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Jihe Li, Dongxia Tong, Juan Liu, Fuyang Chen, Yongbin Shen
Oroxylin A, a natural flavonoid isolated from the medicinal herb Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. However, the effect of oroxylin A on cigarette smoke (CS)-induced lung inflammation remains unclear. In this study, the ability of oroxylin A to protect against CS-induced lung inflammation was detected in vivo and in vitro. Oroxylin A was administered intraperitoneally to mice 2h prior CS exposure every day for five consecutive days. BEAS-2B bronchial epithelial cells and RAW264...
October 17, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
Mark Wigginton, Laura Lehrian
We compare airway management and lung isolation methods in two pediatric cases of congenital central hypoventilation syndrome undergoing bilateral throacoscopic phrenic-nerve-stimulator surgery. One child received lung isolation using a 7Fr bronchial blocker in conjunction with a 6.0 cuffed endotracheal tube; and the second received a technique of endobronchial intubation using a 3.5 microcuffed tube via the tracheostomy stoma in conjunction with 5.0 cuffed endotracheal intubation; a technique previously undescribed in pediatric patients...
October 20, 2016: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Bernd Schmidt, Grit Rehbein, Michael Fleischhacker
Extracellular miRNAs cannot only be isolated from different body fluids like plasma and serum, but also from bronchial lavage samples (BL) obtained by bronchoscopy. Alterations in the expression of microRNAs might be useful for a discrimination of lung cancer patients from patients with a benign lung disease. We profiled extracellular microRNAs from three BL pools of lung cancer patients and three BL pools from a control group (patients with a benign lung disease) with TaqMan MicroRNA Array cards. For the confirmation of these results, we analyzed a panel of eight miRNAs in a qRT-PCR of the BL of 30 different lung cancer and non-cancerous patients...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Brooks V Udelsman, Jessica Eaton, Ashok Muniappan, Christopher R Morse, Cameron D Wright, Douglas J Mathisen
OBJECTIVE: Patients with complicated airway defects that exceed the limits of primary repair represent a challenging clinical problem and require alternative techniques for repair. The aim of this study was to evaluate bioprosthetic reconstruction of large tracheal and bronchial defects. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of patients treated at a single tertiary center from 2008 to 2015 who underwent repair of tracheal or bronchial defects with a bioprosthetic device, namely aortic homograft or acellular dermal matrix...
November 2016: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Crystal N Marconett, Beiyun Zhou, Mitsuhiro Sunohara, Tiffany M Pouldar, HongJun Wang, Yixin Liu, Megan E Rieger, Evelyn Tran, Per Flodby, Kimberly D Siegmund, Edward D Crandall, Ite A Laird-Offringa, Zea Borok
Diseases involving the distal lung alveolar epithelium include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and lung adenocarcinoma. Accurate labeling of specific cell types is critical for determining the contribution of each to pathogenesis of these diseases. The distal lung alveolar epithelium is comprised of two cell types, alveolar epithelial type 1 (AT1) and type 2 (AT2) cells. While cell type-specific markers, most prominently surfactant protein C (SFTPC), have allowed detailed lineage tracing studies of AT2 cell differentiation and their roles in disease, studies of AT1 cells have been hampered by lack of genes with expression unique to AT1 cells...
October 17, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Makoto Nakao, Hideki Muramatsu, Tetsushi Takahashi, Shunsuke Niwa, Yusuke Kagawa, Ryota Kurokawa, Kazuki Sone, Yuki Uozumi, Misako Ohkusu, Katsuhiko Kamei, Hiroshi Koga
A 39-year-old man presented to our hospital with a four-week history of headache and a two-week history of low-grade fever. Chest X-rays showed a tumor of approximately 50 mm in size in the right lower field. A histopathological examination of a transbronchial lung biopsy specimen from the right S9/10 revealed numerous fungal elements that appeared as encapsulated yeast with clear halos. Gadolinium-enhanced brain magnetic resonance images showed multiple cerebral nodules. Cryptococcus gattii (Genotype VGIIa) was isolated from the bronchial lavage and cerebrospinal fluid specimens...
2016: Internal Medicine
A Guzek, Krzysztof Korzeniewski, D Tomaszewski, Z Rybicki, E Zwolińska
The article presents the results of 11-year study (2005-2015) of Gram-negative bacteria responsible for pneumonia in 2033 mechanically ventilated patients hospitalized in Intensive Care Unit. Of 8796 biological samples, consisting mainly of bronchial aspirate (97.9 %), 2056 bacterial strains were isolated and subjected to identification. VITEK 2 was used to determine drug susceptibility (classified according to the EUCAST criteria). ESBL, MBL and KPC-producing strains were identified by means of phenotypic methods using appropriate discs...
October 14, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Thomas Southworth, Jonathan Plumb, Vandana Gupta, James Pearson, Isabel Ramis, Martin D Lehner, Montserrat Miralpeix, Dave Singh
BACKGROUND: Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase delta (PI3Kδ) and Janus-activated kinases (JAK) are both novel anti-inflammatory targets in asthma that affect lymphocyte activation. We have investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of PI3Kδ and JAK inhibition on cytokine release from asthma bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells and T-cell activation, and measured lung PI3Kδ and JAK signalling pathway expression. METHOD: Cells isolated from asthma patients and healthy subjects were treated with PI3Kδ or JAK inhibitors, and/or dexamethasone, before T-cell receptor stimulation...
October 4, 2016: Respiratory Research
Razvan Purza, Subhamay B Ghosh, Chris Walker, Brett Hiebert, Lillian Koley, G Scott Mackenzie, Hilary P Grocott
BACKGROUND: Although there have been several large reviews documenting the complications following intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), most of these prior reports are almost 2 decades old and may not reflect current practices. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and types of complications following TEE in a contemporary cardiac surgical population. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of all cardiac surgical patients having undergone an intraoperative TEE between April 1, 2004, and April 30, 2012...
September 16, 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Maria J Gutierrez, Jose L Gomez, Geovanny F Perez, Krishna Pancham, Stephanie Val, Dinesh K Pillai, Mamta Giri, Sarah Ferrante, Robert Freishtat, Mary C Rose, Diego Preciado, Gustavo Nino
BACKGROUND: Innate immune responses are fine-tuned by small noncoding RNA molecules termed microRNAs (miRs) that modify gene expression in response to the environment. During acute infections, miRs can be secreted in extracellular vesicles (EV) to facilitate cell-to-cell genetic communication. The purpose of this study was to characterize the baseline population of miRs secreted in EVs in the airways of young children (airway secretory microRNAome) and examine the changes during rhinovirus (RV) infection, the most common cause of asthma exacerbations and the most important early risk factor for the development of asthma beyond childhood...
2016: PloS One
Nobumasa Ohara, Masanori Kaneko, Hideyuki Kuriyama, Kazuhiro Sato, Hideki Katakami, Yutaka Oki, Kenzo Kaneko, Kyuzi Kamoi
A 73-year-old Japanese woman with untreated Graves' hyperthyroidism developed glucocorticoid-induced adrenal insufficiency (AI) after a supraphysiological dose of prednisolone therapy for bronchial asthma. Days later, she had high plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels and was expected to recover from glucocorticoid-induced AI. Her plasma ACTH levels remained high over 3 months during a physiological dose of hydrocortisone replacement. However, she suffered a further decrease in her serum cortisol level and was diagnosed with isolated adrenocorticotropin deficiency (IAD), in which bioinactive ACTH likely caused the high ACTH value...
2016: Internal Medicine
Maribel Botana-Rial, Virginia Leiro-Fernández, Manuel Núñez-Delgado, Maximiliano Álvarez-Fernández, Susana Otero-Fernández, Helena Bello-Rodríguez, Carlos Vilariño-Pombo, Alberto Fernández-Villar
BACKGROUND: Endoscopes represent the medical devices most commonly linked to health care-associated outbreaks and pseudo-outbreaks. Most of the recent outbreaks and pseudo-outbreaks have resulted from contaminated automated endoscope reprocessors (AER) or the use of damaged or malfunctioning bronchoscopes or contaminated equipment. OBJECTIVES: We investigated a pseudo-outbreak of Pseudomonas putida and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia recovered from bronchial washing (BW) specimens obtained during bronchoscopy in a bronchoscopy unit...
2016: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
Allison Palmer, Joseph Painter, Hayley Hassler, Vincent P Richards, Terri Bruce, Shatavia Morrison, Ellen Brown, Natalia A Kozak-Muiznieks, Claressa Lucas, Tamara L McNealy
A novel Legionella species was identified based on sequencing, cellular fatty acid analysis, biochemical reactions, and biofilm characterization. Strain D5610 was originally isolated from the bronchial wash of a patient in Ohio. The bacteria were Gram negative, rod shaped, and exhibited a green fluorescence under long wave UV light. Phylogenetic analysis and fatty acid composition revealed a distinct separation within the genus. The strain grows between 26-45°C and forms biofilms equivalent to L. pneumophila Philadelphia 1...
September 13, 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
F Sunzini, C Barbato, C Canofari, L Lugari, R Perricone, A Bergamini
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a hypersensitivity reaction to Aspergillus that mainly affects patients with asthma. For diagnosis, elevated serum IgE level are needed according to Greenberger and Patterson criteria. We report a case of 43 years-old woman who developed ABPA with productive cough, fever and radiological findings of multiple confluent areas of consolidation in both upper lobes. Laboratory tests showed elevated peripheral eosinophil counts (9.3 x 10(3)/ml). In bronchial washing A...
September 2016: European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Wenxin Wu, Wei Zhang, J Leland Booth, David C Hutchings, Xiaoqiu Wang, Vicky L White, Houssein Youness, Cory D Cross, Ming-Hui Zou, Dennis Burian, Jordan P Metcalf
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking (CS) is the main risk factor for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and most COPD exacerbations are caused by respiratory infections including influenza. Influenza infections are more severe in smokers. The mechanism of the increased risk and severity of infections in smokers is likely multifactorial, but certainly includes changes in immunologic host defenses. METHODS: We investigated retinoic acid-inducible protein I (RIG-I) and interferon (IFN) induction by influenza A virus (IAV) in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) isolated from smokers or nonsmokers...
2016: Respiratory Research
Yuichi Saito, Sho Okada, Nobusada Funabashi, Yoshio Kobayashi
A 59-year-old woman with a history of bronchial asthma presented with a prolonged fever and eosinophilia. There was transient proteinuria and troponin level was elevated. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody was negative and she did not fulfil criteria for eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangitis (EGPA). Echocardiography showed a large apical mass in the left ventricle, but there was no systolic dysfunction, local asynergy or ventricular remodelling. On MRI, apical mass was compatible with a thrombus and endocardial region was diffusely damaged...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Kenneth I Berger, Samantha Kalish, Yongzhao Shao, Michael Marmor, Angeliki Kazeros, Beno W Oppenheimer, Yinny Chan, Joan Reibman, Roberta M Goldring
INTRODUCTION: Small airway dysfunction occurs following WTC dust exposure, but its role in producing symptoms is unclear. METHODS: Methacholine challenge (MCT) was used to assess the relationship between onset of respiratory symptoms and small airway abnormalities in 166 symptomatic WTC dust-exposed patients. Forced oscillation testing (FOT) and respiratory symptoms were assessed during MCT. FOT parameters included resistance at 5 and 20 Hz (R5 and R20 ) and the R5 minus R20 (R5-20 )...
September 2016: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
Elizabeth Torr, Meg Heath, Maureen Mee, Dominick Shaw, Tyson V Sharp, Ian Sayers
The airway epithelium is altered in respiratory disease and is thought to contribute to disease etiology. A caveat to disease research is that the technique of isolation of bronchial epithelial cells from patients is invasive and cells have a limited lifespan. The aim of this study was to extensively characterize the plasticity of primary human bronchial epithelial cells that have been engineered to delay cell senescence including the ability of these cells to differentiate. Cells were engineered to express BMI-1 or hTERT using viral vector systems...
August 2016: Physiological Reports
Steven Hardee, Lea Tuzovic, Cicero T Silva, Robert A Cowles, Joshua Copel, Raffaella A Morotti
Congenital cystic lung lesions (CCLL) are a group of rare pathologies that are usually diagnosed in the pre-natal period. The majority of these lesions are diagnosed at pathology examination as congenital pulmonary airway malformations (CPAM) and bronchopulmonary sequestration (BPS). These lesions are typically managed by surgical intervention within the first year of life and have an excellent prognosis. We examined the evolution of imaging appearances from prenatal diagnosis to postnatal work-up of these lesions and correlate imaging and pathological findings...
August 4, 2016: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
Nobuyuki Ashizawa, Shigeki Nakamura, Shotaro Ide, Masato Tashiro, Takahiro Takazono, Yoshifumi Imamura, Taiga Miyazaki, Koichi Izumikawa, Yoshihiro Yamamoto, Katsunori Yanagihara, Yoshitsugu Miyazaki, Shigeru Kohno
A 76-year-old woman received long-term immunosuppressive treatment for collagen vascular disease-associated interstitial pneumonia. The patient developed a cavitary mass lesion in the right lower lung field, and both nontuberculous mycobacteria and Aspergillus spp. were isolated after bronchial washing. The patient underwent a right lower lobectomy but developed Aspergillus empyema. Empyema due to Aspergillus spp. is a rare and life-threatening condition; however, the standard therapeutic strategies for treating Aspergillus empyema are not clear...
2016: Internal Medicine
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