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Knowledge use

Chuanling Zhang, Xueying Zhou, Tianzhuo Yao, Zhenyu Tian, Demin Zhou
Adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) is a common vehicle for the delivery of a variety of therapeutic genes. A better understanding of the process of infection of AAV2 will advance our knowledge of AAV2 biology and allow for the optimization of AAV2 capsids with favorable transduction profiles. However, the precise fluorescent labeling of an AAV2 vector for probing virus tracking without affecting the nature of the virus remains a challenge. In this study, we precisely displayed lab-synthesized azide-moieties on the viral capsid at modifiable sites...
January 22, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
Mallory King, Brian Sardella
Mozambique tilapia have been shown to be incredibly stress tolerant with respect to environmental salinity, hypoxia, and ammonia concentrations. Temperature challenges to this species have shown that they have difficulty with cold acclimation. The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of acclimation temperature and salinity on the thermal tolerance of Mozambique tilapia as assessed by critical thermal maxima (CTMax) and critical thermal minima (CTMin). We also monitored fish behavior and quantified ventilation rate...
August 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Clement Bommier, Xiulei Ji
Through intense effort in recent years, knowledge of Na-ion batteries has been advanced significantly, pertaining to electrodes. Often, such progress has been accompanied by using a convenient choice of electrolyte or binder. Nevertheless, it has been witnessed that "external" factors to electrodes, such as electrolytes, solid electrolyte interphase, and binders, affect the functions of electrodes profoundly. And generally, certain types of electrodes favor some electrolytes or binders. With a rapidly increasing number of publications in the area, trends in terms of electrolytes and binders are possibly exploitable...
January 22, 2018: Small
Joane S Elleouet, Sally N Aitken
Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) is widely used to infer demographic history of populations and species using DNA markers. Genomic markers can now be developed for non-model species using reduced representation library (RRL) sequencing methods that select a fraction of the genome using targeted sequence capture or restriction enzymes (genotyping-by-sequencing, GBS). We explored the influence of marker number and length, knowledge of gametic phase, and tradeoffs between sample size and sequencing depth on the quality of demographic inferences performed with ABC...
January 22, 2018: Molecular Ecology Resources
Martha R Sleutel, John W Bullion, Ronnie Sullivan
AIM: To evaluate the effect of a manager-required RN competency on staff nurses' perceived knowledge, ability and frequency of information-seeking activities. BACKGROUND: Basing clinical practice on research and standards of care is essential to delivering appropriate care with optimal outcomes. Nurses' information-seeking abilities are critical for acquiring evidence-based answers to aid clinical decision-making, yet nurses under-utilize library resources and report barriers...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Nursing Management
Brendan T Johns, Randall K Jamieson
The collection of very large text sources has revolutionized the study of natural language, leading to the development of several models of language learning and distributional semantics that extract sophisticated semantic representations of words based on the statistical redundancies contained within natural language (e.g., Griffiths, Steyvers, & Tenenbaum, ; Jones & Mewhort, ; Landauer & Dumais, ; Mikolov, Sutskever, Chen, Corrado, & Dean, ). The models treat knowledge as an interaction of processing mechanisms and the structure of language experience...
January 22, 2018: Cognitive Science
Elizabeth L Tung, Kathryn E Gunter, Nyahne Q Bergeron, Stacy Tessler Lindau, Marshall H Chin, Monica E Peek
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the motivations of stakeholders from diverse sectors who engaged in cross-sector collaboration with an academic medical center. DATA SOURCE: Primary qualitative data (2014-2015) were collected from 22 organizations involved in a cross-sector diabetes intervention on the South Side of Chicago. STUDY DESIGN: In-depth, semistructured interviews; participants included leaders from all stakeholder organization types (e...
January 22, 2018: Health Services Research
Marijana Tadic, Cesare Cuspidi, Guido Grassi
BACKGROUND: Heart rate (HR) is a predictor of cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and all-cause mortality in the general population, as well as in patients with cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases. We aimed to summarize current knowledge regarding the influence of HR on cardio- and cerebrovascular morbidity and mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed, MEDLINE, Ovid and Embase databases was searched for large follow-up studies or meta-analysis published between January 1990 and September 2017 in the English language using the following keyword "heart rate", "resting heart rate", "mortality", "outcome", "hypertension", "heart failure", "ischemic heart disease", "coronary heart disease", "stroke"...
January 22, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Timothy J Beebe, Robert M Jacobson, Sarah M Jenkins, Kandace A Lackore, Lila J Finney Rutten
OBJECTIVE: To compare response rate and nonresponse bias across two mixed-mode survey designs and two single-mode designs. DATA SOURCES: This experiment was embedded in a clinician survey of knowledge and attitudes regarding HPV vaccination (n = 275). STUDY DESIGN: Clinicians were randomly assigned one of two mixed-mode (mail/web or web/mail) or single-mode designs (mail-only/web-only). Differences in response rate and nonresponse bias were assessed...
January 22, 2018: Health Services Research
Alberto Vaona, Rita Banzi, Koren H Kwag, Giulio Rigon, Danilo Cereda, Valentina Pecoraro, Irene Tramacere, Lorenzo Moja
BACKGROUND: The use of e-learning, defined as any educational intervention mediated electronically via the Internet, has steadily increased among health professionals worldwide. Several studies have attempted to measure the effects of e-learning in medical practice, which has often been associated with large positive effects when compared to no intervention and with small positive effects when compared with traditional learning (without access to e-learning). However, results are not conclusive...
January 21, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Kasturi Haldar, Souvik Bhattacharjee, Innocent Safeukui
A marked decrease in malaria-related deaths worldwide has been attributed to the administration of effective antimalarials against Plasmodium falciparum, in particular, artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs). Increasingly, ACTs are also used to treat Plasmodium vivax, the second major human malaria parasite. However, resistance to frontline artemisinins and partner drugs is now causing the failure of P. falciparum ACTs in southeast Asia. In this Review, we discuss our current knowledge of markers and mechanisms of resistance to artemisinins and ACTs...
January 22, 2018: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
Stéphanie Roullet, Emmanuel de Maistre, Brigitte Ickx, Normand Blais, Sophie Susen, David Faraoni, Delphine Garrigue, Fanny Bonhomme, Anne Godier, Dominique Lasne
PURPOSE: Viscoelastic tests (VETs), thromboelastography (TEG®) and thromboelastometry (ROTEM®) are global tests of coagulation performed on whole blood. They evaluate the mechanical strength of a clot as it builds and develops after coagulation itself. The time required to obtain haemostasis results remains a major problem for clinicians dealing with bleeding, although some teams have developed a rapid laboratory response strategy. Indeed, the value of rapid point-of-care diagnostic devices such as VETs has increased over the years...
January 17, 2018: Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Medicine
Ching-Heáng Lin, Hsin-I Chou, Ueng-Cheng Yang
OBJECTIVE: Using standards is not only useful for data interchange during the process of a clinical trial, but also useful for analyzing data in a review process. Any step, which speeds up approval of new drugs, may benefit patients. As a result, adopting standards for regulatory submission becomes mandatory in some countries. However, preparing standard-compliant documents, such as annotated case report form (aCRF), needs a great deal of knowledge and experience. The process is complex and labor-intensive...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
Rahila Ummer-Christian, Teresa Iacono, Nathan Grills, Archana Pradhan, Nicole Hughes, Mark Gussy
BACKGROUND: Children with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (IDD) face considerable challenges in participating in dental services. These challenges include resource constraints and inadequate skills of health service providers to work with this population. AIM: The aim was to scope published studies that addressed access to dental services for children with IDD in order to determine the extent to which various barriers have been researched, using an access framework derived from the literature...
January 17, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Vicente Plaza, Jordi Giner, Gustavo J Rodrigo, Myrna B Dolovich, Joaquin Sanchis
BACKGROUND: Inefficient inhaler technique (IT) compromises the optimal delivery of medication. However, the IT knowledge of health care professionals (HCP) has received scant attention. OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review of published reports assessing the IT proficiency of HCPs in using pressurized metered dose (pMDI) and dry powder (DPI) inhalers. METHODS: Studies published between 1975 and 2014 that directly assessed the IT skills of HCPs were selected according to pre-defined selection criteria...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Shuang Qu, Sibao Wang
Entomopathogenic fungi can invade wide range of insect hosts in the natural world and have been used as environmentally friendly alternatives to chemical insecticides for pest control. Studies of host-pathogen interactions provide valuable insights into the coevolutionay arms race between fungal pathogens and their hosts. Entomopathogenic fungi have evolved a series of sophisticated strategies to counter insect immune defenses. In response to fungal infection, insect hosts rely on behavior avoidance and innate defenses in the fight against invading pathogens, including the use of physical barriers and innate immune responses...
January 16, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Adam T Hill, Alan F Barker, Donald C Bolser, Paul Davenport, Belinda Ireland, Anne B Chang, Stuart B Mazzone, Lorcan McGarvey
BACKGROUND: In bronchiectasis, due to cystic fibrosis (CF) and other causes, airways clearance is one of the mainstays of management. We conducted a systematic review on airways clearance using non-pharmacological methods as recommended by international guidelines to develop recommendations or suggestions to update the 2006 CHEST guideline on cough. METHODS: The systematic search for evidence examined the question, "Is there evidence of clinically important treatment effects for non-pharmacological therapies in cough treatment for patients with bronchiectasis?"...
January 17, 2018: Chest
A C R Tanner, C A Kressirer, S Rothmiller, I Johansson, N I Chalmers
The oral microbiome plays a critical role in maintaining oral health. Frequent dietary carbohydrate intake can lead to dysbiosis of the microbial community from overproduction of acid with selection for increases in acidogenic, acid-tolerant bacteria. Knowledge of the caries-associated microbiome is key in planning approaches to reverse the dysbiosis to achieve health. For risk assessment and treatment studies, it would be valuable to establish whether microbial monitoring requires assay of multiple species or whether selected key species would suffice...
February 2018: Advances in Dental Research
Haley E Kragness, Laurel J Trainor
Proper segmentation of auditory streams is essential for understanding music. Many cues, including meter, melodic contour, and harmony, influence adults' perception of musical phrase boundaries. To date, no studies have examined young children's musical grouping in a production task. We used a musical self-pacing method to investigate (1) whether dwell times index young children's musical phrase grouping and, if so, (2) whether children dwell longer on phrase boundaries defined by harmonic cues specifically...
January 22, 2018: Developmental Psychology
Benjamin Oosterhoff, Julie B Kaplow, Christopher M Layne, Robert S Pynoos
Promoting trust in public officials and active political engagement is vital to sustaining a well-functioning democracy. Developmental psychologists propose that youths' beliefs about government and participation in politics are rooted in personal experiences within their communities. Previous studies have focused on how positive experiences within youths' families, schools, and communities facilitate greater social trust and political participation. However, less is known about how negative interpersonal experiences-such as criminal victimization-intersect with youths' beliefs about the trustworthiness, competence, and knowledge of government officials, and their participation in political activity...
January 22, 2018: American Psychologist
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