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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778524/posttranscriptional-regulation-of-interleukin-33-expression-by-microrna-200-in-bronchial-asthma
#1
Xin Tang, Feng Wu, Jinshuo Fan, Yang Jin, Jianjun Wang, Guanghai Yang
The importance of understanding how interleukin-33 (IL-33) is regulated (particularly by miRs) is critical in IL-33 biology, and evidence of this in asthma pathology is limited. MicroRNA profiling of cells isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage of 14 asthmatic patients and 11 healthy controls revealed miR-200b and miR-200c were significantly reduced in asthmatic patients compared with healthy controls. The reduction was validated in two independent models of allergen-induced allergic airway inflammation and further demonstrated to be inversely correlated with asthma severity, as well as increased IL-33 production in asthmatic patients...
April 25, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775474/the-cryptococcus-neoformans-titan-cell-is-an-inducible-and-regulated-morphotype-underlying-pathogenesis
#2
Ivy M Dambuza, Thomas Drake, Ambre Chapuis, Xin Zhou, Joao Correia, Leanne Taylor-Smith, Nathalie LeGrave, Tim Rasmussen, Matthew C Fisher, Tihana Bicanic, Thomas S Harrison, Marcel Jaspars, Robin C May, Gordon D Brown, Raif Yuecel, Donna M MacCallum, Elizabeth R Ballou
Fungal cells change shape in response to environmental stimuli, and these morphogenic transitions drive pathogenesis and niche adaptation. For example, dimorphic fungi switch between yeast and hyphae in response to changing temperature. The basidiomycete Cryptococcus neoformans undergoes an unusual morphogenetic transition in the host lung from haploid yeast to large, highly polyploid cells termed Titan cells. Titan cells influence fungal interaction with host cells, including through increased drug resistance, altered cell size, and altered Pathogen Associated Molecular Pattern exposure...
May 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775471/host-directed-combinatorial-rnai-improves-inhibition-of-diverse-strains-of-influenza-a-virus-in-human-respiratory-epithelial-cells
#3
Michael A Estrin, Islam T M Hussein, Wendy B Puryear, Anne C Kuan, Stephen C Artim, Jonathan A Runstadler
Influenza A virus infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and currently available prevention and treatment methods are suboptimal. In recent years, genome-wide investigations have revealed numerous host factors that are required for influenza to successfully complete its life cycle. However, only a select, small number of influenza strains were evaluated using this platform, and there was considerable variation in the genes identified across different investigations. In an effort to develop a universally efficacious therapeutic strategy with limited potential for the emergence of resistance, this study was performed to investigate the effect of combinatorial RNA interference (RNAi) on inhibiting the replication of diverse influenza A virus subtypes and strains...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754249/trpa1-channels-expression-in-non-neuronal-murine-lung-tissues-and-dispensability-for-hyperoxia-induced-alveolar-epithelial-hyperplasia
#4
Martina Kannler, Robin Lüling, Ali Önder Yildirim, Thomas Gudermann, Dirk Steinritz, Alexander Dietrich
Transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) channels were originally characterized in neuronal tissues but also identified in lung epithelium by staining with fluorescently coupled TRPA1 antibodies. Its exact function in non-neuronal tissues, however, is elusive. TRPA1 is activated in vitro by hypoxia and hyperoxia and is therefore a promising TRP candidate for sensing hyperoxia in pulmonary epithelial cells and for inducing alveolar epithelial hyperplasia. Here, we isolated tracheal, bronchial, and alveolar epithelial cells and show low but detectable TRPA1 mRNA levels in all these cells as well as TRPA1 protein by Western blotting in alveolar type II (AT II) cells...
May 12, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748308/fibroblast-growth-factor-23-and-klotho-contribute-to-airway-inflammation
#5
Stefanie Krick, Alexander Grabner, Nathalie Baumlin, Christopher Yanucil, Scott Helton, Astrid Grosche, Juliette Sailland, Patrick Geraghty, Liliana Viera, Derek W Russell, J Michael Wells, Xin Xu, Amit Gaggar, Jarrod Barnes, Gwendalyn D King, Michael Campos, Christian Faul, Matthias Salathe
Circulating levels of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 23 are associated with systemic inflammation and increased mortality in chronic kidney disease. α-klotho, a co-receptor for FGF23, is downregulated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, whether FGF23 and klotho-mediated FGFR activation delineates a pathophysiologic mechanism in COPD remains unclear. We hypothesized that FGF23 can potentiate airway inflammation via klotho independent FGFR4 activation. FGF23 and its effect were studied using plasma and transbronchial biopsies from COPD and control patients and primary human bronchial epithelial cells isolated from COPD patients as well as a murine COPD model...
May 10, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743984/ingredients-from-litsea-garrettii-as-potential-preventive-agents-against-oxidative-insult-and-inflammatory-response
#6
Yan-Ru Li, Guo-Hui Li, Lin Sun, Lin Li, Yue Liu, De-Gang Kong, Shu-Qi Wang, Dong-Mei Ren, Xiao-Ning Wang, Hong-Xiang Lou, Tao Shen
Oxidative stress and inflammation undoubtedly contribute to the pathogenesis of many human diseases. The nuclear transcription factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) and the nuclear factor κ B (NF- κ B) play central roles in regulation of oxidative stress and inflammation and thus are targets for developing agents against oxidative stress- and inflammation-related diseases. Our previous study indicated that the EtOH extract of Litsea garrettii protected human bronchial epithelial cells against oxidative insult via the activation of Nrf2...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736245/pharmacological-properties-of-revefenacin-td-4208-a-novel-nebulized-long-acting-and-lung-selective-muscarinic-antagonist-at-human-recombinant-muscarinic-receptors-and-in-rat-guinea-pig-and-human-isolated-airway-tissues
#7
Sharath S Hegde, M Teresa Pulido-Rios, Mark A Luttmann, James J Foley, Gerald E Hunsberger, Tod Steinfeld, TaeWeon Lee, Yuhua Ji, Mathai M Mammen, Jeffrey R Jasper
Revefenacin (TD-4208) is a novel, long-acting, and lung-selective muscarinic cholinergic receptor (mAChR) antagonist in development as a nebulized inhalation solution for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. This study evaluated the pharmacology of revefenacin at human recombinant mAChRs and in airway tissues from rats, guinea pigs, and humans. At human recombinant mAChRs, revefenacin displayed high affinity (pKI  = 8.2-9.8) and behaved as a competitive antagonist (pKI, apparent = 9...
June 2018: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722559/mir-142-3p-is-associated-with-aberrant-wingless-integrase-i-wnt-signaling-during-airway-remodeling-in-asthma
#8
Sabine Bartel, Gianni Carraro, Francesca Alessandrini, Susanne Krauss-Etschmann, Fabio L M Ricciardolo, Saverio Bellusci
BACKGROUND: Asthma is characterized by a chronic inflammation and remodeling of the airways. While inflammation can be controlled, therapeutic options to revert remodeling do not exist. Thus, there is a large and unmet need to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms in order to develop novel therapies. OBJECTIVE: we previously identified a pivotal role for miR-142-3p in regulating airway smooth muscle precursor (ASM) cell proliferation during lung development by fine-tuning the Wingless/Integrase I (WNT) signaling...
May 3, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702994/a-case-report-regarding-general-anesthesia-management-of-a-patient-with-pulmonary-vein-stenosis-that-underwent-balloon-dilatation-and-stent-implantation
#9
Fangzhou Li, Guoyan Qiao, Peng Liang, Jin Liu
RATIONALE: Pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) is a rare cardiovascular deformity that can lead to high mortality if left untreated. Patients frequently experience multiple complications such as hemoptysis, pulmonary hypertension, bronchial venous rupture and cardiac insufficiency. Currently, pulmonary vein stenosis balloon dilatation (stent implantation) is the only treatment, and this can be performed under local or general anesthesia. However, a case report on the general anesthesia management of PVS has not been previously reported...
April 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676195/in-vitro-inhibitory-effects-of-sophocarpine-on-human-liver-cytochrome-p450-enzymes
#10
Jingwei Zhang, Chuansheng Li, Jingfa Zhang, Fan Zhang
1. Sophocarpine is a biologically active component isolated from the foxtail-like sophora herb and seed that is often orally administered for the treatment of cancer and chronic bronchial asthma. However, whether sophocarpine affects the activity of human liver cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes remains unclear. 2. In this study, the inhibitory effects of sophocarpine on the eight human liver CYP isoforms (CYP1A2, 3A4, 2A6, 2E1, 2D6, 2C9, 2C19, and 2C8) were investigated in vitro using human liver microsomes (HLMs)...
April 20, 2018: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648506/systemic-equid-alphaherpesvirus-9-in-a-grant-s-zebra
#11
Robert B Moeller, Beate Crossley, Arlena Pipkin, Yanqiu Li, Udeni B R Balasuriya
A 2-y-old female Grant's zebra ( Equus quagga [ burchellii] boehmi) was presented with a clinical history of depression, anorexia, and weakness of 1-wk duration. Postmortem examination identified ulcers on the tongue and palate; a large abscess adjacent to the larynx; left lung consolidation; mild swelling, darkening, and congestion of the liver with accentuation of the lobular pattern; and edema and congestion of the distal small and large intestines. Histologic examination identified necrotizing bronchopneumonia, necrotizing hepatitis, nephritis, and enterocolitis...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629494/cold-stimuli-facilitate-inflammatory-responses-through-transient-receptor-potential-melastatin-8-trpm8-in-primary-airway-epithelial-cells-of-asthmatic-mice
#12
Haipei Liu, Li Hua, Quanhua Liu, Jun Pan, Yixiao Bao
Bronchial asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease that can be aggravated by cold air. However, its mechanism remains largely unknown. As a thermo-sensing cation channel, transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) can be activated by cold stimuli (8-22 °C) and cooling agents. Whereas TRPM8 activation leads to enhanced expression of inflammatory cytokines and mucus hypersecretion in human bronchial epithelial cell lines, no previous study has examined its role in regulating the cold-induced inflammatory responses and its mechanism in asthmatic airway epithelium...
April 9, 2018: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628889/inhibitory-effect-of-kurarinone-on-growth-of-human-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-an-experimental-study-both-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies
#13
Jie Yang, Hao Chen, Qiang Wang, Shihao Deng, Mi Huang, Xinhua Ma, Ping Song, Jingwen Du, Yun Huang, Yanzhang Wen, Yongshen Ren, Xinzhou Yang
Kurarinone, a flavonoid isolated from Sophora flavescens Aiton, has been reported to have significant antitumor activity. However, the cytotoxic activity of kurarinone against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells is still under explored. In our study, we have evaluated the inhibitory effects of kurarinone on the growth of NSCLC both in vivo and in vitro as well as the molecular mechanisms underlying kurarinone-induced A549 cell apoptosis. The results showed that kurarinone effectively inhibited the proliferation of A549 cells with little toxic effects on human bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628047/increased-expression-of-cyslt-2-receptors-in-the-lung-of-asthmatic-mice-and-role-in-allergic-responses
#14
Masaya Matsuda, Yuki Tabuchi, Kazuma Nishimura, Yuri Nakamura, Tomohiko Sekioka, Michiaki Kadode, Kazuhito Kawabata, Takeshi Nabe
Compared with CysLT1 receptors, the functional role of CysLT2 receptors in asthma has not been clarified. The purpose of this study was to determine 1) whether CysLT2 receptors are expressed in the lung of mice and if expression increases in asthmatic mice, and 2) whether CysLT2 receptors are involved in allergic leukocyte infiltration into the lung and in the development of airway remodeling in asthmatic mice. BALB/c mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) + Al(OH)3 , and intratracheally challenged with OVA 4 times...
April 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626716/pharmacological-mechanisms-leading-to-synergy-in-fixed-dose-dual-bronchodilator-therapy
#15
REVIEW
Luigino Calzetta, Maria Gabriella Matera, Mario Cazzola
Long-acting β2 adrenoceptor agonists (LABAs) in combination with long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs) can elicit functional and clinical benefits in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). LABA/LAMA combinations synergistically relax human isolated airways at the level of the medium and small bronchi. LABAs and LAMAs both modulate the bronchial tone via different pathways localized at the level of presynaptic parasympathetic fibers and airway smooth muscle cells. The exact nature of the interactions between these pathways is not completely understood, but there is cross-talk at many levels in airway smooth muscle cells that is also regulated by the activity of calcium-activated potassium channels and protein tyrosine kinases...
April 4, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581859/a-pilot-study-on-primary-cultures-of-human-respiratory-tract-epithelial-cells-to-predict-patients-responses-to-h7n9-infection
#16
Chung-Guei Huang, Li-Ang Lee, Yi-Cheng Wu, Mei-Jen Hsiao, Jim-Tong Horng, Rei-Lin Kuo, Chih-Heng Huang, Ya-Chu Lin, Kuo-Chien Tsao, Min-Chi Chen, Tse-Ching Chen, Shin-Ru Shih
Avian influenza A(H7N9) virus infections frequently lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome and death in humans. We aimed to investigate whether primary cultures of human respiratory tract epithelial cells are helpful to understand H7N9 virus pathogenesis and tissue tropism, and to evaluate how patient-related characteristics can affect the host's response to infection. Normal human bronchial epithelial cells (isolated from two different donors) and primary epithelial cells (harvested from 27 patients undergoing airway surgery) were experimentally infected with H7N9 and/or H1N1pdm for 72 h...
March 6, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576225/single-lung-ventilation-with-bronchofibroscopy-during-lung-resection-surgery
#17
B Cimadevilla Calvo, C López Sánchez, J M Rabanal LLevot, L Sánchez Moreno
Lung isolation using one-lung ventilation is common during thoracic surgery procedures, as it allows proper visualisation and manipulation of the lung to be operated on. Selective lobar blockade has been described in patients that do not tolerate one-lung ventilation, and is usually achieved using endobronchial blockers. However, it depends on endobronchial blocker availability, its complexity regarding proper positioning, and the need for constant monitoring to ensure the correct placement of the bronchial seal...
March 22, 2018: Revista Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554712/-use-of-bronchial-blockers-for-lung-isolation
#18
Tom Kreft, Thomas Hachenberg
Traditionally the double-lumen-tube (DLT) is considered the gold standard for lung separation. Despite being equally feasible for standard situations, there are special populations and circumstances requiring the use of a bronchial blocker (BB) to establish one-lung ventilation. Children under 8 years of age and patients without a patent orotracheal airway necessitate the use of a bronchial blocker in most cases, as well as those requiring selective lobar blockade or a rapid sequence induction. Surgery with predicted postoperative mechanical ventilation or in tracheotomized patients at least favors their use by avoiding the complications of a tube exchange...
March 2018: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554710/-airway-management-in-thoracic-anesthesia-with-double-lumen-tube
#19
Torsten Loop, Johannes Spaeth
Lung separation and isolation with accomplished one-lung ventilation plays a key role in the airway management for thoracic surgery. Spectrum of indication contains thoracic surgery, procedure- and patient-dependent factors. Usually lung isolation is achieved with a double-lumen tube or a bronchial blocker. Knowledge in tracheobronchial anatomy is routinely requested for anesthesiologists just as the standard use of flexible fibreoptic bronchoscope. This review would give an overview and discussion about the airway management in patients during thoracic anesthesia with double-lumen tubes and recommendations for the clinical routine...
March 2018: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541448/multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-bacterial-infections-in-a-teaching-hospital-in-ghana
#20
Nicholas Agyepong, Usha Govinden, Alex Owusu-Ofori, Sabiha Yusuf Essack
Background: Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria have emerged as major clinical and therapeutic dilemma in hospitals in Ghana.To describe the prevalence and profile of infections attributable to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria among patients at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in the Ashanti region of Ghana. Methods: Bacterial cultures were randomly selected from the microbiology laboratory from February to August, 2015. Bacterial identification and minimum inhibitory concentrations were conducted using standard microbiological techniques and the Vitek-2 automated system...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
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