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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815009/strategies-for-dementia-prevention-latest-evidence-and-implications
#1
REVIEW
Gopalkumar Rakesh, Steven T Szabo, George S Alexopoulos, Anthony S Zannas
Dementia is a common and debilitating syndrome with enormous impact on individuals and societies. Preventing disease onset or progression would translate to public health and societal benefits. In this review, we discuss the latest evidence on interventions that may show promise for the prevention of cognitive decline. We appraise existing evidence primarily drawn from randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses, but also highlight observational studies in humans and relevant work in model organisms...
August 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811267/app-a%C3%AE-structural-diversity-and-alzheimer-s-disease-pathogenesis
#2
REVIEW
Alex E Roher, Tyler A Kokjohn, Steven G Clarke, Michael R Sierks, Chera L Maarouf, Geidy E Serrano, Marwan S Sabbagh, Thomas G Beach
The amyloid cascade hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) proposes amyloid- β (Aβ) is a chief pathological element of dementia. AD therapies have targeted monomeric and oligomeric Aβ 1-40 and 1-42 peptides. However, alternative APP proteolytic processing produces a complex roster of Aβ species. In addition, Aβ peptides are subject to extensive posttranslational modification (PTM). We propose that amplified production of some APP/Aβ species, perhaps exacerbated by differential gene expression and reduced peptide degradation, creates a diverse spectrum of modified species which disrupt brain homeostasis and accelerate AD neurodegeneration...
August 12, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810593/carotid-atherosclerosis-promotes-the-progression-of-alzheimer-s-disease-a-three-year-prospective-study
#3
Jing Xiang
Although cerebrovascular diseases have been considered as risk factors for cognitive decline and dementia, the associations between atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease (AD) have not been fully examined and remain controversial. The aim of this three-year prospective study was to investigate whether arotid artery atherosclerosis accelerates cognitive impairment in AD patients. The association of carotid intimal medial thickness (IMT) with prospective trajectories of cognitive function was assessed among 521 patients with light to moderate AD, and 437 AD patients were followed up annually for 3 years...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810250/cerebral-small-vessel-disease-is-associated-with-dysregulation-in-the-ubiquitin-proteasome-system-and-other-major-cellular-pathways-in-specific-brain-regions
#4
Marie-Françoise Ritz, Caspar Grond-Ginsbach, Felix Fluri, Manja Kloss, Markus Tolnay, Nils Peters, Stefan Engelter, Philippe Lyrer
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is characterized by periventricular white matter (WM) changes and can lead to vascular dementia, the second most common form of age-dependent dementia. The pathogenesis of the disease remains poorly understood, and studies of its molecular basis are limited. By profiling gene expression of dissected postmortem brain tissue in SVD patients and comparisons with tissue of nonneurological controls, we aimed to identify genes and processes that are involved in the pathogenesis of SVD to gain new pathogenetic insights...
August 16, 2017: Neuro-degenerative Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807498/vascular-pathology-and-trajectories-of-late-life-major-depressive-disorder-in-secondary-psychiatric-care
#5
Katherine L Musliner, Peter P Zandi, Xiaoqin Liu, Thomas M Laursen, Trine Munk-Olsen, Preben B Mortensen, William W Eaton
OBJECTIVE: To examine 5-year trajectories of psychiatrist-treated late-life major depressive disorder (MDD), and evaluate whether previous vascular pathology is associated with more severe trajectories of late-life MDD. METHODS: Data were obtained from nationally representative civil, psychiatric, hospital, and prescription registers in Denmark. The sample included 11,092 older adults (≥60 years) who received their first diagnosis of MDD in a psychiatric facility in Denmark between 2000 and 2007...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801790/cardiovascular-disease-the-nitric-oxide-pathway-and-risk-of-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia
#6
REVIEW
Blossom C M Stephan, Stephanie L Harrison, Hannah A D Keage, Abrar Babateen, Louise Robinson, Mario Siervo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we summarise the evidence on the association between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cognitive impairment and explore the role of the nitric oxide (NO) pathway as a causal mechanism. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence from epidemiological studies suggests that the presence of CVD and its risk factors in midlife is associated with an increased risk of later life cognitive impairment and dementia. It is unclear what is driving this association but risk may be conveyed via an increase in neurodegeneration (e...
August 11, 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798681/dl-3-n-butylphthalide-treatment-enhances-hemodynamics-and-ameliorates-memory-deficits-in-rats-with-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion
#7
Zhilin Xiong, Weibiao Lu, Lihui Zhu, Ling Zeng, Changzheng Shi, Zhen Jing, Yonghui Xiang, Wenxian Li, Chi Kwan Tsang, Yiwen Ruan, Li'an Huang
Our previous study has revealed that chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) activates a compensatory vascular mechanism attempting to maintain an optimal cerebral blood flow (CBF). However, this compensation fails to prevent neuronal death and cognitive impairment because neurons die prior to the restoration of normal CBF. Therefore, pharmacological invention may be critical to enhance the CBF for reducing neurodegeneration and memory deficit. Dl-3-n-butylphthalide (NBP) is a compound isolated from the seeds of Chinese celery and has been proven to be able to prevent neuronal loss, reduce inflammation and ameliorate memory deficits in acute ischemic animal models and stroke patients...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795095/quantitative-exploration-of-factors-influencing-psychotic-disorder-ailments-in-nigeria
#8
Adebowale O Adejumo, Nehemiah A Ikoba, Esivue A Suleiman, Hilary I Okagbue, Pelumi E Oguntunde, Oluwole A Odetunmibi, Obalowu Job
In this data article, records on demographic data, family problem issues, as well as results of medical tests from five major classes of psychotic disorder namely: bipolar; vascular dementia, minimal brain dysfunction; insomnia; and schizophrenia, were collected on 500 psychotic patients carefully selected from the pool of medical records of Yaba Psychiatric Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria, for the period of 5 years, between January 2010 and December 2014, were examined. X-squared Statistic was used to examine each of psychotic disorders to identify demographic (age, gender, religion, marital status, and occupation) and family issues (loss of parent, history of such ailment in the family (family status), divorce, head injury, and heredity of such ailment (genetic) factors that influence them...
October 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792504/common-gene-network-signature-of-different-neurological-disorders-and-their-potential-implications-to-neuroaids
#9
Vidya Sagar, S Pilakka-Kanthikeel, Paola C Martinez, V S R Atluri, M Nair
The neurological complications of AIDS (neuroAIDS) during the infection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are symptomized by non-specific, multifaceted neurological conditions and therefore, defining a specific diagnosis/treatment mechanism(s) for this neuro-complexity at the molecular level remains elusive. Using an in silico based integrated gene network analysis we discovered that HIV infection shares convergent gene networks with each of twelve neurological disorders selected in this study. Importantly, a common gene network was identified among HIV infection, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and age macular degeneration...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783817/associations-between-midlife-vascular-risk-factors-and-25-year-incident-dementia-in-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-aric-cohort
#10
Rebecca F Gottesman, Marilyn S Albert, Alvaro Alonso, Laura H Coker, Josef Coresh, Sonia M Davis, Jennifer A Deal, Guy M McKhann, Thomas H Mosley, A Richey Sharrett, Andrea L C Schneider, B Gwen Windham, Lisa M Wruck, David S Knopman
Importance: Vascular risk factors have been associated with cognitive decline. Midlife exposure to these factors may be most important in conferring late-life risk of cognitive impairment. Objectives: To examine Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) participants in midlife and to explore associations between midlife vascular risk factors and 25-year dementia incidence. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort investigation of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study was conducted from 1987-1989 through 2011-2013...
August 7, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782592/resveratrol-loaded-solid-lipid-nanoparticles-attenuate-mitochondrial-oxidative-stress-in-vascular-dementia-by-activating-nrf2-ho1-pathway
#11
Aarti Yadav, Aditya Sunkaria, Nitin Singhal, Rajat Sandhir
Vascular dementia (VaD) is the leading cause of cognitive decline resulting from vascular lesions. Recent studies have shown that mitochondrial dysfunctions and oxidative stress are involved in cognitive decline. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the beneficial effects of resveratrol-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (R-SLNs) in permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) induced model of VaD. R-SLNs prepared were 286 nm in size and had 91.25% drug encapsulation efficiency with sustained release...
August 4, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782464/nimodipine-activates-neuroprotective-signaling-events-and-inactivates-autophages-in-the-vcid-rat-hippocampus
#12
Ming Hu, Zhijuan Liu, Peiyuan Lv, Hebo Wang, Yifei Zhu, Qianqian Qi, Jing Xu, Lei Gao
BACKGROUND: Autophagy and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt kinase pathways are implicated in cognitive decline associated with cerebrovascular lesions. This decline is reflected in the concept of vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID). However, the underlying molecular mechanism and specific details regarding these types of cognitive deficits induced by chronic brain hypoperfusion have not been elucidated. METHODS: We designed a method to evaluate these mechanisms...
August 7, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782182/heterozygous-mutations-of-htra1-gene-in-patients-with-familial-cerebral-small-vessel-disease
#13
Ilaria Di Donato, Silvia Bianchi, Gian Nicola Gallus, Alfonso Cerase, Ilaria Taglia, Francesca Pescini, Serena Nannucci, Carla Battisti, Domenico Inzitari, Leonardo Pantoni, Andrea Zini, Antonio Federico, Maria Teresa Dotti
AIMS: Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is the leading cause of vascular dementia. Although the most of cases are sporadic, familial monogenic causes have been identified in a growing minority of patients. CADASIL, due to mutations of NOTCH3 gene, is the most common genetic SVD, and CARASIL, linked to HTRA1 gene mutations, is a rare but well known autosomal recessive SVD. Recently, also heterozygous HTRA1 mutations have been described in patients with familial SVD. To detect a genetic cause of familial SVD, we performed mutational analysis of HTRA1 gene in a large cohort of Italian NOTCH3-negative patients...
August 6, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780555/observational-study-of-vascular-dementia-in-the-spanish-elderly-population-according-to-type-2-diabetes-status-trends-in-incidence-characteristics-and-outcomes-2004-2013
#14
Nuria Muñoz-Rivas, Manuel Méndez-Bailón, José M de Miguel-Yanes, Valentín Hernández-Barrera, Javier de Miguel-Díez, Rodrigo Jimenez-Garcia, Ana López-de-Andrés
OBJECTIVES: To examine trends overtime in the incidence and in-hospital outcomes of vascular dementia (VaD) hospitalisations in patients aged 70 years or over suffering and not suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) between 2004 and 2013 in Spain. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Spain. PARTICIPANTS: National hospital discharge data were used; patients aged ≥70, discharged from a hospital with VaD as a primary diagnosis, were selected...
August 4, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777754/methionine-sulfoxide-reductase-b3-msrb3-protein-associates-with-synaptic-vesicles-and-its-expression-changes-in-the-hippocampi-of-alzheimer-s-disease-patients
#15
Stephanie L Adams, Laurent Benayoun, Kathy Tilton, Olivia R Chavez, Jayandra J Himali, Jan Krzysztof Blusztajn, Sudha Seshadri, Ivana Delalle
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified susceptibility loci associated with decreased hippocampal volume, and found hippocampal subfield-specific effects at MSRB3 (methionine sulfoxide reductase-B3). The MSRB3 locus was also linked to increased risk for late onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we uncovered novel sites of MsrB3 expression in CA pyramidal layer and arteriolar walls by using automated immunohistochemistry on hippocampal sections from 23 individuals accompanied by neuropathology reports and clinical dementia rating scores...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771679/longitudinal-cognitive-profiles-in-diabetes-results-from-the-national-alzheimer-s-coordinating-center-s-uniform-data
#16
Mary Sano, Carolyn W Zhu, Hillel Grossman, Corbett Schimming
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a risk factor for the development of cognitive impairment and possibly for accelerated progression to Alzheimer disease (AD) and other dementias, though the trajectory of cognitive decline in general and in specfic cognitive domains by diabetes is unclear. METHODS: Using the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center's Uniform Data Det (NACC-UDS) to identify cohorts of elders with normal cognition (N = 7,663) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI, N = 4,114), we compared overall cognitive composite and domain specific sub-scores and their progression over time between diabetic and non-diabetic subjects...
August 3, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768841/association-of-parathyroid-hormone-with-20-year-cognitive-decline-the-aric-study
#17
Samuel M Kim, Di Zhao, Andrea L C Schneider, Sai Krishna Korada, Pamela L Lutsey, Eliseo Guallar, Alvaro Alonso, B Gwen Windham, Rebecca F Gottesman, Erin D Michos
OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels will be independently associated with 20-year cognitive decline in a large population-based cohort. METHODS: We studied 12,964 middle-aged white and black ARIC participants without a history of prior stroke who, in 1990-1992 (baseline), had serum PTH levels measured and cognitive function testing, with repeat cognitive testing performed at up to 2 follow-up visits. Cognitive testing included the Delayed Word Recall, the Digit Symbol Substitution, and the Word Fluency tests, which were summed as a global Z score...
August 2, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766040/the-diabetic-brain-and-cognition
#18
REVIEW
Peter Riederer, Amos D Korczyn, Sameh S Ali, Ovidiu Bajenaru, Mun Seong Choi, Michael Chopp, Vesna Dermanovic-Dobrota, Edna Grünblatt, Kurt A Jellinger, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Warda Kamal, Jerzy Leszek, Tanja Maria Sheldrick-Michel, Gohar Mushtaq, Bernard Meglic, Rachel Natovich, Zvezdan Pirtosek, Martin Rakusa, Melita Salkovic-Petrisic, Reinhold Schmidt, Angelika Schmitt, G Ramachandra Sridhar, László Vécsei, Zyta Beata Wojszel, Hakan Yaman, Zheng G Zhang, Tali Cukierman-Yaffe
The prevalence of both Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) is increasing with the aging of the population. Studies from the last several years have shown that people with diabetes have an increased risk for dementia and cognitive impairment. Therefore, the authors of this consensus review tried to elaborate on the role of diabetes, especially diabetes type 2 (T2DM) in both AD and VaD. Based on the clinical and experimental work of scientists from 18 countries participating in the International Congress on Vascular Disorders and on literature search using PUBMED, it can be concluded that T2DM is a risk factor for both, AD and VaD, based on a pathology of glucose utilization...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765150/heart-failure-increases-the-risk-of-adverse-renal-outcomes-in-patients-with-normal-kidney-function
#19
Lekha K George, Santhosh K G Koshy, Miklos Z Molnar, Fridtjof Thomas, Jun L Lu, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, Csaba P Kovesdy
BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is associated with poor cardiac outcomes and mortality. It is not known whether HF leads to poor renal outcomes in patients with normal kidney function. We hypothesized that HF is associated with worse long-term renal outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Among 3 570 865 US veterans with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥60 mL min(-1) 1.73 m(-2) during October 1, 2004 to September 30, 2006, we identified 156 743 with an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, diagnosis of HF...
August 2017: Circulation. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760133/surface-ecg-interatrial-block-guided-treatment-for-stroke-prevention-rationale-for-an-attractive-hypothesis
#20
Antoni Bayés de Luna, Manuel Martínez-Sellés, Antoni Bayés-Genís, Roberto Elosua, Adrian Baranchuk
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia and is associated with stroke, cognitive impairment, and cardiovascular death. Some predisposing factors - as aging, diabetes, hypertension - induce and maintain electrophysiological and ultrastructural remodeling that usually includes fibrosis. Interatrial conduction disturbances play a crucial role in the initiation of atrial fibrosis and in its associated complications. The diagnosis of interatrial blocks (IABs) is easy to perform using the surface ECG...
July 31, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
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