However, it is currently unknown whether ADT may contribute to the risk of dementia more broadly. Objective: To use an informatics approach to examine the association of ADT as a treatment for prostate cancer with the subsequent development of dementia (eg, senile dementia, vascular dementia, frontotemporal dementia, and Alzheimer dementia)...
October 13, 2016: JAMA Oncology
Frank J Wolters, Francesco U S Mattace-Raso, Peter J Koudstaal, Albert Hofman, M Arfan Ikram
BACKGROUND: Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is a common cause of transient cerebral hypoperfusion in the population. Cerebral hypoperfusion is widely implicated in cognitive impairment, but whether OH contributes to cognitive decline and dementia is uncertain. We aimed to determine the association between OH and the risk of developing dementia in the general population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Between 4 October 1989 and 17 June 1993, we assessed OH in non-demented, stroke-free participants of the population-based Rotterdam Study...
October 2016: PLoS Medicine
Li Chen, Yanjun Zhang, Daojing Li, Nong Zhang, Ruiqiong Liu, Bin Han, Changjuan Wei, Haijie Liu, Xiaolin Xu, Junwei Hao
Vascular dementia (VaD) is a widely prevalent and devastating disease. Despite the tremendous complexity that limits understanding of the pathophysiology of VaD, microglial dysfunction has been attributed, in part, to immune microenviroment disorder and finally leads to cognitive deficits. Considered the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a key player in regulation of glial function, our work focused on whether the mTOR inhibitor everolimus (RAD001) could overcome the destructive microglial function, change the phenotype and ameliorate cognitive decline induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
N A Trusova, O S Levin, A V Arablinsky
AIM: To study clinical/neuropsychological and neuroimaging characteristics of Alzheimer's disease in the combination with cerebrovascular disease (CVD). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety patients with dementia, including 35 patients with AD, 35 patients with mixed dementia (MD) and 20 patients with vascular dementia, were examined. The character of dementia was established according to NINCDS-ADRDA and NINDS-AIREN criteria. The neuropsychological battery included Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE-R), Montreal Cognitive Assessment scale (MoCA), fluency test and the visual memory test (SCT)...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
T A Polyakova, O S Levin
AIM: To study a role of cerebral microbleeds (CMB) in the diagnosis of main cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative diseases with cognitive impairment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: CMB were studied in 120 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and vascular dementia using 1.5T MRI in T2 * gradient echo. An impact of CMB on cognitive functions and the relationship with signs of vascular and neurodegenerative lesions of the brain were studied as well...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Daniel Gruneberg, Felipe A Montellano, Konstanze Plaschke, Lexiao Li, Hugo H Marti, Reiner Kunze
Episodes of cerebral hypoxia/ischemia increase the risk of dementia, which is associated with impaired learning and memory. Previous studies in rodent models of dementia indicated a favorable effect of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) targets VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) and erythropoietin (Epo). In the present study we thus investigated whether activation of the entire adaptive HIF pathway in neurons by cell-specific deletion of the HIF suppressor prolyl-4-hydroxylase 2 (PHD2) improves cognitive abilities in young (3months) and old (18-28months) mice suffering from chronic brain hypoperfusion...
October 5, 2016: Experimental Neurology
Rosa López Mongil, José Antonio López Trigo
Because of the substantial increase in population ageing, age-related processes, such as dementia and Alzheimer disease (AD), are becoming highly prevalent. The course of this disease, including preprodromic phases, lasts at least 20 years. The presence of comorbidities, especially those of vascular origin, can trigger and aggravate disease progression. On the other hand, cognitive reserve, the absence or control of comorbid factors and healthy lifestyles can protect or modify -in the sense of slow down- disease progression...
June 2016: Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología
P S Jairani, P M Aswathy, Srinivas Gopala, Joe Verghese, P S Mathuranath
BACKGROUND: This study delineates the role of the interaction of apolipoprotein E (APOE) and MAPT alleles in contributing to disease risks of dementia in a southern Indian population. METHODS: A sample of 419 patients comprising Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 156), mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n = 87), frontotemporal dementia (FTD; n = 127), vascular dementia (VD; n = 37), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB; n = 12) was analysed in comparison with a control group (n = 138)...
October 6, 2016: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
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