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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933296/modeling-diet-induced-obesity-with-obesity-prone-rats-implications-for-studies-in-females
#1
REVIEW
Erin D Giles, Matthew R Jackman, Paul S MacLean
Obesity is a worldwide epidemic, and the comorbidities associated with obesity are numerous. Over the last two decades, we and others have employed an outbred rat model to study the development and persistence of obesity, as well as the metabolic complications that accompany excess weight. In this review, we summarize the strengths and limitations of this model and how it has been applied to further our understanding of human physiology in the context of weight loss and weight regain. We also discuss how the approach has been adapted over time for studies in females and female-specific physiological conditions, such as menopause and breast cancer...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932989/hypoxic-living-and-exercise-training-alter-adipose-tissue-leptin-leptin-receptor-in-rats
#2
Yingli Lu, Lianshi Feng, Minhao Xie, Li Zhang, Jianfang Xu, Zihong He, Tongjian You
Background: Hypobaric hypoxia results in weight loss in obese individuals, and exercise training is advocated for the treatment of obesity and its related metabolic dysfunctions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of hypoxic living and exercise training on obesity and adipose tissue leptin/leptin receptor in dietary-induced obese rats. Methods: One hundred and thirty high-fat diet fed Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned into one of the following groups (n = 10 each): control, sedentary hypoxic living for 1-4 weeks (SH1, SH2, SH3, and SH4), living, and exercise training in normoxic conditions for 1-4 weeks (TN1, TN2, TN3, and TN4), and living and exercise training in hypoxic conditions for 1-4 weeks (TN1, TN2, TN3, and TN4)...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931035/diabetic-phenotype-in-the-small-intestine-of-zucker-diabetic-fatty-rats
#3
Henning Hvid, Stina Rikke Jensen, Brent M Witgen, Christian Fledelius, Jesper Damgaard, Charles Pyke, Thomas Bovbjerg Rasmussen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: In contrast to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced rodent models of diabetes, there are no thorough characterizations of the intestinal phenotype and the underlying changes in the global gene-expression of genetic models of diabetes, such as the Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat. The aim of the present study was to characterize the intestine in the ZDF rat. METHODS: The intestine of ZDF rats and lean controls was examined macroscopically and histologically, and ribonucleic acid sequencing (RNAseq) was performed in samples of jejunal mucosa...
December 9, 2016: Digestion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929184/a-comparison-of-rs4-type-resistant-starch-to-rs2-type-resistant-starch-in-suppressing-oxidative-stress-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-rats
#4
Xu Si, Zhongkai Zhou, Padraig Strappe, Chris Blanchard
The anti-obesity effects of two types of resistant starch (RS) in high-fat-diet-induced obese rats were investigated. The serum triglycerides, total cholesterol and malondialdehyde concentrations were significantly reduced, and the total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase levels and glutathione peroxidase activity were increased by RS2 and RS4 consumption compared to the obesity group. A significant reduction in the serum glucose level and elevations in hepatic lipid metabolic enzyme activities were observed only for RS4 administration...
December 8, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927722/age-dependent-control-of-energy-homeostasis-by-brown-adipose-tissue-in-progeny-subjected-to-maternal-diet-induced-fetal-programming
#5
Olivier Dumortier, Estelle Roger, Didier F Pisani, Virginie Casamento, Nadine Gautier, Patricia Lebrun, Hereroa Johnston, Pascal Lopez, Ez-Zoubir Amri, Céline Jousse, Pierre Fafournoux, Marc Prentki, Charlotte Hinault, Emmanuel Van Obberghen
Epidemiological and animal studies show that deleterious maternal environments predispose aging offspring to metabolic disorders and type 2 diabetes. Young progeny in a rat model of maternal low protein diet (LP) is normoglycemic despite collapsed insulin secretion. However, without further worsening of the insulin secretion defect glucose homeostasis deteriorates in aging LP descendants. Here we report that normoglycemic and insulinopenic 3-month-old LP progeny shows increased body temperature and energy dissipation in association with enhanced brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity...
December 7, 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926437/involvement-of-opioid-signaling-in-food-preference-and-motivation-studies-in-laboratory-animals
#6
I Morales, L Font, P J Currie, R Pastor
Motivation is a complex neurobiological process that initiates, directs, and maintains goal-oriented behavior. Although distinct components of motivated behavior are difficult to investigate, appetitive and consummatory phases of motivation are experimentally separable. Different neurotransmitter systems, particularly the mesolimbic dopaminergic system, have been associated with food motivation. Over the last two decades, however, research focusing on the role of opioid signaling has been particularly growing in this area...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924082/duodenal-endoluminal-barrier-sleeve-alters-gut-microbiota-of-zdf-rats
#7
T Kim, C L Holleman, T Ptacek, C D Morrow, K M Habegger
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The combination of energy dense diets and reduced energy expenditure in modern society has escalated the prevalence of obesity and obesity-related comorbidities. Among these disease-states, type-2 diabetics (T2D) are disproportionately associated with obesity, suggesting a shared etiology. In conjunction with defects in hormonal and inflammatory states, obesity and T2D are also characterized by dysbiosis. METHODS: We have recently described the beneficial effects of duodenal nutrient exclusion, as induced by the duodenal endoluminal sleeve (DES); including body weight loss, prevented fat mass accumulation, and improved glucose tolerance in the ZDF rat, a rodent model of obesity and type-2 diabetes (T2D)...
December 7, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921254/the-impact-of-vitamin-d-supplementation-on-neurodegeneration-tnf-%C3%AE-concentration-in-hypothalamus-and-csf-to-plasma-ratio-of-insulin-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-rats
#8
Ghazaleh Nameni, Ghazaleh Hajiluian, Parviz Shahabi, Mahdieh Abbasalizad Farhangi, Mehran Mesgari-Abbasi, Mohammad-Reza Hemmati, Seyed Mahdi Vatandoust
There is growing evidence that obesity can lead to neurodegeneration induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α). Moreover, obesity is associated with reduced transport of insulin through the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Insulin deficiency in the brain especially in the hypothalamus region has neurodegenerative and obesity-promoting effects. Because of the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of vitamin D, in the current experimental study, we aimed to investigate the effects of vitamin D supplementation on neurodegeneration, TNF-α concentration in the hypothalamus, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to serum ratio of insulin in high-fat-diet-induced obese rats...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916641/ucp1-the-mitochondrial-uncoupling-protein-of-brown-adipocyte-a-personal-contribution-and-a-historical-perspective
#9
REVIEW
Daniel Ricquier
The present text summarizes what was my contribution, starting in 1975, to the research on the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), the mitochondrial uncoupler of brown adipocytes. The research on UCP1 aimed at identifying the mechanisms of heat production by brown adipocytes that occurs in mammals either at birth or during cold exposure and arousal in hibernators. With others and in particular Dr. David Nicholls, I participated in the first experiments that contributed to the identification of UCP1. Important steps were the obtention of UCP1 antibodies followed with my main collaborator and friend Frédéric Bouillaud with the initial cloning of the UCP1 cDNA and gene from rats and humans...
December 1, 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916474/infusion-of-exogenous-cholecystokinin-8-gastrin-releasing-peptide-29-and-their-combination-reduce-body-weight-in-diet-induced-obese-male-rats
#10
Thaer R Mhalhal, Martha C Washington, Kayla Newman, John C Heath, Ayman I Sayegh
We hypothesized that exogenous gastrin releasing peptide-29 (GRP-29), cholecystokinin-8 (CCK-8) and their combination reduce body weight (BW). To test this hypothesis, BW was measured in four groups of diet-induced obese (DIO) male rats infused in the aorta (close to the junctions of the celiac and cranial mesenteric arteries) with saline, CCK-8 (0.5 nmol/kg), GRP-29 (0.5 nmol/kg) and CCK-8+GRP-29 (0.5 nmol/kg each) once daily for a total of 23 days. We found that CCK-8, GRP-29 and CCK-8+GRP-29 reduce BW relative to saline control...
December 1, 2016: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912206/irisin-lowers-blood-pressure-by-improvement-of-endothelial-dysfunction-via-ampk-akt-enos-no-pathway-in-the-spontaneously-hypertensive-rat
#11
Jinjuan Fu, Yu Han, Jialiang Wang, Yukai Liu, Shuo Zheng, Lin Zhou, Pedro A Jose, Chunyu Zeng
BACKGROUND: Exercise is a major nonpharmacological treatment for hypertension, but its underlying mechanisms are still not completely elucidated. Irisin, a polypeptide containing 112 amino acids, which is secreted mainly by skeletal muscle cells during exercise, exerts a protective role in metabolic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus and obesity. Because of the close relationship between irisin and metabolic diseases, we hypothesized that irisin may play a role in the regulation of blood pressure...
October 26, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909891/canola-oil-rich-in-oleic-acid-improves-diastolic-heart-function-in-diet-induced-obese-rats
#12
Sijo Joseph Thandapilly, Pema Raj, Xavier Lieben Louis, Danielle Perera, Prasanga Yamanagedara, Peter Zahradka, Carla G Taylor, Thomas Netticadan
Obesity is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease. It directly affects heart structure and function and contributes to heart failure. Diet is a major factor involved in the development of obesity along with genetic factors. We examined the effects of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid-rich oils on cardiac structure and function in the diet-induced rodent model of obesity (DIO). Obese prone (OP) rats were fed a high-fat diet (HF; 55% of kcal) for 12 weeks; Sprague-Dawley rats fed commercial chow served as control...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909723/inhibition-of-jnk-suppresses-autophagy-and-attenuates-insulin-resistance-in-a-rat-model-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#13
Hua Yan, Yanqiong Gao, Ying Zhang
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common chronic liver disease, the pathological process of which is complex. Activation of the c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway is associated with the mechanism underlying obesity-induced insulin resistance. Furthermore, the JNK signaling pathway and dysfunctional autophagy serve important roles in hepatic lipid metabolism. However, the exact role of JNK in autophagy and obesity‑induced insulin resistance is not fully understood. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the underlying mechanisms by which the JNK signaling pathway regulates autophagy and insulin resistance in fatty liver...
November 24, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908418/lead-pb-exposure-promotes-diabetes-in-obese-rodents
#14
Jannifer B Tyrrell, Samar Hafida, Paul Stemmer, Angie Adhami, Todd Leff
BACKGROUND: Pb (lead) exposure occurs at elevated frequency in urban inner city populations that also have high rates of obesity and diabetes. OBJECTIVES: To determine if Pb can promote the development of diabetes in a setting of obesity, we examined the effect of Pb exposure on glucose metabolism in a rodent model of obesity. METHODS: Adult female ZDF rats were exposed to Pb in drinking water for 24 weeks. Fasting blood glucose, insulin, and glucose tolerance were measured at regular intervals...
January 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906747/update-on-angiotensin-at2-receptors
#15
Robert M Carey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review updates major new findings and concepts introduced during the past year on the role of angiotensin II (Ang II) subtype 2 receptors (AT2Rs) in the control of blood pressure and renal function. RECENT FINDINGS: AT2R activation prevents sodium (Na) retention and lowers blood pressure in the Ang II infusion model of experimental hypertension and prevents salt-sensitive hypertension in the obese Zucker rat model of obesity and the metabolic syndrome...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905126/ameliorating-effects-of-fennel-and-cumin-extracts-on-sperm-quality-and-spermatogenic-cells-apoptosis-by-inducing-weight-loss-and-reducing-leptin-concentration-in-diet-induced-obese-rats
#16
R Nejatbakhsh, S Riyahi, A Farrokhi, S Rostamkhani, S Mahmazi, A Yazdinezhad, M Kazemi, S Shokri
This study was established a model of obesity to estimate the impact of fennel and cumin as anti-obesity extracts on body weight, body mass index (BMI), food consumption, leptin concentration, sperm quality and testis architecture to determine the reversibility of reproductive function of obese animals. Male rats were randomly assigned to either a normal or high-fat diet for 8 weeks. Then, we divided 56 adult rats into seven groups: control (CO); obesity (OB); fennel 100 and 200 mg/kg; cumin 50 and 100 mg/kg; and fennel 100 mg/kg plus cumin 50 mg/kg...
November 30, 2016: Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903830/early-life-sugar-consumption-affects-the-rat-microbiome-independently-of-obesity
#17
Emily E Noble, Ted M Hsu, Roshonda B Jones, Anthony A Fodor, Michael I Goran, Scott E Kanoski
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiome has been implicated in various metabolic and neurocognitive disorders and is heavily influenced by dietary factors, but there is a paucity of research on the effects of added sugars on the gut microbiome. OBJECTIVE: With the use of a rodent model, our goal was to determine how added-sugar consumption during the juvenile and adolescent phase of development affects the gut microbiome. METHODS: Forty-two juvenile male Sprague-Dawley rats [postnatal day (PND) 26; 50-70 g] were given access to 1 of 3 different 11%-carbohydrate solutions designed to model a range of monosaccharide ratios commonly consumed in sugar-sweetened beverages: 1) 35% fructose:65% glucose, 2) 50% fructose:50% glucose, 3) 65% fructose:35% glucose, and 4) control (no sugar)...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900560/serum-leptin-obestatin-and-ghrelin-levels-and-gastric-emptying-rates-of-liquid-and-solid-meals-in-non-obese-rats-with-roux-en-y-bypass-surgery-or-prosthesis-placement-implications-for-the-role-of-vagal-afferents
#18
Yunus Yavuz, Zarife Nigar Özdemir Kumral, Gülsün Memi, Özge Dağdeviren Çevik, Cumhur Yeğen, Berrak Ç Yeğen
BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to investigate the effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and prosthesis placement on gastric emptying rate in conjunction with serum ghrelin-obestatin-leptin responses in non-obese rats with intact or denervated afferent innervation. METHODS: Under anesthesia, male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent either sham operation, RYGB, prosthesis, and/or Gregory cannula placement. Three weeks later, liquid or solid gastric emptying tests were performed and serum ghrelin, leptin and obestatin levels were measured...
November 29, 2016: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900263/islet-chrebp-%C3%AE-is-increased-in-diabetes-and-controls-chrebp-%C3%AE-and-glucose-induced-gene-expression-via-a-negative-feedback-loop
#19
Gu Jing, Junqin Chen, Guanlan Xu, Anath Shalev
OBJECTIVE: Carbohydrate-response element-binding protein (ChREBP) is the major transcription factor conferring glucose-induced gene expression in pancreatic islets, liver and adipose tissue. Recently, a novel ChREBP isoform, ChREBP-β, was identified in adipose tissue and found to be also expressed in islets and involved in glucose-induced beta cell proliferation. However, the physiological function of this less abundant β-isoform in the islet, and in diabetes, is largely unknown. The aims of the present study, therefore, were to determine how diabetes affects ChREBP-β and elucidate its physiological role in pancreatic beta cells...
December 2016: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899860/leptin-attenuates-the-contractile-function-of-adult-rat-cardiomyocytes-involved-in-oxidative-stress-and-autophagy
#20
Liu-Jin Luo, Ying-Ping Liu, Xun Yuan, Gui-Ping Zhang, Ning Hou, Xiao-Qian Wu, Jian-Dong Luo, Gen-Shui Zhang
BACKGROUND: Leptin has been identified as an important protein involved in obesity. As a chronic metabolic disorder, obesity is associated with a high risk of developing cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, including heart failure. The aim of this paper was to investigate the effects and the mechanism of leptin on the contractile function of cardiomyocytes in the adult rat. METHODS: Isolated adult rat cardiomyocytes were exposed to leptin (1, 10, and 100 nmol/L) for 1 hour...
November 2016: Acta Cardiologica Sinica
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