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Wendy Ming, Dimitrios J Palidis, Miriam Spering, Martin J McKeown
Purpose: Visual impairments are frequent in Parkinson's disease (PD) and impact normal functioning in daily activities. Visual contrast sensitivity is a powerful nonmotor sign for discriminating PD patients from controls. However, it is usually assessed with static visual stimuli. Here we examined the interaction between perception and eye movements in static and dynamic contrast sensitivity tasks in a cohort of mildly impaired, early-stage PD patients. Methods: Patients (n = 13) and healthy age-matched controls (n = 12) viewed stimuli of various spatial frequencies (0-8 cyc/deg) and speeds (0°/s, 10°/s, 30°/s) on a computer monitor...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Ji Yi, Zhen Puyang, Liang Feng, Lian Duan, Peiji Liang, Vadim Backman, Xiaorong Liu, Hao F Zhang
Purpose: Elastic light backscattering spectroscopy (ELBS) has exquisite sensitivity to the ultrastructural properties of tissue and thus has been applied to detect various diseases associated with ultrastructural alterations in their early stages. This study aims to test whether ELBS can detect early damage in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Methods: We used a mouse model of partial optic nerve crush (pONC) to induce rapid RGC death. We confirmed RGC loss by axon counting and characterized the changes in retinal morphology by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and in retinal function by full-field electroretinogram (ERG), respectively...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Bang V Bui
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Stuart K Gardiner, Steven L Mansberger
Purpose: We have previously shown that sensitivities obtained at severely damaged visual field locations (<15-19 dB) are unreliable and highly variable. This study evaluates a testing algorithm that does not present very high contrast stimuli in damaged locations above approximately 1000% contrast, but instead concentrates on more precise estimation at remaining locations. Methods: A trained ophthalmic technician tested 36 eyes of 36 participants twice with each of two different testing algorithms: ZEST0, which allowed sensitivities within the range 0 to 35 dB, and ZEST15, which allowed sensitivities between 15 and 35 dB but was otherwise identical...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Matthew J Klebanoff, Jagpreet Chhatwal, Jacob D Nudel, Kathleen E Corey, Lee M Kaplan, Chin Hur
Importance: Severe obesity affects 4% to 6% of US youth and is increasing in prevalence. Bariatric surgery for the treatment of adolescents with severe obesity is becoming more common, but data on cost-effectiveness are limited. Objective: To assess the cost-effectiveness of bariatric surgery for adolescents with obesity using recently published results from the Teen-Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery study. Design, Setting, and Patients: A state-transition model was constructed to compare 2 strategies: no surgery and bariatric surgery...
October 26, 2016: JAMA Surgery
Anna Grandone, Francesca Del Vecchio Blanco, Annalaura Torella, Manuela Caruso, Filippo De Luca, Raffaella Di Mase, Maria Francesca Messina, Maria Carolina Salerno, Alessia Sallemi, Lucia Perone, Pierluigi Marzuillo, Emanuele Miraglia Del Giudice, Vincenzo Nigro, Laura Perrone
AIMS: We aimed at evaluating a standard multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) probe set for the detection of aneuploidy to diagnose Turner syndrome (TS). We first fixed an MLPA ratio cutoff able to detect all cases of TS in a pilot TS group. We then tested this value on a second group of TS patients and a short-stature population to measure specificity and sensitivity. METHODS: 15 TS patients with X mosaicism or X structural abnormalities (Pilot TS Group), 45 TS karyotype-assessed patients (TS Group), and 74 prepubertal female patients with apparent idiopathic short stature (Short-Stature Group) were enrolled...
October 27, 2016: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
Shalini Singh Yadav, Jinyi Li, Jennifer A Stockert, James O'Connor, Bryan Herzog, Cordelia Elaiho, Matthew D Galsky, Ashutosh Kumar Tewari, Kamlesh Kumar Yadav
Several promising targeted-therapeutics for prostate cancer (PCa), primarily affecting the androgen receptor (AR) and the PI3K/AKT/mTOR-pathway, are in various phases of development. However, despite promise, single-agent inhibitors targeting the two pathways have not shown long-term benefits, perhaps due to a complex compensatory cross talk that exists between the two pathways. Combination therapy has thus been proposed to maximize benefit. We have carried out a systematic study of two-drug combination effect of MDV3100 (AR antagonist), BKM120 (PI3K inhibitor), TKI258 (pan RTK inhibitor) and RAD001 (mTOR inhibitor) using various PCa cell lines...
October 20, 2016: Oncotarget
Michelle J Wilkinson, Henry G Smith, Gráinne McEntee, Joan Kyula-Currie, Tim D Pencavel, David C Mansfield, Aadil A Khan, Victoria Roulstone, Andrew J Hayes, Kevin J Harrington
Advanced extremity melanoma and sarcoma present a significant therapeutic challenge, requiring multimodality therapy to treat or even palliate disease. These aggressive tumours are relatively chemo-resistant, therefore new treatment approaches are urgently required. We have previously reported on the efficacy of oncolytic virotherapy (OV) delivered by isolated limb perfusion. In this report, we have improved therapeutic outcomes by combining OV with radiotherapy. In vitro, the combination of oncolytic vaccinia virus (GLV-1h68) and radiotherapy demonstrated synergistic cytotoxicity...
October 22, 2016: Oncotarget
Liang Xiao, Bo Yang, Xiaoyu Liu, Yan Luo, Qiongmei Ji, Zhong Wen, Zhigang Liu, Ping-Chang Yang
Food allergy (FA) is an adverse immune response to certain innocent food. It is estimated about 2% to 6% of the general population suffer from FA. Symptoms of a food allergic reaction may involve the gastrointestinal tract or/and other organs. The gut microbiota plays a critical role in diet-induced health problems. Whether the changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiota regulate allergic responses to food remains poorly understood. Thus, we created an FA animal model, sequenced the V4-V5 regions of 16S rRNA genes to characterize the genera abundance of gut microbiota...
October 21, 2016: Oncotarget
Shuiqing Zhou, Changchuan Guo, Feng Shi, Wei Jiang, Lei Wang
In this work, the ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS) was applied to the rapid screening, identification and quantification of the illegal adulterated glucocorticoids in herbal medicines. The mass spectrometer was operated in positive ion mode and Full MS/dd-MS(2) (data-dependent MS(2)) mode, where selected ions were subjected to a dd-MS(2) scan with given fragmentation energy following a Full MS scan. The application of 70 000 FWHM mass resolution and narrow mass windows (5ppm) effectively improve the selectivity of the method, and a single injection was sufficient to perform the simultaneous screening and identification/quantification of 14 glucocorticoids in 15min...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
A Di Gilio, G Ventrella, P Giungato, M Tutino, R Giua, G Assennato, G de Gennaro
This study provided a useful approach for assessing the impact of industrial sources on surrounding, especially in a sensitive industrial area as Taranto (South of Italy). Taranto is one of the most industrialized Italian towns, where several emission sources operate simultaneously in proximity to the urban settlement. An intensive monitoring campaign of PAHs was carried out from January 28th to July 30th, 2011, in seven sites located in residential settlement around the industrial area and in the city center...
October 23, 2016: Chemosphere
Mayte Conejero-Muriel, Isaac Rodriguez-Ruiz, Cristobal Verdugo-Escamilla, Andreu Llobera, Jose Antonio Gavira
Microfluidics or lab-on-a-chip technology offer clear advantages over conventional systems such as a dramatic reduction of reagent consumption or a shorter analysis time, which are translated into costs effective systems. In this work, we present a photonic enzymatic lab on a chip reactor based on Cross-Linked Enzyme Crystals (CLECs), able to work in continuous flow, as a highly sensitive, robust, reusable and stable platform for continuous sensing with superior performance as compared to the state of the art...
October 26, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Hirokazu Taniguchi, Shinji Takeuchi, Koji Fukuda, Takayuki Nakagawa, Sachiko Arai, Shigeki Nanjo, Tadaaki Yamada, Hiroyuki Yamaguchi, Hiroshi Mukae, Seiji Yano
Crizotinib, a first-generation anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) tyrosine-kinase inhibitor, is known to be effective against echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancers. Nonetheless, the tumors subsequently become resistant to crizotinib and recur in almost every case. The mechanism of the acquired resistance needs to be deciphered. In this study, we established crizotinib-resistant cells (A925LPE3-CR) via long-term administration of crizotinib to a mouse model of pleural carcinomatous effusions; this model involved implantation of the A925LPE3 cell line, which harbors the EML4-ALK gene rearrangement...
October 26, 2016: Cancer Science
G F Gebhart, Klaus Bielefeldt
Pain involving thoracic, abdominal, or pelvic organs is a common cause for physician consultations, including one-third of chronic pain patients who report that visceral organs contribute to their suffering. Chronic visceral pain conditions are typically difficult to manage effectively, largely because visceral sensory mechanisms and factors that contribute to the pathogenesis of visceral pain are poorly understood. Mechanistic understanding is particularly problematic in "functional" visceral diseases where there is no apparent pathology and pain typically is the principal complaint...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
Chieko Kadoma, Masatoshi Takahara, Masahiro Maruyama, Hiroshi Satake, Michiaki Takagi
Rupture of the flexor pollicis longus tendon is a major complication after volar locking plate fixation of distal radius fracture. This study used ultrasonography to assess the flexor pollicis longus tendon and intermediate tissue. The study assessed 27 patients (28 wrists) who underwent removal of the volar locking plate. Before plate removal, radiography and ultrasonography were performed to assess the relation between the flexor pollicis longus tendon and the volar locking plate. Intraoperatively, the authors evaluated the intermediate tissues between the flexor pollicis longus tendon and the distal volar margin of the plate...
October 25, 2016: Orthopedics
Manoel Antonio Dos Santos, Maria Laura de Paula Lopes Pereira-Martins
The tasks of caregiving for children with disabilities involve contextual life stressors. The study aimed to investigate the coping strategies used by parents of children with intellectual disabilities (ID). The search included articles published between 2001 and 2015 on the PubMed, LILACS and PsycINFO databases, using the following key words: intellectual disability, coping, parents, caregivers, family. Thirteen articles were selected, the majority of which adopt a cross-sectional, comparative and quantitative approach...
October 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Dária Neves, Meritxell Sabidó, Camila Bôtto-Menezes, Nina Schwartz Benzaken, Lucília Jardim, Cynthia Ferreira, André Leturiondo, Camila Gurgel Dos Santos, Adele Schwartz Benzaken
Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis is not routinely offered to young asymptomatic women in Brazil. This study evaluated the performance, usefulness, and operational suitability of the Digene Hybrid Capture II (HCII) CT-ID DNA-test as an opportunistic screening tool to detect C. trachomatis in the public health system in Manaus, Amazonas State. Women aged 14-25 years who attended primary health care services were interviewed and one cervical specimen was collected during cytological screening. The HCII CT test was evaluated for its ability to detect the presence of C...
October 20, 2016: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Flávia Paula Magalhães Monteiro, Thelma Leite de Araujo, Francisca Bertilia Chaves Costa, Telma Alteniza Leandro, Tahissa Frota Cavalcante, Marcos Venícios de Oliveira Lopes
Objective: to conduct the clinical validation of nursing diagnosis "Willingness for improved infant development". Method: a cross-sectional study, conducted in a Centro de Saúde da Família (Family Health Care center), with 45 healthy breastfed infants. The instrument for collecting the data was prepared based on the literature and validated by nurses. It contained the following variables: sociodemographic, gestational, and obstetrical variables; breastfed infant's nutritional profile; evaluation of the defining characteristics of the proposed nursing diagnosis...
September 2016: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Jorge Barros, Susana Morales, Orietta Echávarri, Arnol García, Jaime Ortega, Takeshi Asahi, Claudia Moya, Ronit Fischman, María P Maino, Catalina Núñez
Objective: To analyze suicidal behavior and build a predictive model for suicide risk using data mining (DM) analysis. Methods: A study of 707 Chilean mental health patients (with and without suicide risk) was carried out across three healthcare centers in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile. Three hundred forty-three variables were studied using five questionnaires. DM and machine-learning tools were used via the support vector machine technique. Results: The model selected 22 variables that, depending on the circumstances in which they all occur, define whether a person belongs in a suicide risk zone (accuracy = 0...
October 20, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
Akira Minami, Masakazu Saito, Shou Mamada, Daisuke Ieno, Tomoya Hikita, Tadanobu Takahashi, Tadamune Otsubo, Kiyoshi Ikeda, Takashi Suzuki
Sialic acid bound to glycans in glycolipids and glycoproteins is essential for synaptic plasticity and memory. Sialidase (EC, which has 4 isozymes including Neu1, Neu2, Neu3 and Neu4, regulates the sialylation level of glycans by removing sialic acid from sialylglycoconjugate. In the present study, we investigated the distribution of sialidase activity in rat hippocampus and the role of sialidase in hippocampal memory processing. We previously developed a highly sensitive histochemical imaging probe for sialidase activity, BTP3-Neu5Ac...
2016: PloS One
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