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Sprint speed

Hardaway Chun-Kwan Chan, Weeraya Ka-Yan Ho, Patrick Shu-Hang Yung
Background/Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of sprint cycling training on the intermittent run performance, sprinting speed, and change of direction (COD) ability of recreational intermittent sports athletes. Methods: Sixteen participants participated in the study. The experimental group (EG, n = 8) received a total of 12 sessions of sprint cycling training in a 4-week period and the control group (CG, n = 8) received no training. Both EG and CG were instructed to maintain their daily activity during the 4-week period...
January 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation and Technology
Olaf Prieske, Tom Krüger, Markus Aehle, Erik Bauer, Urs Granacher
Power training programs have proved to be effective in improving components of physical fitness such as speed. According to the concept of training specificity, it was postulated that exercises must attempt to closely mimic the demands of the respective activity. When transferring this idea to speed development, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of resisted sprint (RST) vs. traditional power training (TPT) on physical fitness in healthy young adults. Thirty-five healthy, physically active adults were randomly assigned to a RST ( n = 10, 23 ± 3 years), a TPT ( n = 9, 23 ± 3 years), or a passive control group ( n = 16, 23 ± 2 years)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Nikita Woodhead, Kelly M Hare, Alison Cree
The existence of sex differences in digit-length ratio (especially between the second and fourth digits, 2D:4D) is well established for humans from fetal life onwards, and has been linked with later performance. In rodents, the ratio is affected prenatally by exposure to androgens and estrogens, with some research suggesting an influence from sex of the neighbouring intrauterine fetus. However, the ubiquity and ontogenetic development of sexual dimorphism in digit ratios is not well established among wild amniotes...
March 15, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Christian Møller Madsen, Benjamin Badault, Lars Nybo
Badminton-specific speed and endurance performance was evaluated in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of elite youth players and compared to the physiological capacities of world top-50 singles players.The cross-sectional study involved ten males in the category U15 (<15 years), ten U17, nine U19 and four senior elite players. They performed 30-m sprint, counter-movement jump (CMJ) and badminton-specific speed (B-SPEED) and endurance (B-ENDURANCE) tests. The longitudinal data were collected for ten U15 players with 1- and 2-year follow-up measures...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Esther Morencos, Blanca Romero-Moraleda, Carlo Castagna, David Casamichana
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine the influence of match period on the movement patterns of hockey players according to their playing position under the introduction of quarters. METHODS: Sixteen sub-elite level Spanish National League male hockey players participated in the study (age: 25.5 ± 2.9 years; body mass: 74.6 ± 5.5 kg). Global Positioning Systems (GPS) devices were used to monitor players running performance during 17 competitive matches (113 match-play profiles)...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Marcus J Colby, Brian Dawson, Peter Peeling, Jarryd Heasman, Brent Rogalski, Michael K Drew, Jordan Stares
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of multiple high risk scenario (HRS) exposures on non-contact injury prediction in elite Australian footballers. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: Sessional workload data (session-rating of perceived exertion; GPS-derived distance, sprint distance, maximum velocity) from one club (n= 60 players) over 3 seasons were collated; several established HRS were also defined. Accumulated HRS sessional exposures were calculated retrospectively (previous 1-8 weeks)...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Jason McGahan, Con Burns, Seán Lacey, Tim Gabbett, Cian O' Neill
PURPOSE: This study investigated the positional running demands of elite Gaelic football players during match-play and compared these demands with typical training activities used to prepare players for competition. METHODS: Global positioning system (GPS) data was obtained from thirty elite Gaelic football players (26.9 ± 3.5 years, 182.8 ± 6.1 cm, 84.6 ± 8.1 kg) across a full season (13 competitive games and 78 training sessions). Only players who completed the full match and respective training sessions were included (n = 107 match files and n = 1,603 training files)...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Curtis L Tomasevicz, Jack W Ransone, Christopher W Bach
The requisite combination of speed, power, and strength necessary for a bobsled push athlete coupled with the difficulty in directly measuring pushing ability makes selecting effective push crews challenging. Current practices by USA Bobsled and Skeleton (USABS) utilize field combine testing to assess and identify specifically selected performance variables in an attempt to best predict push performance abilities. Combine data consisting of 11 physical performance variables were collected from 75 subjects across two winter Olympic qualification years (2009 and 2013)...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
A Delextrat, M Gruet, F Bieuzen
The aim of the current study was to compare the effects of 6 weeks of small-sided game (SSG) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on aerobic fitness and muscle oxygenation during a repeated sprint (RS) sequence in elite male junior basketball players. Twenty participants (14.3 ± 0.5 years; 176.8 ± 12.5 cm; 74.5 ± 9.8 kg) performed pre- and post-tests interspersed by 6-weeks of SSG or HIIT training. Testing sessions consisted of the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test and a RS sequence (two bouts of 15-s)...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Chris Bishop, Paul Read, Jermaine McCubbine, Anthony Turner
Inter-limb asymmetries have been shown to be greater during vertical jumping compared to horizontal jumping. Notable inter-limb differences have also been established at an early age in male youth soccer players. Furthermore, given the multi-planar nature of soccer, establishing between-limb differences from multiple jump tests is warranted. At present, a paucity of data exists regarding asymmetries in youth female soccer players and their effects on physical performance. The aims of this study were to quantify inter-limb asymmetries from unilateral jump tests and examine their effects on speed and jump performance...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Damien Young, Laurent Mourot, Marco Beato, Giuseppe Coratella
The aims of the current study were to examine the physical and physiological demands of elite under-21 male hurling match-play across halves of play and between positions. Global positioning systems (10-Hz) and heart rate (HR) monitors were used to collect data from 95 players during 10 games. Total distance (TD), relative speed, high-speed running (HSR), sprint distance, total sprints and mean length of sprint was 6688 ± 942 m, 112 ± 16 m·min, 661 ± 203 m, 274 ± 111 m, 18 ± 8 and 16 ± 5 m respectively...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Lucas A Pereira, Sophia Nimphius, Ronaldo Kobal, Katia Kitamura, Luiz A L Turisco, Rita C Orsi, César Cs Cal Abad, Irineu Loturco
The aims of this study were to (1) assess the relationship between selected speed-power related abilities (determined by 20-m sprint, unloaded countermovement and squat jumps [CMJ and SJ] and loaded jump squat [JS]) and performance in two distinct change of direction (COD) protocols (Zigzag and T-Test), and (2) determine the magnitude of difference between female and male Brazilian National Olympic Team handball athletes. Fifteen male and twenty-three female elite handball athletes volunteered to perform the following assessments: SJ and CMJ; Zigzag and T-Test; 20-m sprint with 5-, 10-, and 20-m splits, and mean propulsive power (MPP) in JS...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Ryu Nagahara, Yohei Takai, Miki Haramura, Mirai Mizutani, Akifumi Matsuo, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Tetsuo Fukunaga
PURPOSE: We aimed to elucidate age-related differences in spatiotemporal and ground reaction force variables during sprinting in boys over a broad range of chronological ages. METHODS: Ground reaction force signals during 50-m sprinting were recorded in 99 boys aged 6.5-15.4 years. Step-to-step spatiotemporal variables and mean forces were then calculated. RESULTS: There was a slower rate of development in sprinting performance in the age span from 8...
February 24, 2018: Pediatric Exercise Science
Maria C Madueno, Vincent J Dalbo, Joshua H Guy, Kate E Giamarelos, Tania Spiteri, Aaron T Scanlan
PURPOSE: To investigate the physiological and performance effects of active and passive recovery between repeated-change-of-direction (RCOD) sprints. METHODS: Eight semi-professional basketball players (age: 19.9 ± 1.5 yr; stature: 183.0 ± 9.6 cm; body mass: 77.7 ± 16.9 kg; body fat: 11.8 ± 6.3%; VO2peak : 46.1 ± 7.6 mL·kg-1 ·min-1 ) completed 12 x 20-m RCOD sprints (Agility 5-0-5 Tests) interspersed with 20 s of active (50% maximal aerobic speed) or passive recovery in a randomized cross-over design...
February 21, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Heita Goto, John G Morris, Mary E Nevill
The aim of this study was to examine the influence of biological maturity on match performance in elite youth male soccer players. The participants were 80 Premier League Academy outfield players (8-16 years old). Biological maturity was determined by calculating estimated chronological age at peak height velocity. The U9 and U10 squads played 6-a-side and the U11-U16 squads played 11-a-side inter-academy matches. All matches were analyzed using a 1 Hz Global Positioning System (SPI elite, GPSport, Australia) with squad specific speed zones which were calculated based on 5 m flying sprint speed in the last 5 m of 10 m sprint test...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Michael J Duncan, Thomas Hames, Emma L J Eyre
This study examined whether scheduling of object control (e.g., throwing, catching) and locomotor skills (e.g., running, jumping), within an integrated neuromuscular training (INT) program, results in different responses in motor competence, muscular fitness and perceived motor competence in 6-7 year old children. Seventy seven boys and 63 girls (n = 140) from 3 primary schools were randomised into three, 10-week interventions, Loco First (n = 50) where locomotor skills were performed first followed by object control skills; Object First (n =48) where object control skills were performed first followed by locomotor skills or a control group (n =42, CON) who undertook school Physical Education...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Skye F Cameron, Rebecca Wheatley, Robbie S Wilson
Studies of sexual selection primarily focus on morphological traits such as body size and secondary trait dimorphism, with less attention been given to the functional differences between the sexes and even more so their thermal performance capacities. Each sex may benefit from possessing different thermal performance capacities that would allow them to maximise their fitness relative to their different reproductive roles; especially when performances are closely related to reproductive success. Here, we examine sexual divergence in thermal sensitivities of performance across three populations of the Asian house gecko (Hemidactylus frenatus) over an extensive latitudinal cline...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
Amanda Sparkman, Stephen Howe, Stephanie Hynes, Brooke Hobbs, Karina Handal
The spread of urban development has dramatically altered natural habitats, modifying community relationships, abiotic factors, and structural features. Animal populations living in these areas must perish, emigrate, or find ways to adjust to a suite of new selective pressures. Those that successfully inhabit the urban environment may make behavioral, physiological, and/or morphological adjustments that represent either evolutionary change and/or phenotypic plasticity. We tested for effects of urbanization on antipredator behavior and associated morphology across an urban-wild gradient in the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) in two California counties, Santa Barbara and San Luis Obispo...
2018: PloS One
Rienk M A van der Slikke, Annemarie M H de Witte, Monique A M Berger, Daan J J Bregman, Dirk Jan H E J Veeger
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to provide insight in the effect of wheelchair settings on wheelchair mobility performance. METHODS: Twenty elite wheelchair basketball athletes of low (n=10) and high classification (n=10), were tested in a wheelchair basketball directed field test. Athletes performed the test in their own wheelchair, which was modified for five additional conditions regarding seat height (high - low), mass (central - distributed) and grip...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Athanasios Chatzinikolaou, Konstantinos Michaloglou, Alexandra Avloniti, Diamanda Leontsini, Chariklia K Deli, Dimitris Vlachopoulos, Luis Gracia-Marco, Sotirios Arsenis, Ioannis Athanailidis, Dimitrios Draganidis, Athanasios Z Jamurtas, Craig A Williams, Ioannis G Fatouros
PURPOSE: Τo investigate the effect of a complex, short-term strength/power training protocol on performance and body composition of elite early-adolescent soccer players. METHODS: Twenty-two players (14-15 years) were randomly assigned to (a) an experimental (EG, n=12, participated in a 5-week training protocol with traditional multi-joint power resistance exercises, Olympic-style lifts, plyometric drills and speed work, four times/week) or (b) a control group (CG, n=10)...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
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