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Knowledge use

Siddharth A Mahure, Joseph A Bosco, James D Slover, Jonathan Vigdorchik, Richard Iorio, Ran Schwarzkopf
BACKGROUND: Individuals coinfected with both hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV represent a unique and growing population of patients undergoing orthopaedic surgical procedures. Data regarding complications for HCV monoinfection or HIV monoinfection are robust, but there are no data available, to our knowledge, on patients who have both HCV and HIV infections. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: We sought to determine whether patients with coinfection differed in terms of baseline demographics and comorbidity burden as compared with patients without coinfection and whether these potential differences were translated into varying levels of postoperative complications, mortality, and hospital readmission risk...
February 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Germán L Farfalli, Jose I Albergo, Nicolas S Piuzzi, Miguel A Ayerza, D Luis Muscolo, Lucas E Ritacco, Luis A Aponte-Tinao
BACKGROUND: The treatment of locally aggressive bone tumors is a balance between achieving local tumor control and surgical morbidity. Wide resection decreases the likelihood of local recurrence, although wide resection may result in more complications than would happen after curettage. Navigation-assisted surgery may allow more precise resection, perhaps making it possible to expand the procedure's indications and decrease the likelihood of recurrence; however, to our knowledge, comparative studies have not been performed...
March 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Susanne Lohmann, Elke Mattern, Gertrud M Ayerle
OBJECTIVE: To explore how midwives perceive patient preferences related to midwifery care in Germany. DESIGN: This qualitative study, which was part of a larger study, used a hermeneutic-interpretive approach and involved focus group interviews with midwives. Data collection and analysis were done in a conjoined fashion between April 2015 and September 2016. SETTING: Four focus group interviews were conducted in four different federal states of Germany...
February 10, 2018: Midwifery
Verónica Poza-Nogueiras, Emilio Rosales, Marta Pazos, M Ángeles Sanromán
Over the last decades, advanced oxidation processes have often been used alone, or combined with other techniques, for remediation of ground and surface water pollutants. The application of heterogeneous catalysis to electrochemical advanced oxidation processes is especially useful due to its efficiency and environmental safety. Among those processes, electro-Fenton stands out as the one in which heterogeneous catalysis has been broadly applied. Thus, this review has introduced an up-to-date collation of the current knowledge of the heterogeneous electro-Fenton process, highlighting recent advances in the use of different catalysts such as iron minerals (pyrite, magnetite or goethite), prepared catalysts by the load of metals in inorganic and organic materials, nanoparticles, and the inclusion of catalysts on the cathode...
March 2, 2018: Chemosphere
T C M Brock, J D M Belgers, M-C Boerwinkel, L Jollie, M H S Kraak, M J Papo, J A Vonk, I Roessink
This paper deals with species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) for the lipophilic insecticide lufenuron and benthic arthropods based on sediment-spiked laboratory toxicity tests. This compound that inhibits chitin synthesis and moulting of arthropods persists in sediment. Using field-collected sediment, toxicity tests were conducted with three macro-crustaceans and six insects. The Hazardous Concentration to 5% of the tested species, the HC5 (and 95% confidence limit), derived from an SSD constructed with 10d-LC50's was 2...
March 6, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Joshua A Hammons, Fan Zhang, Jan Ilavsky
HYPOTHESIS: Many applications of deep eutectic solvents (DES) rely on exploitation of their unique yet complex liquid structures. Due to the ionic nature of the DES components, their diffuse structures are perturbed in the presence of a charged surface. We hypothesize that it is possible to perturb the bulk DES structure far (>100 nm) from a curved, charged surface with mesoscopic dimensions. EXPERIMENTS: We performed in situ, synchrotron-based ultra-small angle X-ray scattering (USAXS) experiments to study the solvent distribution near the surface of charged mesoporous silica particles (MPS) (≈0...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Linda Rainey, Daniëlle van der Waal, Anna Jervaeus, Yvonne Wengström, D Gareth Evans, Louise S Donnelly, Mireille J M Broeders
BACKGROUND: Increased knowledge of breast cancer risk factors provides opportunities to shift from a one-size-fits-all screening programme to a personalised approach, where screening and prevention is based on a woman's risk of developing breast cancer. However, potential implementation of this new paradigm could present considerable challenges which the present review aims to explore. METHODS: Bibliographic databases were searched to identify studies evaluating potential implications of the implementation of personalised risk-based screening and primary prevention for breast cancer...
March 9, 2018: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
Chunqing Lin, Chiao-Wen Lan, Li Li, Keming Rou
BACKGROUND: Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) programs have expanded rapidly in China during the last decade. However, variance in service providers' practice may have an impact on the quality of care received by the patients. This study examined Chinese service providers' adherence to the MMT protocol and its associated factors. METHODS: The study used baseline data from a randomized intervention trial implemented in MMT clinics in five provinces of China. The data were collected from January 2012 to August 2013...
March 9, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Alexandra Martins, Lúcia Guilhermino
The environmental contamination by microplastics is a global challenge to ecosystem and human health, and the knowledge on the long-term effects of such particles is limited. Thus, the effects of microplastics and post-exposure recovery were investigated over 4 generations (F0 , F1 , F2 , F3 ) using Daphnia magna as model. Effect criteria were parental mortality, growth, several reproductive parameters, and population growth rate. Microplastics exposure (0.1mg/l of pristine polymer microspheres 1-5μm diameter) caused parental mortality (10-100%), and significantly (p≤0...
March 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Ismail Turkan, Baris Uzilday, Karl-Josef Dietz, Andrea Bräutigam, Rengin Ozgur
Redox regulation, antioxidant defence and ROS signalling are critical in realizing and tuning metabolic activities. However, our concepts were mostly developed for C3 plants since Arabidopsis thaliana is major model. Efforts to convert C3 plants to C4 plants to increase yield (see C4 rice; entails better understanding of these processes in C4 plants. Various photosynthetic enzymes that take part in light reactions and carbon reactions are regulated via redox components such as thioredoxins as redox transmitters and peroxiredoxins...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Gemlyn George, Wuttiporn Manatasahit, Manjula Balasubramanian, Victor Navarro
Background: Thromboelastography (TEG) has become the standard of care in liver-transplant surgery to identify real-time abnormalities in the coagulation cascade. To our knowledge, no studies have been performed to measure the intrasubject reproducibility of TEG parameters in cirrhotic patients. Objective: To perform a validation study to determine the reproducibility of TEG in cirrhosis. Methods: We recruited 30 patients with stable cirrhosis and tested 25 of them...
February 24, 2018: Laboratory Medicine
Syed Hidayathulla, Abdelaaty A Shahat, Mansour S Alsaid, Abdullah A Al-Mishari
The present study investigates the optimization of tannase production from A. nidulans for various physicochemical parameters and harvests tannase for its chemical characterization. The maximum tannase activity was observed on the third day of incubation at 35°C and the stability was observed at pH 5.5 to 6.0 by holding its 100% activity. The tannase was partially purified from A. nidulans [FT10] by ammonium sulfate precipitation at different concentrations and it was found that at 80% of ammonium sulfate concentration, the precipitate exhibited the maximum activity for tannase of 96 U/ml...
February 26, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Mohammed Alsuhaibani, Danushka Bollegala, Takanori Maehara, Ken-Ichi Kawarabayashi
Methods for representing the meaning of words in vector spaces purely using the information distributed in text corpora have proved to be very valuable in various text mining and natural language processing (NLP) tasks. However, these methods still disregard the valuable semantic relational structure between words in co-occurring contexts. These beneficial semantic relational structures are contained in manually-created knowledge bases (KBs) such as ontologies and semantic lexicons, where the meanings of words are represented by defining the various relationships that exist among those words...
2018: PloS One
Michael Pablo, Samuel A Ramirez, Timothy C Elston
Polarity establishment, the spontaneous generation of asymmetric molecular distributions, is a crucial component of many cellular functions. Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) undergoes directed growth during budding and mating, and is an ideal model organism for studying polarization. In yeast and many other cell types, the Rho GTPase Cdc42 is the key molecular player in polarity establishment. During yeast polarization, multiple patches of Cdc42 initially form, then resolve into a single front. Because polarization relies on strong positive feedback, it is likely that the amplification of molecular-level fluctuations underlies the generation of multiple nascent patches...
March 12, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Iris E Sommer, Hidde Kleijer, Kenneth Hugdahl
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hallucinations are common and often stressful experiences, occurring in all sensory modalities. They frequently complicate many disorders or situations, such as Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, hearing or vision loss, intoxications and delirium. Although psychoeducation, coping techniques and psychotherapy may be broadly applicable, they do not address a specific underlying brain mechanism. Pharmacotherapy may effectively alleviate hallucinations if the corresponding mechanism is present, whereas in its absence, may only cause harmful side effects...
March 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Junli Wang, Lei Chen, Chenxi Dou, Haiting Yan, Lingjie Meng, Zhiyi Wei
In this work, we fabricate the Mo<sub>0.5</sub>W<sub>0.5</sub>S<sub>2</sub> by microwave-assisted solvothermal method, and report the Q-switched Yb-doped fiber lasers using Mo<sub>0.5</sub>W<sub>0.5</sub>S<sub>2</sub> nanosheets polymer film and tapered fiber as the saturable absorbers (SAs). The modulation depth and saturable intensity of the film SA are 5...
March 12, 2018: Nanotechnology
Bethany M Breck, Cory B Dennis, Skye N Leedahl
Reverse mentoring is a means to address the social work Grand Challenge of social isolation. Among older adults, reverse mentoring can improve social connection by increasing the digital competence of older adults so they can use technology for social benefit, and by facilitating intergenerational connections with young adult mentors. In this paper, reverse mentoring is examined within an intergenerational program that serves older adults and utilizes the native technological knowledge and skills of young adults who mentor older adult participants...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Gerontological Social Work
Michael J Annear
Dementia education disseminated through massive open online courses (MOOCs) has the potential to improve knowledge and care provision among health professionals and lay people. The potential learning effects of a dementia MOOC were assessed using a reliable and valid measure with international volunteers ( N = 3,649) who completed the measure before and after online education. Evaluation of learning effects suggests that the MOOC significantly increased dementia knowledge by at least 17% across six cohorts...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Gerontology: the Official Journal of the Southern Gerontological Society
Ali Mehdizadeh, Laura Rosella, Afsaneh Alavi, Gary Sibbald, Delaram Farzanfar, Ali Hazrati, Lee Vernich, Audrey Laporte, Howard Hu, Morteza Bashash
BACKGROUND: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic debilitating disease with long-lasting comorbidities that impose direct and indirect costs on the health care system. However, limited studies have estimated the burden of this disease in Canada, and no population-based studies have previously addressed this condition. OBJECTIVES: This work describes the characteristics of a population-based HS cohort to address the existing knowledge gap on the burden of HS for the Canadian health care system...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
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