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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636217/research-on-potential-biomarker-correlates-for-suicidal-behavior-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Sangha Kim, Kyoung-Uk Lee
Suicide is a world health priority. Studies over the last few decades have revealed the complexity underlying the neurobiological mechanisms of suicide. Researchers have found dysregulations in the serotonergic system, the stress system, neural plasticity, lipid metabolism, and cell signaling pathways in relation to suicidal behaviors. These findings have provided more insight into the final path leading to suicide, at which medical intervention should be applied to prevent the action. However, because these molecular mechanisms have been implicated in both depression and suicide, the specificity of the mechanisms has been obscured...
June 21, 2017: Asia-Pacific Psychiatry: Official Journal of the Pacific Rim College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636110/cumulative-toxicity-of-neonicotinoid-insecticide-mixtures-to-chironomus-dilutus-under-acute-exposure-scenarios
#2
Erin M Maloney, Christy A Morrissey, John V Headley, Kerry M Peru, Karsten Liber
Extensive agricultural use of neonicotinoid insecticide products has resulted in the presence of neonicotinoid mixtures in surface waters worldwide. Although many aquatic insect species are known to be sensitive to neonicotinoids, the impact of neonicotinoid mixtures is poorly understood. In the present study, the cumulative toxicity of binary and ternary mixtures of select neonicotinoids (imidacloprid, clothianidin, and thiamethoxam) was characterized under acute (96-h) exposure scenarios using the larval midge Chironomus dilutus as a representative aquatic insect species...
June 21, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635664/adolescent-exposure-to-the-synthetic-cannabinoid-win-55212-2-modifies-cocaine-withdrawal-symptoms-in-adult-mice
#3
María A Aguilar, Juan Carlos Ledesma, Marta Rodríguez-Arias, Carles Penalva, Carmen Manzanedo, José Miñarro, M Carmen Arenas
Chronic cannabinoid consumption is an increasingly common behavior among teenagers and has been shown to cause long-lasting neurobehavioral alterations. Besides, it has been demonstrated that cocaine addiction in adulthood is highly correlated with cannabis abuse during adolescence. Cocaine consumption and subsequent abstinence from it can cause psychiatric symptoms, such as psychosis, cognitive impairment, anxiety, and depression. The aim of the present research was to study the consequences of adolescent exposure to cannabis on the psychiatric-like effects promoted by cocaine withdrawal in adult mice...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635570/quality-dementia-care-prerequisites-and-relational-ethics-among-multicultural-healthcare-providers
#4
Gerd Sylvi Sellevold, Veslemøy Egede-Nissen, Rita Jakobsen, Venke Sørlie
BACKGROUND: Many nursing homes appear as multicultural workplaces where the majority of healthcare providers have an ethnic minority background. This environment creates challenges linked to communication, interaction and cultural differences. Furthermore, the healthcare providers have varied experiences and understanding of what quality care of patients with dementia involves. PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to illuminate multi-ethnic healthcare providers' lived experiences of their own working relationship, and its importance to quality care for people with dementia...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635375/therapeutic-effect-of-increased-openness-investigating-mechanism-of-action-in-mdma-assisted-psychotherapy
#5
Mark T Wagner, Michael C Mithoefer, Ann T Mithoefer, Rebecca K MacAulay, Lisa Jerome, Berra Yazar-Klosinski, Rick Doblin
A growing body of research suggests that traumatic events lead to persisting personality change characterized by increased neuroticism. Relevantly, enduring improvements in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms have been found in response to 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-assisted psychotherapy. There is evidence that lasting changes in the personality feature of "openness" occur in response to hallucinogens, and that this may potentially act as a therapeutic mechanism of change. The present study investigated whether heightened Openness and decreased Neuroticism served as a mechanism of change within a randomized trial of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for chronic, treatment-resistant PTSD...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635348/hope-coping-skills-and-the-prefrontal-cortex-in-alcohol-use-disorder-recovery
#6
Spencer D Bradshaw, Sterling T Shumway, Cynthia M Dsauza, Neli Morris, Nicholas D Hayes
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorders adversely affect individual and societal health. These disorders are a chronic brain disease, and protective factors against relapse should be studied. Prefrontal cortex (PFC) dysfunction is evident in alcohol use disorders, and research that explores recovery of the PFC in alcohol use disorders is needed, specifically in regard to how psychological and behavioral factors can augment medicalized treatments and protect against relapse. For example, hope or a belief that recovery is possible is an important cognitive construct-thought to precede behavioral action-that has been associated with relapse...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634795/high-toxicity-of-camphene-and-%C3%AE-elemene-from-wedelia-prostrata-essential-oil-against-larvae-of-spodoptera-litura-lepidoptera-noctuidae
#7
Giovanni Benelli, Marimuthu Govindarajan, Mohamad S AlSalhi, Sandhanasamy Devanesan, Filippo Maggi
The development of eco-friendly biopesticides in the fight against agricultural pests is an important challenge nowadays. The essential oil of Wedelia prostrata Hemsl. is known for its multipurpose biological activities in Chinese folk medicine. However, limited efforts attempted to understand the potential insecticidal activity of its main individual constituents and related mechanism of action. In this research, we investigated the insecticidal activity of W. prostrata against the crop pest Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)...
June 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634305/data-driven-extraction-of-a-nested-model-of-human-brain-function
#8
Taylor Bolt, Jason S Nomi, B T Thomas Yeo, Lucina Q Uddin
Decades of cognitive neuroscience research have revealed two basic facts regarding task-driven brain activation patterns. First, distinct patterns of activation occur in response to different task demands. Second, a superordinate, dichotomous pattern of activation/de-activation, is common across a variety of task demands. We explore the possibility that a hierarchical model incorporates these two observed brain activation phenomena into a unifying framework. We apply a latent variable approach, exploratory bi-factor analysis, to a large set of human (both sexes) brain activation maps (n = 108) encompassing cognition, perception, action and emotion behavioral domains, to determine the potential existence of a nested structure of factors that underlies a variety of commonly observed activation patterns...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634153/beyond-basic-feedback-in-mobile-brief-interventions-designing-sms-message-content-for-delivery-to-young-adults-during-risky-drinking-events
#9
Cassandra J C Wright, Paul M Dietze, Megan S C Lim
BACKGROUND: Brief interventions can reduce alcohol consumption in young people through screening and delivery of personally relevant feedback. Recently, Web and mobile platforms have been harnessed to increase the reach of brief interventions. Existing literature on mobile-based alcohol brief interventions indicates mixed use of theory in developing interventions. There is no research available to guide the development of SMS text messaging (short message service, SMS) interventions delivered during risky drinking events...
June 20, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633390/investigating-microrna-mediated-regulation-of-the-nascent-nuclear-transcripts-in-plants-a-bioinformatics-workflow
#10
Dongliang Yu, Zhonghai Tang, Chaogang Shao, Xiaoxia Ma, Taihe Xiang, Zhihong Fan, Huizhong Wang, Yijun Meng
Most of the microRNAs (miRNAs) play their regulatory roles through posttranscriptional target decay or translational inhibition. For both plants and animals, these regulatory events were previously considered to take place in cytoplasm, as mature miRNAs were observed to be exported to the cytoplasm for Argonaute (AGO) loading and subsequent target binding. Recently, this notion was challenged by increasing pieces of evidence in the animal cells that uncovered the nuclear importation and action of the AGO-associated miRNAs...
June 14, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633052/disinfection-efficiencies-of-sage-and-spearmint-essential-oils-against-planktonic-and-biofilm-staphylococcus-aureus-cells-in-comparison-with-sodium-hypochlorite
#11
Dimitrios Vetas, Eleni Dimitropoulou, Gregoria Mitropoulou, Yiannis Kourkoutas, Efstathios Giaouris
Staphylococcus aureus causes human infections and foodborne intoxications. This study explored the potential antibacterial actions of sage and spearmint essential oils (EOs) against both its planktonic and biofilm cells, in comparison with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), a commonly applied chemical sanitizer. Initially, the minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations (MICs, MBCs) of each plant mixture were determined against planktonic cultures, following growth at 30°C for 24h. Stationary phase planktonic bacteria were then individually exposed for 6min to either each EO (applied at 1-2×MBC; 2...
June 8, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632749/using-a-health-rating-system-to-evaluate-the-usefulness-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-as-a-model-for-anthelmintic-study
#12
Kathryn J Weaver, Cassandra J May, Brian L Ellis
Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are intestinal parasitic nematodes that infect humans, and are transmitted through contaminated soil. These nematodes include the large roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides), whipworm (Trichuris trichiura), and hookworm (Ancylostoma ceylanicum, Ancylostoma duodenale, and Necator americanus). Nearly 1.5 billion people (~24% of the population) worldwide are infected with at least one species of these parasites, burdening the poor, in particular, children and pregnant women. To combat these diseases, the WHO only recognizes four anthelmintic drugs, including the preferred drug, albendazole, for mass drug administration (MDA)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632445/critique-and-contribute-a-practice-based-framework-for-improving-critical-data-studies-and-data-science
#13
Gina Neff, Anissa Tanweer, Brittany Fiore-Gartland, Laura Osburn
What would data science look like if its key critics were engaged to help improve it, and how might critiques of data science improve with an approach that considers the day-to-day practices of data science? This article argues for scholars to bridge the conversations that seek to critique data science and those that seek to advance data science practice to identify and create the social and organizational arrangements necessary for a more ethical data science. We summarize four critiques that are commonly made in critical data studies: data are inherently interpretive, data are inextricable from context, data are mediated through the sociomaterial arrangements that produce them, and data serve as a medium for the negotiation and communication of values...
June 2017: Big Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632441/research-dilemmas-with-behavioral-big-data
#14
Galit Shmueli
Behavioral big data (BBD) refers to very large and rich multidimensional data sets on human and social behaviors, actions, and interactions, which have become available to companies, governments, and researchers. A growing number of researchers in social science and management fields acquire and analyze BBD for the purpose of extracting knowledge and scientific discoveries. However, the relationships between the researcher, data, subjects, and research questions differ in the BBD context compared to traditional behavioral data...
June 2017: Big Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632137/electrospun-silk-polyaniline-conduits-for-functional-nerve-regeneration-in-rat-sciatic-nerve-injury-model
#15
Suradip Das, Manav Sharma, Dhiren Saharia, Kushal Sarma, Elizabeth Muir, Utpal Bora
The present study describes the fabrication of polyaniline-silk fibroin nanocomposite based nerve conduits and its subsequent implantation in a rat sciatic nerve injury model for peripheral nerve regeneration. This is the first in vivo study of polyaniline based nerve conduit describing the safety and efficacy of the conduits in treating peripheral nerve injuries. The nanocomposite was synthesised by electrospinning a mixture of silk fibroin protein and polyaniline wherein the silk nanofibers were observed to be uniformly coated with polyaniline nanoparticles...
June 20, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631425/retraction-statement-mitochondrial-protein-acetylation-mediates-nutrient-sensing-of-mitochondrial-protein-synthesis-and-mitonuclear-protein-balance
#16
(no author information available yet)
IUBMB Life (2014) 66:793-802. DOI: 10.1002/iub.1328 The above article, published online on November 15, 2014 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the journal's Editors-in-Chief, Angelo Azzi and William J. Whelan, Corresponding Author Tina Wenz, the University of Cologne, and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The article has been retracted on request of the University of Cologne that, after an investigation, established that the data reported in it are not reproducible...
July 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631296/hydrogen-sulphide-as-a-signaling-molecule-regulating-physiopathological-processes-in-gastrointestinal-motility
#17
REVIEW
M Jimenez, V Gil, M Martinez-Cutillas, N Mañé, D Gallego
The biology of H2 S is an emerging area of research since several biological functions have been recently attributed to this gaseous molecule in a vast number of regions including the cardiovascular, urogenital, respiratory, digestive and central nervous system. H2 S exerts anti-inflammatory effects and can be considered an endogenous mediator with potential effects on gastrointestinal motility. During the last years, our research group has investigated the role of H2 S as a regulator of gastrointestinal motility using both animal and human tissues...
June 20, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630310/group-augmentation-collective-action-and-territorial-boundary-patrols-by-male-chimpanzees
#18
Kevin E Langergraber, David P Watts, Linda Vigilant, John C Mitani
How can collective action evolve when individuals benefit from cooperation regardless of whether they pay its participation costs? According to one influential perspective, collective action problems are common, especially when groups are large, but may be solved when individuals who have more to gain from the collective good or can produce it at low costs provide it to others as a byproduct. Several results from a 20-y study of one of the most striking examples of collective action in nonhuman animals, territorial boundary patrolling by male chimpanzees, are consistent with these ideas...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630159/the-mystery-behind-membrane-insertion-a-review-of-the-complement-membrane-attack-complex
#19
REVIEW
Charles Bayly-Jones, Doryen Bubeck, Michelle A Dunstone
The membrane attack complex (MAC) is an important innate immune effector of the complement terminal pathway that forms cytotoxic pores on the surface of microbes. Despite many years of research, MAC structure and mechanism of action have remained elusive, relying heavily on modelling and inference from biochemical experiments. Recent advances in structural biology, specifically cryo-electron microscopy, have provided new insights into the molecular mechanism of MAC assembly. Its unique 'split-washer' shape, coupled with an irregular giant β-barrel architecture, enable an atypical mechanism of hole punching and represent a novel system for which to study pore formation...
August 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629724/in-vitro-antiviral-effects-of-peganum-harmala-seed-extract-and-its-total-alkaloids-against-influenza-virus
#20
Mohammad-Taghi Moradi, Ali Karimi, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei, Fatemeh Fotouhi
This research was aimed to evaluate the in vitro antiviral effect and the mechanism of the effect of Peganum. harmala seeds extract against influenza A virus infection using Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. In this research, ethyl alcohol extract of P. harmala seeds and its total alkaloids was prepared. The potential antiviral activity of the extract and its total alkaloids against influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1; PR8) virus was assessed. The mode of action of the extract to inhibit influenza replication was investigated using virucidal activity, hemagglutination inhibition assay, time of addition assays, RNA replication, western blot analysis and RNA polymerase blocking assay...
June 16, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
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