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Carry-over effects

F Willeboordse, F G Schellevis, M C Meulendijk, J G Hugtenburg, P J M Elders
Background Implementation of clinical medication reviews in daily practice is scarcely evaluated. The Opti-Med intervention applied a structured approach with external expert teams (pharmacist and physician) to conduct medication reviews. The intervention was effective with respect to resolving drug related problems, but did not improve quality of life. Objective The objective of this process evaluation was to gain more insight into the implementation fidelity of the intervention. Setting Process evaluation alongside a cluster randomized trial in 22 general practices and 518 patients of 65 years and over...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
Jan C van der Meijden, Michelle E Kruijshaar, Laurike Harlaar, Dimitris Rizopoulos, Nadine A M E van der Beek, Ans T van der Ploeg
OBJECTIVES: Pompe disease is a progressive metabolic myopathy for which enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) was approved in 2006. While various publications have examined the effects of ERT in classic-infantile patients and in adults, little has been published on ERT in children with non-classic presentations. STUDY DESIGN: This prospective study was conducted from June 1999 to May 2015. Seventeen patients from various countries participated. Outcome measures comprised muscle function (6-minute walk test, quick motor-function test (QMFT)), muscle strength (hand-held dynamometry; manual muscle testing), and lung function (FVC sitting and supine)...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Xiao Lei Li, Jayaraman Narenkumar, Aruliah Rajasekar, Yen-Peng Ting
The present study describes the biocorrosion of mild steel (MS1010) and pure copper (Cu) in cooling water environments (both field and lab study). Electrochemical and surface analyses of both metals were carried out to confirm the corrosion susceptibility in the presence of bacteria and inhibitor. Surface analysis of the MS and Cu coupons revealed that biofilm was developed with increasing exposure time in the field study. In the lab study, accumulation of extracellular polymeric substance over the metal surface was noticed and led to the severe pitting type of corrosion on both metal surfaces...
March 2018: 3 Biotech
A M Adeoye, O Adebayo, M Nwosu, A Adebiyi, M O Owolabi, B O Tayo, B L Salako, A Ogunniyi, R S Cooper
Background: Studies differ on which anthropometric measure of adiposity shows good correlation with cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we evaluated the effects of common epidemiological measures of adiposity as a correlate of elevated blood pressure in an African population. Methodology: The study was carried out between June 2009 and December 2011 at the medical out-patient department of a tertiary healthcare center in Nigeria. Correlation analysis was used to assess the relationship between blood pressure and body mass index (BMI), waist to height ratio (WHtR), and waist circumference (WC)...
December 2017: Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine
Amy L Cole, Yvonne Cosgrove Sweeney, Amanda G Lasseter, Justin M Gray, Ashley C Beavis, Christine F Chong, Safarali V Hajheidari, Alex Beyene, Dorothy L Patton, Alexander M Cole
Staphylococcus aureus ( SA ) nasal carriage is a common condition effecting both healthy and immunocompromised populations, and provides a reservoir for dissemination of potentially infectious strains by casual contact. Factors regulating the onset and duration of nasal SA colonization are mostly unknown, and a human-relevant animal model is needed. Here, we screened 17 pig-tailed macaques ( Macaca nemestrina ) for SA carriage, and 14 of 17 animals tested positive in the nose at one or both screening sessions (8 weeks apart), while the other three animals were negative in the nose but positive in the pharynx at least once...
March 19, 2018: Infection and Immunity
J A Custodio-Mendoza, R A Lorenzo, I M Valente, P J Almeida, M A Lage, J A Rodrigues, A M Carro
A fast and effective method using a modified QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) approach which includes partitioned liquid-liquid extraction (PLLE) and dispersive solid phase extraction (dSPE) clean-up step for the determination of seven 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) fatty acid diesters in vegetable oils is developed and validated according to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines. Due to the complexity of the matrices, combination of silica based sorbents (Silica Strong Anion Exchange (Si-SAX), Supel™ QuE Z-Sep+ (Z-Sep+) and Primary Secondary Amine (PSA) were tested for lipid removal...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
María Florencia Scaia, María Clara Volonteri, Silvia Cristina Czuchlej, Nora Raquel Ceballos
Rhinella arenarum is a South American toad with wide geographic distribution. Testes of this toad produce high amount of androgens during the non reproductive season and shift steroid synthesis from androgens to 5α-pregnanedione during the breeding. In addition, plasma estradiol (E2 ) in males of this species shows seasonal variations but, since testes of R. arenarum do not express aromatase, the source of plasma E2 remained unknown for several years. However, the Bidder's organ (BO), a structure located at one pole of each testis, is proposed to be the main source of E2 in male's toads since it expresses several steroidogenic enzymes and is able to produce E2 from endogenous substrates throughout the year...
March 16, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Yiying Yue, William M Moe, Jianqiang Chen, Jiao Wang, Jingquan Han
Experiments were carried out to test the capacity for a laboratory-scale biofilter operated at an elevated temperature level (∼50°C) to remove an air stream containing β-caryophyllene, a naturally occurring sesquiterpene of environmental concern emitted from wood-related industrial facilities. A water jacket was used to maintain high temperatures in a laboratory-scale biofilter. Inocula, pollutant loading and nutrient supply rate effects were evaluated over 84 days of biofilter operation. The start-up process took over two months when citrus peels were used as inocula while a relatively short start-up period was achieved after introducing forest compost products...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Sabine Landau, Richard Emsley, Graham Dunn
BACKGROUND: Random allocation avoids confounding bias when estimating the average treatment effect. For continuous outcomes measured at post-treatment as well as prior to randomisation (baseline), analyses based on (A) post-treatment outcome alone, (B) change scores over the treatment phase or (C) conditioning on baseline values (analysis of covariance) provide unbiased estimators of the average treatment effect. The decision to include baseline values of the clinical outcome in the analysis is based on precision arguments, with analysis of covariance known to be most precise...
March 1, 2018: Clinical Trials: Journal of the Society for Clinical Trials
S Chevolleau, M-H Noguer-Meireles, I Jouanin, N Naud, F Pierre, F Gueraud, L Debrauwer
Red or processed meat rich diets have been shown to be associated with an elevated risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). One major hypothesis involves dietary heme iron which induces lipid peroxidation. The quantification of the resulting reactive aldehydes (e.g. HNE and HHE) in the colon lumen is therefore of great concern since these compounds are known for their cytotoxic and genotoxic properties. UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for HNE and HHE quantification in rat faeces. Samples were derivatised using a brominated reagent (BBHA) in presence of pre-synthesized deuterated internal standards (HNE-d11/HHE-d5), extracted by solid phase extraction, and then analysed by LC-positive ESI-MS/MS (MRM) on a TSQ Vantage mass spectrometer...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Imran Ahmed, Niall Safir Ahmad, Shahnaz Ali, Shair Ali, Anju George, Hiba Saleem Danish, Encarl Uppal, James Soo, Mohammad H Mobasheri, Dominic King, Benita Cox, Ara Darzi
BACKGROUND: Medication adherence is an expensive and damaging problem for patients and health care providers. Patients adhere to only 50% of drugs prescribed for chronic diseases in developed nations. Digital health has paved the way for innovative smartphone solutions to tackle this challenge. However, despite numerous apps available claiming to improve adherence, a thorough review of adherence apps has not been carried out to date. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to (1) review medication adherence apps available in app repositories in terms of their evidence base, medical professional involvement in development, and strategies used to facilitate behavior change and improve adherence and (2) provide a system of classification for these apps...
March 16, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
María R Flores-Ocelotl, Nora H Rosas-Murrieta, Diego A Moreno, Verónica Vallejo-Ruiz, Julio Reyes-Leyva, Fabiola Domínguez, Gerardo Santos-López
BACKGROUND: Urtica dioica, Taraxacum officinale, Calea integrifolia and Caesalpinia pulcherrima are widely used all over the world for treatment of different illnesses. In Mexico, these plants are traditionally used to alleviate or counteract rheumatism and inflammatory muscle diseases. In the present study we evaluated the activity of aqueous and methanolic extracts of these four plants, on the replication of dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV2). METHODS: Extraction process was carried out in a Soxtherm® system at 60, 85 and 120 °C; a chemical fractionation in silica gel chromatography was performed and compounds present in the active fractions were identified by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MSn...
March 16, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Nicola L D Overton, Axel A Brakhage, Andreas Thywißen, David W Denning, Paul Bowyer
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in asthma is a severe, life-affecting disease that potentially affects over 4.8 million people globally. In the UK, ABPA is predominantly caused by the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. Phagocytosis is important in clearance of this fungus, and Early Endosome Antigen 1 (EEA1) has been demonstrated to be involved in phagocytosis of fungi. We sought to investigate the role of EEA1 mutations and phagocytosis in ABPA. We used exome sequencing to identify variants in EEA1 associated with ABPA...
2018: PloS One
Arnav Srivastava, Gregory A Joice, Hiten D Patel, Madeleine G Manka, Nikolai A Sopko, E James Wright
BACKGROUND: Up to 50% of patients receiving an artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) require surgical revision after initial placement. However, the literature is heterogeneous regarding the leading causes of AUS failure and appropriate surgical management. OBJECTIVE: To inform a revision approach by tabulating the causes of AUS failure, assessing AUS component survival, and examining the single-component revision efficacy. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We retrospectively reviewed 168 patients receiving AUS placements carried out by a single surgeon from 2008 to 2016 at a high-volume academic institution...
March 12, 2018: European Urology Focus
Heike Bittersohl, Björn Schniedewind, Uwe Christians, Peter B Luppa
Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of the immunosuppressive drug tacrolimus is essential to avoid side effects and rejection of the allograft after transplantation. In the blood circulation, tacrolimus is largely located inside erythrocytes or bound to plasma proteins and less than 0.1% is protein-unbound (free). One basic principle of clinical pharmacology is that only free drug is pharmacologically active and monitoring this portion has the potential to better reflect the drug effect than conventional measurements of total tacrolimus in whole blood...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Carrie Bailey, Jennifer R Peterson, Aaron Schnegelsiepen, Sarah L Stuebing, Kimberly Kirkpatrick
Impulsive choice involves choosing a smaller-sooner (SS) reward over a larger-later (LL) reward. Due to the importance of timing processes in impulsive choice, time-based interventions have been developed to decrease impulsive choice. The present set of experiments assessed the durability and generalizability of time-based interventions. Experiment 1 assessed fixed interval (FI) or variable interval (VI) intervention efficacy over 9 months. The FI intervention decreased impulsive choice, and this effect persisted over time, but the VI intervention effects were only apparent when tested immediately after the intervention...
March 12, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Prabha R Nair, Revathy S Ajayakumar, Liji Mary David, Imran A Girach, Kavitha Mottungan
This paper presents the first observational results from an Indian station on the long-term changes in surface ozone (O3 )-a major environmental pollutant and green house gas-over a period of about 40 years. It is based on the in situ measurements carried out during 1973-1975, 1983-1985, 1997-1998 and 2004-2014 at the tropical coastal station, Thiruvananthapuram. From 1973 to 1997, surface O3 shows a slow increase of ~ 0.1 ppb year-1 and a faster increase of 0.4 ppb year-1 afterwards till 2009 after which it showed a levelling off till 2012 followed by a minor decrease...
March 14, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
W Weinrebe, S Käbe-Frisch, I Füsgen, M Karaman, E Johannsdottir, S Rupp
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of desmopressin and placebo in independent geriatric outpatients with nocturnal polyuria (NP). METHODS: A prospective, randomized, single-center, national, double blind, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose, parallel group comparative trial was carried out. The study included 110 geriatric outpatients, 55 patients per treatment group using desmopressin acetate nasal spray (strength: 0.1 mg/ml) once daily of 10 μg/spray blast or placebo...
March 14, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
Z Meidani, G A Mousavi, D Kheirkhah, N Benar, M R Maleki, M Sharifi, A Farrokhian
Studies indicate there are a variety of contributing factors affecting physician test ordering behaviour. Identifying these behaviours allows development of behaviour-based interventions. Methods Through a pilot study, the list of contributing factors in laboratory tests ordering, and the most ordered tests, were identified, and given to 50 medical students, interns, residents and paediatricians in questionnaire form. The results showed routine tests and peer or supervisor pressure as the most influential factors affecting physician ordering behaviour...
December 2017: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
Matthew K Doherty, Tao Ding, Charlie Koumpouras, Shannon E Telesco, Calixte Monast, Anuk Das, Carrie Brodmerkel, Patrick D Schloss
The fecal microbiota is a rich source of biomarkers that have previously been shown to be predictive of numerous disease states. Less well studied is the effect of immunomodulatory therapy on the microbiota and its role in response to therapy. This study explored associations between the fecal microbiota and therapeutic response of Crohn's disease (CD) patients treated with ustekinumab (UST; Stelara) in the phase 2 CERTIFI study. Using stool samples collected over the course of 22 weeks, the composition of these subjects' fecal bacterial communities was characterized by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene...
March 13, 2018: MBio
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