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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915864/physical-fitness-and-anthropometric-characteristics-among-adolescents-living-in-urban-or-rural-areas-of-kosovo
#1
Faton Tishukaj, Ismet Shalaj, Masar Gjaka, Besim Ademi, Rrustem Ahmetxhekaj, Norbert Bachl, Harald Tschan, Barbara Wessner
BACKGROUND: High physical fitness levels in childhood and adolescence are associated with positive health-related outcomes later in life. Albeit many researchers investigated rural-urban differences in physical fitness, the outcomes of these studies are inconsistent and data on Kosovo are widely missing. Thus, this study aims to examine anthropometric and physical fitness parameters in 14 to 15 year old Kosovan adolescents living in rural and urban areas. METHODS: Two schools from Pristina (mostly urban population) and two schools in the surrounding villages of the district of Deçan (mostly rural population) were selected...
September 16, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902118/concurrent-training-followed-by-detraining-does-the-resistance-training-intensity-matter
#2
António C Sousa, Daniel A Marinho, Maria H Gil, Mikel Izquierdo, David Rodríguez-Rosell, Henrique P Neiva, Mário C Marques
The aim of the present study was to analyze the training and detraining effects of concurrent aerobic training and resistance training against three different external loads on strength and aerobic variables. Thirty-two men were randomly assigned to four groups: low-load (LLG, n=9), moderate-load (MLG, n=9), high-load (HLG, n=8), and control group (CG, n=6). Resistance training consisted of FS with a low-load (40-55% 1RM), a moderate-load (55-70% 1RM) or a high-load (70-85% 1RM) combined with jump and sprint exercises...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902113/comparative-effects-of-two-interval-shuttle-run-training-modes-on-physiological-and-performance-adaptations-in-female-professional-futsal-players
#3
Anderson S Teixeira, Francimara B Arins, Ricardo D De Lucas, Lorival J Carminatti, Naiandra Dittrich, Fábio Yuzo Nakamura, Luiz Guilherme A Guglielmo
The purpose of the present study was to analyze the effects of two shuttle-run interval training (SRIT) models with one and three directional changes per running bout on the aerobic and anaerobic performances of elite female futsal players. Sixteen players competing in the Brazilian National Division League took part in the study. The training protocols consisted of shuttle-run intervals organized in four sets of 4-min bouts with 3- min of rest intervals between the sets. The SRIT models were composed of one (7...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902107/reliability-of-the-maximal-resisted-sprint-load-test-and-relationships-with-performance-measures-and-anthropometric-profile-in-female-field-sport-athletes
#4
George Petrakos, Nicola C Tynan, Adam M Vallely-Farrell, Cillian Kiely, Abdelhak Boudhar, Brendan Egan
Resisted sled sprint (RSS) training is an effective modality for the improvement of linear sprint speed. Previous methods of RSS load prescription e.g. an absolute load or as a percentage of body mass (%BM), do not account for inter-individual differences in strength, power or speed characteristics, although the 'maximum resisted sled load' (MRSL) method of RSS load prescription may provide a solution. MRSL is defined as the final RSS load before an athlete can no longer accelerate between two phases (10-15 m and 15-20 m) of a 20 m linear sprint...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878461/comparison-of-physical-activities-of-female-football-players-in-junior-high-school-and-high-school
#5
Yuri Inoue, Yoshitaka Otani, Seiichi Takemasa
[Purpose] This study aimed to compare physical activities between junior high school and high school female football players in order to explain the factors that predispose to a higher incidence of sports injuries in high school female football players. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine female football players participated. Finger floor distance, the center of pressure during single limb stance with eyes open and closed, the 40-m linear sprint time, hip abduction and extension muscle strength and isokinetic knee flexion and extension peak torque were measured...
August 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873030/differences-in-hamstring-activation-characteristics-between-the-acceleration-and-maximum-speed-phases-of-sprinting
#6
Ayako Higashihara, Yasuharu Nagano, Takashi Ono, Toru Fukubayashi
This study aimed to investigate activation characteristics of the biceps femoris long head (BFlh) and semitendinosus (ST) muscles during the acceleration and maximum-speed phases of sprinting. Lower-extremity kinematics and electromyographic (EMG) activities of the BFlh and ST muscles were examined during the acceleration sprint and maximum-speed sprint in 13 male sprinters during an overground sprinting. Differences in hamstring activation during each divided phases and in the hip and knee joint angles and torques at each time point of the sprinting gait cycle were determined between two sprints...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866111/does-player-unavailability-affect-football-teams-match-physical-outputs-a-two-season-study-of-the-uefa-champions-league
#7
Johann Windt, Jan Ekstrand, Karim M Khan, Alan McCall, Bruno D Zumbo
OBJECTIVES: Player unavailability negatively affects team performance in elite football. However, whether player unavailability and its concomitant performance decrement is mediated by any changes in teams' match physical outputs is unknown. We examined whether the number of players injured (i.e. unavailable for match selection) was associated with any changes in teams' physical outputs. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: Between-team variation was calculated by correlating average team availability with average physical outputs...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859419/complex-reproductive-traits-and-whole-organism-performance
#8
T J Orr, Theodore Garland
Arnold's 1983 path-analytic paradigm, considering "morphology, performance, and fitness," has been elaborated in several ways. For example, current versions recognize the level of "behavior" (including aspects of motivation) as a filter between performance abilities (only measurable if motivation is maximal) and fitness components. Performance abilities constrain behavior, but behavioral choices may shield performance from selection. Conceptual and empirical issues remain, such as the extent to which individual variation in lower-level subordinate traits (e...
August 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859414/physiological-and-biomechanical-mechanisms-of-distance-specific-human-running-performance
#9
M A Thompson
Running events range from 60-m sprints to ultra-marathons covering 100 miles or more, which presents an interesting diversity in terms of the parameters for successful performance. Here, we review the physiological and biomechanical variations underlying elite human running performance in sprint to ultramarathon distances. Maximal running speeds observed in sprint disciplines are achieved by high vertical ground reaction forces applied over short contact times. To create this high force output, sprint events rely heavily on anaerobic metabolism, as well as a high number and large cross-sectional area of type II fibers in the leg muscles...
August 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859413/locomotion-energetics-performance-and-behavior-a-mammalian-perspective-on-lizards-and-vice-versa
#10
Theodore Garland, Ralph L Albuquerque
Animals are constrained by their abilities and by interactions with environmental factors, such as low ambient temperatures. These constraints range from physical impossibilities to energetic inefficiencies, and may entail trade-offs. Some of the constraints related to locomotion and activity metabolism can be illustrated through allometric comparisons of mammals and lizards, as representative terrestrial vertebrate endotherms and ectotherms, respectively, because these lineages differ greatly in aerobic metabolic capacities, resting energetic costs, and thermoregulatory patterns...
August 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858060/reliability-of-three-timing-systems-used-to-time-short-on-ice-skating-sprints-in-ice-hockey-players
#11
Colin W Bond, Emily M Willaert, Kyle E Rudningen, Benjamin C Noonan
Speed and acceleration are highly valued in ice hockey and frequently assessed using timing systems. Coaches must use reliable timing systems to assess these attributes, but many systems have not been thoroughly evaluated and the required number of sprint repetitions to obtain the coach's desired degree of reliability for a system may be impractical. This study aimed to compare the reliability of a single photocell (PC), a single laser with a microprocessor (LA), and a digital video camera (VC); and in doing so, evaluate the influence of completing additional sprint repetitions on each systems' reliability...
August 26, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858057/effects-of-six-weeks-sprint-strength-and-agility-training-on-body-composition-cardiovascular-and-physiological-parameters-of-male-field-hockey-players
#12
Hanjabam Barun Sharma, Jyotsna Kailashiya
Optimal physiological and cardiovascular characteristics are essential for optimal physical performance. Different types of training regimes affect these characteristics and lead to trainee's adaptation and changes in relevant parameters. In present interventional study we have evaluated effects of six weeks sprint-strength & agility training on such parameters. Twenty four young Indian national hockey players volunteered for this study. BW(weight), BMI, BF (%body fat), LBM (lean body mass), rHR (resting heart rate), rBP (blood pressure), rDP (double-product), P/power (using Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test), VJ (vertical jump), SP (seated shot-put test), BS (ball-hitting speed), Tm (505-agility test) & VO2max were measured, and changes (d) after specified training regime were studied...
August 26, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828094/variability-of-metabolic-power-data-in-elite-soccer-players-during-pre-season-matches
#13
Matthias Wilhelm Hoppe, Christian Baumgart, Mirko Slomka, Ted Polglaze, Jürgen Freiwald
This study aimed to determine the within-subject variability of GPS-derived metabolic power data in elite soccer players across several pre-season matches and compare the variability of high metabolic power, velocity, acceleration and deceleration running. Additionally, differences in metabolic power data among playing positions and relationships with various physical abilities were also investigated. Metabolic power data from 12 outfield starting players competing in the German Bundesliga were collected during five pre-season matches using GPS-technology (10 Hz)...
September 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828087/high-speed-running-and-sprinting-profiles-of-elite-soccer-players
#14
Javier Miñano-Espin, Luis Casáis, Carlos Lago-Peñas, Miguel Ángel Gómez-Ruano
Real Madrid was named as the best club of the 20th century by the International Federation of Football History and Statistics. The aim of this study was to compare if players from Real Madrid covered shorter distances than players from the opposing team. One hundred and forty-nine matches including league, cup and UEFA Champions League matches played by the Real Madrid were monitored during the 2001-2002 to the 2006-2007 seasons. Data from both teams (Real Madrid and the opponent) were recorded. Altogether, 2082 physical performance profiles were examined, 1052 from the Real Madrid and 1031 from the opposing team (Central Defenders (CD) = 536, External Defenders (ED) = 491, Central Midfielders (CM) = 544, External Midfielders (EM) = 233, and Forwards (F) = 278)...
September 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828081/effects-of-plyometric-training-and-beta-alanine-supplementation-on-maximal-intensity-exercise-and-endurance-in-female-soccer-players
#15
Fabián Rosas, Rodrigo Ramírez-Campillo, Cristian Martínez, Alexis Caniuqueo, Rodrigo Cañas-Jamet, Emma McCrudden, Cesar Meylan, Jason Moran, Fábio Y Nakamura, Lucas A Pereira, Irineu Loturco, Daniela Diaz, Mikel Izquierdo
Plyometric training and beta-alanine supplementation are common among soccer players, although its combined use had never been tested. Therefore, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to compare the effects of a plyometric training program, with or without beta-alanine supplementation, on maximal-intensity and endurance performance in female soccer players during an in-season training period. Athletes (23.7 ± 2.4 years) were assigned to either a plyometric training group receiving a placebo (PLACEBO, n = 8), a plyometric training group receiving beta-alanine supplementation (BA, n = 8), or a control group receiving placebo without following a plyometric training program (CONTROL, n = 9)...
September 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806410/the-influence-of-speed-abilities-and-technical-skills-in-early-adolescence-on-adult-success-in-soccer-a-long-term-prospective-analysis-using-anova-and-sem-approaches
#16
Oliver Höner, Daniel Leyhr, Augustin Kelava
Several talent development programs in youth soccer have implemented motor diagnostics measuring performance factors. However, the predictive value of such tests for adult success is a controversial topic in talent research. This prospective cohort study evaluated the long-term predictive value of 1) motor tests and 2) players' speed abilities (SA) and technical skills (TS) in early adolescence. The sample consisted of 14,178 U12 players from the German talent development program. Five tests (sprint, agility, dribbling, ball control, shooting) were conducted and players' height, weight as well as relative age were assessed at nationwide diagnostics between 2004 and 2006...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803134/age-related-changes-of-physiological-performance-and-survivorship-of-bank-voles-selected-for-high-aerobic-capacity
#17
Agata Marta Rudolf, Maciej Jan Dańko, Edyta Teresa Sadowska, Geoffrey Dheyongera, Paweł Koteja
Variation in lifespans is an intriguing phenomenon, but how metabolic rate influence this variation remains unclear. High aerobic capacity can result in health benefits, but also in increased oxidative damage and accelerated ageing. We tested these contradictory predictions using bank voles (Myodes=Clethrionomys glareolus) from lines selected for high swim-induced aerobic metabolism (A), which had about 50% higher maximum metabolic rate and a higher basal and routine metabolic rates, than those from unselected control lines (C)...
August 10, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771061/comparison-of-performance-levels-and-sex-on-sprint-race-performance-in-the-biathlon-world-cup
#18
Harri Luchsinger, Jan Kocbach, Gertjan Ettema, Øyvind Sandbakk
Biathlon is an Olympic sport combining cross-country skiing with the skating technique and rifle shooting. The sprint (7.5 km for women and 10 km for men) includes two shootings between the three laps of skiing. The aims of the current study are to compare biathletes of different performance-levels and sex on total race time and performance-determining factors of sprint races in the biathlon World Cup. The top 10-performers (G1-10) and results within rank 21-30 (G21-30) in 47 sprint races during the 2011/2012 to 2015/2016 World Cup seasons were compared regarding total race time, course time, shooting time, range time, shooting performance (rate of hits) and penalty time...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767317/effects-of-inter-limb-asymmetries-on-physical-and-sports-performance-a-systematic-review
#19
Chris Bishop, Anthony Turner, Paul Read
The prevalence of inter-limb asymmetries has been reported in numerous studies across a wide range of sports and physical qualities; however, few have analysed their effects on physical and sports performance. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken using the Medline and SPORT Discus databases, with all articles required to meet a specified criteria based on a quality review. Eighteen articles met the inclusion criteria, relating participant asymmetry scores to physical and sports performance measures...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731979/global-positioning-system-analysis-of-a-high-school-football-scrimmage
#20
Benjamin H Gleason, Matthew L Sams, John T Salley, A Andrew Pustina, Michael H Stone
Gleason, BH, Sams, M, Salley, JT, Pustina, A, and Stone, MH. Global positioning system analysis of a high school football scrimmage. J Strength Cond Res 31(8): 2183-2188, 2017-The purpose of this study was to examine the physical demands of a high school American football scrimmage. Male high school football players (N = 25) participated in a spring scrimmage. Global positioning system data and game film were recorded throughout the entirety of the scrimmage to determine the total distance covered, the distance covered in different velocity bands, the number of accelerations and decelerations performed, and the work-to-rest ratio of the scrimmage...
August 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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