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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409503/food-restriction-affects-maternal-investment-but-not-neonate-phenotypes-in-a-viviparous-lizard
#1
Yang Wang, Zhi-Gao Zeng, Liang Ma, Shu-Ran Li, Wei-Guo Du
Food availability significantly affects an animal's energy metabolism, and thus its phenotype, survival, and reproduction. Maternal and offspring responses to food conditions are critical for understanding population dynamics and life-history evolution of a species. In this study, we conducted food manipulation experiments in field enclosures to identify the effect of food restriction on female reproductive traits and postpartum body condition, as well as on hatchling phenotypes, in a lacertid viviparous lizard from the Inner Mongolian desert steppe of China...
March 18, 2017: Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406104/institutionalized-physical-activity-curriculum-benefits-of-medical-students-in-colombia
#2
Gustavo Tovar, Gabriel López, Milcíades Ibáñez, Ricardo Alvarado, Felipe Lobelo, John Duperly
BACKGROUND: Health authorities internationally have recommended implementing physical activity and exercise for health training programs within the curriculum of medical schools. The purpose of this evaluation was to determine the changes in physical fitness and health (Fitnessgram criteria) of a sports medicine and physical activity course implemented for 3rd year students in a private medical school in Bogotá, Colombia. METHODS: Intervention was targeted to 13 medical student cohorts...
September 2016: Education for Health: Change in Training & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405396/multimodal-communication-in-courting-fiddler-crabs-reveals-male-performance-capacities
#3
Sophie L Mowles, Michael Jennions, Patricia R Y Backwell
Courting males often perform different behavioural displays that demonstrate aspects of their quality. Male fiddler crabs, Uca sp., are well known for their repetitive claw-waving display during courtship. However, in some species, males produce an additional signal by rapidly stridulating their claw, creating a 'drumming' vibrational signal through the substrate as a female approaches, and even continue to drum once inside their burrow. Here, we show that the switch from waving to drumming might provide additional information to the female about the quality of a male, and the properties of his burrow (multiple message hypothesis)...
March 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396485/alteration-of-swing-leg-work-and-power-during-human-accelerated-sprinting
#4
Ryu Nagahara, Takeo Matsubayashi, Akifumi Matsuo, Koji Zushi
This study investigated changes in lower-extremity joint work and power during the swing phase in a maximal accelerated sprinting. Twelve male sprinters performed 60-m maximal sprints while motion data was recorded. Lower-extremity joint work and power during the swing phase of each stride for both legs were calculated. Positive hip and negative knee work (≈4.3 and ≈-2.9 J·kg(-1)) and mean power (≈13.4 and ≈-8.7 W·kg(-1)) during the entire swing phase stabilized or decreased after the 26.2±1.1 (9...
April 10, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387540/n-3-fatty-acid-supplementation-during-4-weeks-of-training-leads-to-improved-anaerobic-endurance-capacity-but-not-maximal-strength-speed-or-power-in-soccer-players
#5
Leyre Gravina, Frankie F Brown, Lee Alexander, James Dick, Gordon Bell, Oliver C Witard, Stuart D R Galloway
Omega-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA) supplementation could promote adaptation to soccer-specific training. We examined the impact of a 4 wk period of n-3 FA supplementation during training on adaptations in 1RM knee extensor strength, 20m sprint speed, vertical jump power, and anaerobic endurance capacity (Yo-Yo test) in competitive soccer players. Twenty six soccer players were randomly assigned to one of two groups: n-3 FA supplementation (n-3 FA; n=13) or placebo (n=13). Both groups performed two experimental trial days...
April 7, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344734/aerobic-capacity-is-related-to-repeated-sprint-ability-with-sprint-distances-less-than-40-meters
#6
Gabriel J Sanders, Zachary Turner, Brian Boos, Corey A Peacock, Willard Peveler, Alar Lipping
Research is inconclusive regarding the association between aerobic fitness (objectively measured VO2max) and repeated sprint performance when the sprints are less than 40 meters. Soccer athletes must be able to repeat sprints without significant decreases in speed and strength and conditioning coaches need to better understand if aerobic fitness is related to repeated sprint ability (RSA). Twenty (10 male, 10 female) Division I soccer athletes first completed a graded maximal treadmill test to measure VO2max...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344464/the-biomechanics-of-standing-start-and-initial-acceleration-reliability-of-the-key-determining-kinematics
#7
Regan J Standing, Peter S Maulder
The reliability of the key determining kinematic variables associated with short sprint performance provide insight into how and why movement may vary between individual trials. Currently, literature surrounding these determinants is scarce when investigating the first three strides of a sprint. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of sprint acceleration and the key kinematic determinants involved during the first three steps of the movement. The aim was to use a practical method of kinematic analysis to help explain why changes may occur in sprint performance via the use of correlative statistics and to provide reference values for intervention research to make conclusions about their change scores...
March 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344461/within-session-sequence-of-balance-and-plyometric-exercises-does-not-affect-training-adaptations-with-youth-soccer-athletes
#8
Mehdi Chaouachi, Urs Granacher, Issam Makhlouf, Raouf Hammami, David G Behm, Anis Chaouachi
The integration of balance and plyometric training has been shown to provide significant improvements in sprint, jump, agility, and other performance measures in young athletes. It is not known if a specific within session balance and plyometric exercise sequence provides more effective training adaptations. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of using a sequence of alternating pairs of exercises versus a block (series) of all balance exercises followed by a block of plyometric exercises on components of physical fitness such as muscle strength, power, speed, agility, and balance...
March 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344447/movement-demands-and-running-intensities-of-semi-professional-rugby-league-players-during-a-9-s-tournament-a-case-study
#9
Paul Inglis, Stephen P Bird
The objective of the study was to describe the movement demands and running intensities of semi-professional rugby league players during a rugby league 9's (RL9's) tournament. Six semi-professional rugby league players competed in a RL9's tournament over a two-day period comprising of six games. Movement demands and running intensities were recorded using Global Positioning System (GPS) devices providing data on distance and speeds. Data is presented as mean (95% Confidence Intervals) with changes (≥ 75%) likely to exceed the smallest worthwhile change (0...
March 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344446/prediction-of-tennis-performance-in-junior-elite-tennis-players
#10
Tamara Kramer, Barbara C H Huijgen, Marije T Elferink-Gemser, Chris Visscher
Predicting current and future tennis performance can lead to improving the development of junior tennis players. The aim of this study is to investigate whether age, maturation, or physical fitness in junior elite tennis players in U13 can explain current and future tennis performance. The value of current tennis performance for future tennis performance is also investigated. A total of 86 junior elite tennis players (boys, n = 44; girls, n = 42) U13 (aged: 12.5 ± 0.3 years), and followed to U16, took part in this study...
March 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343577/effects-of-pregnancy-on-body-temperature-and-locomotor-performance-of-velvet-geckos
#11
Buddhi Dayananda, Nora Ibargüengoytía, Martin J Whiting, Jonathan K Webb
Pregnancy is a challenging period for egg laying squamates. Carrying eggs can encumber females and decrease their locomotor performance, potentially increasing their risk of predation. Pregnant females can potentially reduce this handicap by selecting higher temperatures to increase their sprint speed and ability to escape from predators, or to speed up embryonic development and reduce the period during which they are burdened with eggs ('selfish mother' hypothesis). Alternatively, females might select more stable body temperatures during pregnancy to enhance offspring fitness ('maternal manipulation hypothesis'), even if the maintenance of such temperatures compromises a female's locomotor performance...
April 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323574/the-effects-of-an-increased-calorie-breakfast-consumed-prior-to-simulated-match-play-in-academy-soccer-players
#12
Marc A Briggs, Liam D Harper, Ged McNamee, Emma Cockburn, Penny L S Rumbold, Emma J Stevenson, Mark Russell
Dietary analysis of Academy soccer players highlights that total energy and carbohydrate intakes are less than optimal, especially, on match-days. As UK Academy matches predominantly kick-off at ∼11:00 h, breakfast is likely the last pre-exercise meal and thus may provide an intervention opportunity on match-day. Accordingly, the physiological and performance effects of an increased calorie breakfast consumed ∼135-min before soccer-specific exercise was investigated. English Premier League Academy soccer players (n = 7) repeated a 90-min soccer match simulation on two occasions after consumption of habitual (Bhab; ∼1100 kJ) or increased (Binc; ∼2100 kJ) energy breakfasts standardised for macronutrient contributions (∼60% carbohydrates, ∼15% proteins and ∼25% fats)...
March 21, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315285/effects-of-plyometric-training-on-physical-fitness-in-prepuberal-soccer-athletes
#13
Yassine Negra, Helmi Chaabene, Senda Sammoud, Raja Bouguezzi, Mohamed Aymen Abbes, Younés Hachana, Urs Granacher
This study aimed at examining the effects of plyometric training on stable (SPT) vs. unstable (UPT) surfaces on physical fitness in prepuberal soccer players. Male athletes were randomly assigned to SPT (n=18; age=12.7±0.2 years) or UPT (n=16; age=12.2±0.5 years). Both groups conducted 3 regular soccer training sessions per week combined with either 2 SPT or UPT sessions. Assessment of jumping ability (countermovement jump [CMJ], and standing long jump [SLJ]), speed (10-m, 20-m, 30-m sprint), agility (Illinois agility test [IAT]), and balance (stable [SSBT], unstable [USBT] stork balance test; stable [SYBT], unstable [UYBT] Y balance test) was conducted pre-and post-training...
March 17, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315193/resistance-training-using-different-hypoxic-training-strategies-a-basis-for-hypertrophy-and-muscle-power-development
#14
REVIEW
Belén Feriche, Amador García-Ramos, Antonio J Morales-Artacho, Paulino Padial
The possible muscular strength, hypertrophy, and muscle power benefits of resistance training under environmental conditions of hypoxia are currently being investigated.Nowadays, resistance training in hypoxia constitutes a promising new training strategy for strength and muscle gains. The main mechanisms responsible for these effects seem to be related to increased metabolite accumulation due to hypoxia. However, no data are reported in the literature to describe and compare the efficacy of the different hypertrophic resistance training strategies in hypoxia...
December 2017: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303909/sprint-interval-training-induces-a-sexual-dimorphism-but-does-not-improve-peak-bone-mass-in-young-and-healthy-mice
#15
Kathrin Koenen, Isabell Knepper, Madlen Klodt, Anja Osterberg, Ioannis Stratos, Thomas Mittlmeier, Tina Histing, Michael D Menger, Brigitte Vollmar, Sven Bruhn, Brigitte Müller-Hilke
Elevated peak bone mass in early adulthood reduces the risk for osteoporotic fractures at old age. As sports participation has been correlated with elevated peak bone masses, we aimed to establish a training program that would efficiently stimulate bone accrual in healthy young mice. We combined voluntary treadmill running with sprint interval training modalities that were tailored to the individual performance limits and were of either high or intermediate intensity. Adolescent male and female STR/ort mice underwent 8 weeks of training before the hind legs were analyzed for cortical and trabecular bone parameters and biomechanical strength...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290718/assessments-of-mechanical-stiffness-and-relationships-to-performance-determinants-in-middle-distance-runners
#16
Simon A Rogers, Chris S Whatman, Simon N Pearson, Andrew E Kilding
PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine relationships between methods of lower-limb stiffness and their associations with running economy (RE) and maximal velocity (vmax) in middle-distance (MD) runners. METHODS: Eleven highly-trained male MD runners performed a series of mechanical and physiological tests to determine maximal overground sprint speed, RE and V̇O2peak. Achilles tendon stiffness (kT) was estimated using ultrasonography during maximal isometric ankle plantarflexion...
March 14, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277431/validity-of-single-beam-timing-lights-at-different-heights
#17
Stefan Altmann, Max Spielmann, Florian Engel, Rainer Neumann, Steffen Ringhof, Doris Oriwol, Sascha Haertel
The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of different timing light heights on sprint time and the validity of measurement. Two single beam timing gate systems were used to measure 30-m sprint time (splits at 5 m and 10 m) in 15 healthy and physically active male subjects. System 1 was set up at a height of 0.64 m, system 2 at 0.25 m (initial timing light) and 1.00 m (each following timing light), respectively. Participants performed three valid trials. The recordings of a high-speed video camera were used as a reference...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277402/a-multifactorial-criteria-based-progressive-algorithm-for-hamstring-injury-treatment
#18
Jurdan Mendiguchia, Enrique Martinez-Ruiz, Pascal Edouard, Jean-Benoît Morin, Francisco Martinez-Martinez, Fernando Idoate, Alberto Mendez-Villanueva
INTRODUCTION: Given the prevalence of hamstring injuries in football, a rehabilitation program that effectively promotes muscle tissue repair and functional recovery is paramount to minimize re-injury risk and optimize player performance and availability. PURPOSE: To assess the concurrent effectiveness of administering an individualized and multifactorial criteria-based algorithm (RA) on hamstring injury rehabilitation in comparison to employing a general rehabilitation protocol (RP)...
March 8, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273602/reference-values-for-running-sprint-field-tests-in-preschool-children-a-population-based-study
#19
Pedro Ángel Latorre-Román, David Mora-López, Melchor Martínez-Redondo, Felipe García-Pinillos
The purpose of this study was to determine reference values in the 20m sprint test for Spanish preschool children and to examine the influence of age, sex and anthropometrics characteristics in sprint performance. A cross-sectional study was used. A total of 3076 children, aged 3 to 6 years, participated in this study (1539 girls and 1537 boys). To measure running speed, the 20m sprint test was used. In the analysis of reliability, using test-retest with 89 children (48% boys), the following descriptive results were obtained (mean, SD): at pretest=5...
December 13, 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263670/proximal-neuromuscular-control-protects-against-hamstring-injuries-in-male-soccer-players
#20
Joke Schuermans, Lieven Danneels, Damien Van Tiggelen, Tanneke Palmans, Erik Witvrouw
BACKGROUND: With their unremittingly high incidence rate and detrimental functional repercussions, hamstring injuries remain a substantial problem in male soccer. Proximal neuromuscular control ("core stability") is considered to be of key importance in primary and secondary hamstring injury prevention, although scientific evidence and insights on the exact nature of the core-hamstring association are nonexistent at present. HYPOTHESIS: The muscle activation pattern throughout the running cycle would not differ between participants based on injury occurrence during follow-up...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
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