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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346691/reproductive-status-affects-the-feeding-ecology-and-social-association-patterns-of-female-squirrel-monkeys-saimiri-collinsi-in-an-amazonian-rainforest
#1
Luana V P Ruivo, Anita I Stone, Matthew Fienup
When making foraging decisions, female primates may follow specific behavioral strategies that reflect their reproductive state. Lactation is considered the most energetically costly phase for females, but we argue that gestation is also energetically expensive for squirrel monkeys. In this study, we examined whether female squirrel monkeys (a seasonally breeding primate) in different reproductive phases showed significant differences in their foraging ecology. We sampled two wild groups of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri collinsi) using the focal animal method, during 12 months (June 2014 to May 2015)...
March 27, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346159/using-actigraphy-feedback-to-improve-sleep-in-soldiers-an-exploratory-trial
#2
Amy B Adler, Brian C Gunia, Paul D Bliese, Paul Y Kim, Matthew L LoPresti
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to assess the impact of wearing an actigraph and receiving personalized feedback on the sleep of a high-risk occupational group: United States soldiers recently returned from a combat deployment. DESIGN: Following a baseline survey with a full sample, a subsample of soldiers wore an actigraph, received feedback, and completed a brief survey. Two months later, the full sample completed a follow-up survey. The actigraph intervention involved wearing an actigraph for 3 weeks and then receiving a personalized report about sleep patterns and an algorithm-based estimate of cognitive functioning derived from individual sleep patterns...
April 2017: Sleep Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345895/asymmetric-anchoring-is-required-for-efficient-%C3%AE-loop-opening-and-closing-in-cytosolic-phosphoenolpyruvate-carboxykinase
#3
Danica Cui, Aron Broom, Matthew J Mcleod, Elizabeth M Meiering, Todd Holyoak
Mobile Ω-loops play essential roles in the function of many enzymes. Here we investigated the importance of a residue lying outside of the mobile Ω-loop element in the catalytic function of an H477R variant of cPEPCK using crystallographic, kinetic, and computational analysis. The crystallographic data suggest that efficient transitioning of the Ω-loop to the closed conformation requires stabilization of the N-terminus of the loop through contacts between R461 and E588. In contrast, the C-terminal end of the Ω-loop undergoes changing interactions with the enzyme body through contacts between H477 at the C-terminus of the loop and E591 located on the enzyme body...
March 27, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344683/dispositional-mindfulness-predicts-adaptive-affective-responses-to-health-messages-and-increased-exercise-motivation
#4
Yoona Kang, Matthew Brook O'Donnell, Victor J Strecher, Emily B Falk
Feelings can shape how people respond to persuasive messages. In health communication, adaptive affective responses to potentially threating messages constitute one key to intervention success. The current study tested dispositional mindfulness, characterized by awareness of the present moment, as a predictor of adaptive affective responses to potentially threatening health messages and desirable subsequent health outcomes. Both general and discrete negative affective states (i.e., shame) were examined in relation to mindfulness and intervention success...
April 2017: Mindfulness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343951/orthopedic-in-training-examination-a-performance-review-based-on-program-and-resident-specific-characteristics
#5
Christopher L Camp, Ryan M Degen, Norman S Turner, Arlen D Hanssen, Matthew D Karam, Joshua S Dines
OBJECTIVES: The orthopedic in-training examination (OITE) is the most common and objective method used to assess resident knowledge in the United States. As such, residents and programs use a number of strategies to maximize OITE performance. The purpose of this work was to better understand what strategies were being implemented and to determine which program-specific and resident-specific characteristics best correlate with improved scores. DESIGN: A national survey of orthopedic residents and program directors (PDs) was performed to better understand OITE performance and correlate scores with various test preparation strategies...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340041/bleeding-complications-in-patients-undergoing-intrathecal-drug-delivery-system-implantation
#6
Nafisseh S Warner, Markus A Bendel, Matthew A Warner, Jacob J Strand, Halena M Gazelka, Bryan C Hoelzer, William D Mauck, Tim J Lamer, Daryl J Kor, Susan M Moeschler
Introduction.:  Intrathecal drug delivery systems (IDDSs) have dramatically improved analgesia and the functional status of cancer patients and those with chronic pain states. However, given the close proximity to the neuraxis and frequent concomitant use of antiplatelet or anticoagulant medications, this intervention is not without risk. The goal of this investigation was to determine the incidence of bleeding complications following IDDS placement. Methods.:  This is a retrospective review from 2005 through 2014 of adult patients undergoing IDDS implantation or revision at a tertiary care center...
March 3, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339840/the-effects-of-sexual-orientation-on-the-relationship-between-victimization-experiences-and-smoking-status-among-us-women
#7
Alicia K Matthews, Young Ik Cho, Tonda L Hughes, Sharon C Wilsnack, Frances Aranda, Timothy Johnson
Introduction: This study examined the relationships between experiences of childhood and adulthood victimization and current smoking among heterosexual and sexual minority women (SMW). The main hypothesis was that victimization experiences would predict current smoking status. Further, we hypothesized that the effect of childhood victimization on self-reported smoker status would be mediated by adult victimization. Methods: Data are from two studies conducted in the United States that used similar methods and questionnaires in order to conduct a comparative analysis of women based on sexual orientation...
March 1, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339392/stability-of-ribavirin-for-inhalation-packaged-in-syringes-or-glass-vials-when-stored-frozen-refrigerated-and-at-room-temperature
#8
Bayli Larson, Lane R Bushman, Matthew L Casciano, Alan R Oldland, Jennifer J Kiser, Tyree H Kiser
The primary aim of this study was to investigate ribavirin solution for inhalation stability under three different conditions (frozen, refrigerated, room temperature) over a 45-day period. A ribavirin 6000-mg vial was reconstituted with 90 mL of Sterile Water for Injection per the package insert to yield a concentration of approximately 67 mg/mL. The solution was then placed in either syringes or empty glass vials and stored in the freezer (-20°C), in the refrigerator (~0°C to 4°C), or at room temperature (~20°C to 25°C)...
November 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338986/genome-wide-estimates-of-transposable-element-insertion-and-deletion-rates-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#9
Jeffrey R Adrion, Michael J Song, Daniel R Schrider, Matthew W Hahn, Sarah Schaack
Knowing the rate at which transposable elements (TEs) insert and delete is critical for understanding their role in genome evolution. We estimated spontaneous rates of insertion and deletion for all known, active TE superfamilies present in a set of Drosophila melanogaster mutation-accumulation (MA) lines using whole genome sequence data. Our results demonstrate that TE insertions far outpace TE deletions in D. melanogaster. We found a significant effect of background genotype on TE activity, with higher rates of insertions in one MA line...
March 9, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337324/discovery-of-gbt440-an-orally-bioavailable-r-state-stabilizer-of-sickle-cell-hemoglobin
#10
Brian Metcalf, Chihyuan Chuang, Kobina Dufu, Mira P Patel, Abel Silva-Garcia, Carl Johnson, Qing Lu, James R Partridge, Larysa Patskovska, Yury Patskovsky, Steven C Almo, Matthew P Jacobson, Lan Hua, Qing Xu, Stephen L Gwaltney, Calvin Yee, Jason Harris, Bradley P Morgan, Joyce James, Donghong Xu, Athiwat Hutchaleelaha, Kumar Paulvannan, Donna Oksenberg, Zhe Li
We report the discovery of a new potent allosteric effector of sickle cell hemoglobin, GBT440 (36), that increases the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen and consequently inhibits its polymerization when subjected to hypoxic conditions. Unlike earlier allosteric activators that bind covalently to hemoglobin in a 2:1 stoichiometry, 36 binds with a 1:1 stoichiometry. Compound 36 is orally bioavailable and partitions highly and favorably into the red blood cell with a RBC/plasma ratio of ∼150. This partitioning onto the target protein is anticipated to allow therapeutic concentrations to be achieved in the red blood cell at low plasma concentrations...
March 9, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335562/virus-bacteria-interactions-an-emerging-topic-in-human-infection
#11
REVIEW
Erin A Almand, Matthew D Moore, Lee-Ann Jaykus
Bacteria and viruses often occupy the same niches, however, interest in their potential collaboration in promoting wellness or disease states has only recently gained traction. While the interaction of some bacteria and viruses is well characterized (e.g., influenza virus), researchers are typically more interested in the location of the infection than the manner of cooperation. There are two overarching types of bacterial-virus disease causing interactions: direct interactions that in some way aid the viruses, and indirect interactions aiding bacteria...
March 21, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335511/1st-workshop-of-the-canadian-society-for-virology
#12
Craig McCormick, Nathalie Grandvaux
The 1st Workshop of the Canadian Society for Virology (CSV2016) was a Special Workshop of the 35th Annual Meeting for the American Society for Virology, held on 18 June 2016 on the beautiful Virginia Tech campus in Blacksburg, Virginia. The workshop provided a forum for discussion of recent advances in the field, in an informal setting conducive to interaction with colleagues. CSV2016 featured two internationally-renowned Canadian keynote speakers who discussed translational virology research; American Society for Virology President Grant McFadden (then from University of Florida, now relocated to Arizona State University) who presented his studies of oncolytic poxviruses, while Matthew Miller (McMaster University) reviewed the prospects for a universal influenza vaccine...
March 20, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333761/race-ethnicity-health-insurance-and-mortality-in-older-survivors-of-critical-illness
#13
Matthew R Baldwin, Jessica L Sell, Nina Heyden, Azka Javaid, David A Berlin, Wendy C Gonzalez, Peter B Bach, Mathew S Maurer, Gina S Lovasi, David J Lederer
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether minority race or ethnicity is associated with mortality and mediated by health insurance coverage among older (≥ 65 yr old) survivors of critical illness. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Two New York City academic medical centers. PATIENTS: A total of 1,947 consecutive white (1,107), black (361), and Hispanic (479) older adults who had their first medical-ICU admission from 2006 through 2009 and survived to hospital discharge...
March 22, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332863/male-and-female-worldsid-and-post-mortem-human-subject-responses-in-full-scale-vehicle-tests
#14
Narayan Yoganandan, John Humm, Frank Pintar, Heather Rhule, Kevin Moorhouse, Brian Suntay, Jim Stricklin, Rodney Rudd, Matthew Craig
Structured ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the responses of male and female WorldSID dummies with post mortem human subject (PMHS) responses in full-scale vehicle tests. METHODS: Tests were conducted according to the FMVSS-214 protocols and using the United States Side impact New Car Assessment Program change in velocity to match PMHS experiments, published earlier. Moving deformable barrier (MDB) tests were conducted with the male and female surrogates in the left front and left rear seats...
March 23, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332819/a-path-to-impact-for-autonomous-field-deployable-chemical-sensors-a-case-study-of-in-situ-nitrite-sensors
#15
Tim M Schierenbeck, Matthew C Smith
Natural freshwater systems have been severely affected by excess loading of macronutrients (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorous) from fertilizers, fossil fuels, and human and livestock waste. In the USA, impacts to drinking water quality, biogeochemical cycles, and aquatic ecosystems are estimated to cost US$210 billion annually. Field-deployable nutrient sensors (FDS) offer potential to support research and resource management efforts by acquiring higher resolution data than are currently supported by expensive conventional sampling methods...
March 23, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332303/measure-accurately-act-rapidly-and-partner-with-patients-an-intuitive-and-practical-three-part-framework-to-guide-efforts-to-improve-hypertension-control
#16
Romsai T Boonyasai, Michael K Rakotz, Lisa H Lubomski, Donna M Daniel, Jill A Marsteller, Kathryn S Taylor, Lisa A Cooper, Omar Hasan, Matthew K Wynia
Hypertension is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease in the United States and worldwide. It also provides a useful model for team-based chronic disease management. This article describes the M.A.P. checklists: a framework to help practice teams summarize best practices for providing coordinated, evidence-based care to patients with hypertension. Consisting of three domains-Measure Accurately; Act Rapidly; and Partner With Patients, Families, and Communities-the checklists were developed by a team of clinicians, hypertension experts, and quality improvement experts through a multistep process that combined literature review, iterative feedback from a panel of internationally recognized experts, and pilot testing among a convenience sample of primary care practices in two states...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331402/diversity-and-distribution-of-polyphagan-water-beetles-coleoptera-in-the-lake-st-lucia-system-south-africa
#17
Matthew S Bird, David T Bilton, Renzo Perissinotto
Water beetles belonging to the suborder Polyphaga vary greatly in larval and adult ecologies, and fulfil important functional roles in shallow-water ecosystems by processing plant material, scavenging and through predation. This study investigates the species richness and composition of aquatic polyphagan assemblages in and around the St Lucia estuarine lake (South Africa), within the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. A total of 32 sites were sampled over three consecutive collection trips between 2013 and 2015...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330730/no-fat-no-sugar-no-salt-no-problem-prevalence-of-low-content-nutrient-claims-and-their-associations-with-the-nutritional-profile-of-food-and-beverage-purchases-in-the%C3%A2-united-states
#18
Lindsey Smith Taillie, Shu Wen Ng, Ya Xue, Emily Busey, Matthew Harding
BACKGROUND: Nutrient claims are a commonly used marketing tactic, but the association between claims and nutritional quality of products is unknown. The objective of this study was to examine trends in the proportion of packaged food and beverage purchases with a nutrient claim, whether claims are associated with improved nutritional profile, and whether the proportion of purchases with claims differs by race/ethnicity or socioeconomic status. METHODS: This cross-sectional study examined nutrient claims on more than 80 million food and beverage purchases from a transaction-level database of 40,000 US households from 2008 to 2012...
March 6, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330499/a-novel-multi-network-approach-reveals-tissue-specific-cellular-modulators-of-fibrosis-in-systemic-sclerosis
#19
Jaclyn N Taroni, Casey S Greene, Viktor Martyanov, Tammara A Wood, Romy B Christmann, Harrison W Farber, Robert A Lafyatis, Christopher P Denton, Monique E Hinchcliff, Patricia A Pioli, J Matthew Mahoney, Michael L Whitfield
BACKGROUND: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a multi-organ autoimmune disease characterized by skin fibrosis. Internal organ involvement is heterogeneous. It is unknown whether disease mechanisms are common across all involved affected tissues or if each manifestation has a distinct underlying pathology. METHODS: We used consensus clustering to compare gene expression profiles of biopsies from four SSc-affected tissues (skin, lung, esophagus, and peripheral blood) from patients with SSc, and the related conditions pulmonary fibrosis (PF) and pulmonary arterial hypertension, and derived a consensus disease-associate signature across all tissues...
March 23, 2017: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329491/congenital-erythropoietic-porphyria-gunther-disease-long-term-follow-up-of-a-case-and-review
#20
Matthew Howard, Anthony Hall, Donald Ramsay
Patients with the rare genodermatosis congenitalerythropoietic porphyria (CEP, Gunther disease)develop erosions and scarring on sun-exposedsites caused by phototoxin mediated damage.Compromised skin barrier function places patientsat higher risk of infection and long term sequelaeinclude scarring. We report a long term follow up ofa 60 year old patient born with CEP and provide anextensive literature review of CEP including recentupdates on potential management options. Multiplepatient interviews and collection of biochemistry datawere conducted for the case discussion...
February 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
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