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bronchial isolated

Tom Kreft, Thomas Hachenberg
Traditionally the double-lumen-tube (DLT) is considered the gold standard for lung separation. Despite being equally feasible for standard situations, there are special populations and circumstances requiring the use of a bronchial blocker (BB) to establish one-lung ventilation. Children under 8 years of age and patients without a patent orotracheal airway necessitate the use of a bronchial blocker in most cases, as well as those requiring selective lobar blockade or a rapid sequence induction. Surgery with predicted postoperative mechanical ventilation or in tracheotomized patients at least favors their use by avoiding the complications of a tube exchange...
March 2018: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
Torsten Loop, Johannes Spaeth
Lung separation and isolation with accomplished one-lung ventilation plays a key role in the airway management for thoracic surgery. Spectrum of indication contains thoracic surgery, procedure- and patient-dependent factors. Usually lung isolation is achieved with a double-lumen tube or a bronchial blocker. Knowledge in tracheobronchial anatomy is routinely requested for anesthesiologists just as the standard use of flexible fibreoptic bronchoscope. This review would give an overview and discussion about the airway management in patients during thoracic anesthesia with double-lumen tubes and recommendations for the clinical routine...
March 2018: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
Nicholas Agyepong, Usha Govinden, Alex Owusu-Ofori, Sabiha Yusuf Essack
Background: Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria have emerged as major clinical and therapeutic dilemma in hospitals in Ghana.To describe the prevalence and profile of infections attributable to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria among patients at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in the Ashanti region of Ghana. Methods: Bacterial cultures were randomly selected from the microbiology laboratory from February to August, 2015. Bacterial identification and minimum inhibitory concentrations were conducted using standard microbiological techniques and the Vitek-2 automated system...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Janessa Pickering, Teck Hui Teo, Ruth B Thornton, Lea-Ann Kirkham, Graeme R Zosky, Holly D Clifford
Exposure to environmental geogenic (or earth-derived) dust can lead to more frequent and severe infections in the human airway. Particulate matter < 10 µm (PM10 ) is the component of air pollution that is commonly associated with the exacerbation of respiratory diseases. We have previously demonstrated that mice exposed to geogenic dust PM10 experienced an exacerbation of inflammatory responses to influenza A virus. Whether geogenic dust PM10 also exacerbates respiratory bacterial infection is not yet known, nor are the components of the dust that drive these responses...
March 6, 2018: Environmental Research
Friso M Rijnberg, Colin R Butler, Christian Bieli, Sonia Kumar, Reza Nouraei, Joshua Asto, Eimear McKavanagh, Paolo de Coppi, Nagarajan Muthialu, Martin J Elliott, Richard J Hewitt
OBJECTIVES: Our study describes and analyses the results from aortopexy for the treatment of airway malacia in children. METHODS: Demographic data, characteristics and preoperative, operative and outcome details, including the need for reintervention, were collected for children undergoing aortopexy between 2006 and 2016. RESULTS: One hundred patients [median age 8.2 months, interquartile range (IQR) 3.3-26.0 months] underwent aortopexy...
March 5, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
Harrison G Jones, Tina Ritschel, Gabriel Pascual, Just P J Brakenhoff, Elissa Keogh, Polina Furmanova-Hollenstein, Ellen Lanckacker, Jehangir S Wadia, Morgan S A Gilman, R Anthony Williamson, Dirk Roymans, Angélique B van 't Wout, Johannes P Langedijk, Jason S McLellan
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of severe lower respiratory tract infections in infants and the elderly, and yet there remains no effective treatment or vaccine. The surface of the virion is decorated with the fusion glycoprotein (RSV F) and the attachment glycoprotein (RSV G), which binds to CX3CR1 on human airway epithelial cells to mediate viral attachment and subsequent infection. RSV G is a major target of the humoral immune response, and antibodies that target the central conserved region of G have been shown to neutralize both subtypes of RSV and to protect against severe RSV disease in animal models...
March 6, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Haroon Khan, Muhammad Zafar, Helena Den-Haan, Horacio Perez-Sanchez, Mohammad Ajmal Kamal
Lipoxygenase (LOX) enzymes play an important role in the pathophysiology of several inflammatory and allergic diseases including bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, allergic conjunctivitis, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Inhibitors of the LOX are believed to be an ideal approach in the treatment of diseases caused by its over-expression. In this regard, several synthetic and natural agents are under investigation worldwide. Alkaloids are the most thoroughly investigated class of natural compounds with outstanding past in clinically useful drugs...
February 20, 2018: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
Xiao Dong, Miao Shi, Moonsook Lee, Rafael Toro, Silvia Gravina, Weiguo Han, Shoya Yasuda, Tao Wang, Zhengdong Zhang, Jan Vijg, Yousin Suh, Simon D Spivack
Gene regulatory analysis of highly diverse human tissues in vivo is essentially constrained by the challenge of performing genome-wide, integrated epigenetic and transcriptomic analysis in small selected groups of specific cell types. Here we performed genome-wide bisulfite sequencing and RNA-seq from the same small groups of bronchial and alveolar cells isolated by laser capture microdissection from flash-frozen lung tissue of 12 donors and their peripheral blood T cells. Methylation and transcriptome patterns differed between alveolar and bronchial cells, while each of these epithelia showed more differences from mesodermally-derived T cells...
February 21, 2018: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
José A Cañas, Beatriz Sastre, José M Rodrigo-Muñoz, Mar Fernández-Nieto, Pilar Barranco, Santiago Quirce, Joaquín Sastre, Victoria Del Pozo
BACKGROUND: Eosinophils, a central factor in asthma pathogenesis, have the ability to secrete exosomes. However, the precise role played by exosomes in the biological processes leading up to asthma has not been fully defined. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesised that exosomes released by eosinophils contribute to asthma pathogenesis by activating structural lung cells. METHODS: Eosinophils from asthmatic patients and healthy volunteers were purified from peripheral blood, and exosomes were isolated from eosinophils of asthmatic and healthy individuals...
February 16, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Tianwen Lai, Yanyu Li, Zongjiong Mai, Xiaoxia Wen, Yingying Lv, Zhanqing Xie, Quanchao Lv, Min Chen, Dong Wu, Bin Wu
Purpose: Fibrosis in peripheral airways is responsible for airflow limitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Annexin A1 modulates several key biological events during inflammation. However, little is known about its role in airway fibrosis in COPD. We investigated whether levels of Annexin A1 were upregulated in patients with COPD, and whether it promoted airway fibrosis. Methods: We quantified serum Annexin A1 levels in never-smokers (n=12), smokers without COPD (n=11), and smokers with COPD (n=22)...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
M Granell Gil, P Solís Albamonte, C Córdova Hernández, I Cobo, R Guijarro, J A de Andrés Ibañez
Lung isolation in thoracic surgery is a challenge, this is even more complex in the presence of unknown tracheal stenosis (TS). We report two cases of unknown TS and its airway management. TS appears most frequently after long term intubation close to the endotracheal tube cuff or in the stoma of tracheostomy that appears as a consequence of the granulation tissue after the surgical opening of the trachea. Clinical history, physical examination, difficult intubating predictors and imaging tests (CT scans) are crucial, however most of tracheal stenosis may be unnoticed and symptoms depend on the degree of obstruction...
February 8, 2018: Revista Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación
Zhan-Ling Liang, Dan-Dan Wu, Yue Yao, Fei-Yuan Yu, Lei Yang, Heng Wee Tan, Machteld N Hylkema, Marianne G Rots, Yan-Ming Xu, Andy T Y Lau
Cadmium (Cd), a carcinogenic toxic metal, is pervasively distributed in the soil, water and air. Chronic exposure to Cd has been correlated to lung disease development including cancers. Although many studies have been conducted to investigate the proteome response of cells challenged with Cd, the epiproteomic responses (i.e., global histone post-translational modifications [PTMs]), particularly in human lung cells, are largely unexplored. Here, we provide an epiproteome profiling of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) chronically treated with cadmium chloride (CdCl2 ), with the aim of identifying global epiproteomic signatures in response to Cd epigenotoxicity...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Luigino Calzetta, Paola Rogliani, Elena Pistocchini, Maurizio Mattei, Giuseppe Cito, Pietro Alfonsi, Clive Page, Maria Gabriella Matera
Recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) is a main characteristic of horses with severe equine asthma syndrome. The presence of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the airways of horses is thought to play a crucial role in the clinical expression of this disorder. This study pharmacologically characterized the effect of LPS on the responsiveness of equine bronchial tissue. Equine isolated bronchi were incubated overnight with LPS (0.1-100 ng/ml) and then stimulated by electrical field stimulation (EFS). The role of capsaicin sensitive-sensory nerves (capsaicin desensitization treatment), neurokinin-2 (NK2 ) receptors (blocked by GR159897), transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 receptors (TRPV1; blocked by SB366791), and neurokinin A (NKA) were investigated...
January 30, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Yabing Zhang, Juan Xin, Ye Ma, Qian Li, Bin Liu
RATIONALE: Primary tracheal adenoid cystic carcinoma of the trachea primary is a rare neoplasm and commonly misdiagnosed. Lung isolation during surgery and ventilation pose a tremendous challenge to anesthesiologists. PATIENT CONCERNS: The authors describe a novel technique of lung isolation and ventilation with a Univent tube during thoracoscopic mediastinal tracheal resection and reconstruction in a female patient. DIAGNOSES: Primary tracheal adenoid cystic carcinoma, nonsmall cell carcinoma...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Carla Grattarola, Federica Giorda, Barbara Iulini, Alessandra Pautasso, Marco Ballardini, Simona Zoppi, Letizia Marsili, Simone Peletto, Loretta Masoero, Katia Varello, Fulvio Garibaldi, Frine E Scaglione, Giovanni Di Guardo, Alessandro Dondo, Maria Goria, Laura Serracca, Walter Mignone, Cristina Casalone
A juvenile female striped dolphin Stenella coeruleoalba live stranded on 4 March 2016 at Alassio, western Ligurian Sea coast, Italy. The dolphin died shortly after stranding, and a complete postmortem examination was performed. Necropsy revealed severe tracheal occlusion and unilateral bronchial stenosis with luminal accumulation of abundant green-yellow mucous-gelatinous material. Histological features suggestive of tracheobronchial aspergillosis were observed. Cultures of lung tissue and tracheo-bronchial exudate isolated Aspergillus fumigatus, identified by a Microseq D2 LSUrDNA fungal sequencing kit...
January 31, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Ting Zhou, Zhihong Yu, Ming-Yuan Jian, Israr Ahmad, Carol S Trempus, Brant M Wagener, Jean-Francois Pittet, Saurabh Aggarwal, Stavros Garantziotis, Weifeng Song, Sadis Matalon
Acid (HCl) aspiration during anesthesia may lead to acute lung injury. There is no effective therapy. We hypothesized that HCl, instilled intratracheally in C57BL/6 mice results in the formation of low molecular weight hyaluronan (L-HA), which activates RhoA and ROCK, causing airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and increased permeability. Furthermore, instillation of high molecular weight hyaluronan (H-HA; Yabro®), will reverse lung injury. We instilled HCl in C57BL/6 wild type, MPO-/- and CD44-/- mice. WT mice were also instilled intranasally with H-HA (Yabro®) at 1 and 23 h post HCl...
January 25, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Bon-Sang Koo, Hye Kwon Kim, Daesub Song, Woonsung Na, Min-Suk Song, Jin Jung Kwon, Sook-San Wong, Ji Yeong Noh, Min-Ju Ahn, Doo-Jin Kim, Richard J Webby, Sun-Woo Yoon, Dae Gwin Jeong
Gene segments from avian H1N1 influenza A viruses have reassorted with other influenza viruses to generate pandemic strains over the past century. Nevertheless, little effort has been invested in understanding the characteristics of avian H1N1 influenza viruses. Here, we present the genome sequence and a molecular and virological characterization of an avian influenza A virus, A/wild bird/Korea/SK14/2014 (A/SK14, H1N1), isolated from migratory birds in South Korea during the winter season of 2014-2015. Full-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the virus belongs to the Eurasian avian lineage...
January 24, 2018: Archives of Virology
Morsal Osmani, David Sotello, Salvador Alvarez, John A Odell, Matthew Thomas
PURPOSE: To evaluate our institutional experience with Mycobacterium abscessus infections occurring in lung transplant recipients (LTR). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed our prospectively collected institutional adult lung transplant database from 2001 to 2015 to identify patients with M. abscessus or Mycobacterium chelonae/abscessus infection before or after transplantation. Untreated, colonized patients were excluded from the study. Electronic health records of 9 out of 516 lung recipients (1...
January 23, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Sven Holger Baum, Christopher Mohr
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate which primary tumours metastasize on the head and neck region, identify the kind of clinical manifestation, the types of diagnostics that should be performed, and prove that the therapy appears possible and useful. PATIENTS: As many as 91 patients with a distant metastasis on the head and neck were enrolled in this retrospective clinical study from January 2004 to September 2016. All the patients were evaluated for clinical symptoms, primary tumour, localization, diagnostics, and surgical procedure...
January 17, 2018: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Carlos Almeida, Maria João Freitas, Diogo Brandão, José Pedro Assunção
Female, 85 y.o., weighting 60kg, multiple trauma patient. After an initial laparotomy, an emergent thoracotomy was performed using a bronchial blocker for lung isolation (initial active suction was applied). During surgery, bronchial cuff was deflated, causing a self-limited tracheal blood flooding. A second lung isolation was attempted but it was not as effective as initially. Probably, a lung collapse with the same bronchial blocker was impaired in the second attempt because of the obstruction of bronchial blocker lumen by intraoperative endobronchial hemorrhage...
January 13, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
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