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Obesity rats

Ayako Uchinaka, Yuri Kawashima, Yuki Sano, Shogo Ito, Yusuke Sano, Kai Nagasawa, Natsumi Matsuura, Mamoru Yoneda, Yuichiro Yamada, Toyoaki Murohara, Kohzo Nagata
Melatonin regulates circadian rhythms but also has antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects that ameliorate metabolic disorders. We investigated the effects of the selective melatonin agonist ramelteon on cardiac and adipose tissue pathology in the DahlS.Z-Leprfa /Leprfa (DS/obese) rat, a model of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Rats were treated with a low (0.3 mg/kg per day) or high (8 mg/kg per day) dose of ramelteon from 9 to 13 weeks of age. Ramelteon treatment at either dose attenuated body weight gain, left ventricular fibrosis, and diastolic dysfunction, as well as cardiac oxidative stress and inflammation, without affecting hypertension or insulin resistance...
March 15, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Hiroyuki Hattori, Kosei Yamauchi, Siaw Onwona-Agyeman, Thoru Mitsunaga
BACKGROUND: Grains of Paradise (GP) is the seed of Aframomum melegueta, which is widely distributed throughout West Africa and has been used as a spice and a folk remedy for a long time. The anti-obesity effect by GP intake was demonstrated in our previous report. In this present study, we tried to isolate some compounds in GP and clarify the anti-obesity mechanism. RESULTS: Ten vanilloid compounds were determined. Among ten vanilloids, 1-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-decan-3-ol and 1-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-3-octen-5-one were determined as novel compounds and 6-gingerol, 6-paradol, and 6-shogaol were identified as the major constituents in GP extract...
March 15, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Amy Chia-Ching Kao, Sonia Spitzer, Daniel C Anthony, Belinda Lennox, Philip W J Burnet
Olanzapine is an effective antipsychotic drug but since it causes significant weight gain, it is not well tolerated by psychosis patients. The prebiotic, B-GOS® , attenuates metabolic dysfunction in obese subjects, and in rodents, alters central NMDA receptors and may affect serotonin receptors that are relevant in psychosis. We have determined whether B-GOS® influenced olanzapine-associated weight gain and central NMDA and serotonin receptors. Circulating acetate, IL-1β, IL-8 and TNFα, liver acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), white adipose tissue (WAT) acetate receptor GPR43, and specific faecal bacteria genera were also measured to provide mechanistic information...
March 15, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Hong-Ren Yu, You-Lin Tain, Mao-Meng Tiao, Chih-Cheng Chen, Jiunn-Ming Sheen, I-Chun Lin, Shih-Wen Li, Ching-Chou Tsai, Yu-Ju Lin, Kai-Sheng Hsieh, Li-Tung Huang
BACKGROUND: Hypertension may result from high-fat (HF) diet induced-obesity and overexposure to glucocorticoids in utero. Recent studies demonstrated the potent contribution of adipose tissue's renin-angiotensin system (RAS) to systemic RAS, which plays a key role in regulating blood pressure (BP). In this study, we investigated the effects of prenatal dexamethasone (DEX) exposure and postnatal HF diet on RAS of adipose tissue. METHODS: RAS and BP of 6-month old rats exposed to prenatal DEX and/or postnatal HF diet were examined...
March 14, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Sandra Ventura, Márcio Rodrigues, Amílcar Falcão, Gilberto Alves
Paullinia cupana-containing preparations are being consumed worldwide for weight reduction. As obesity and epilepsy are common comorbidities and lamotrigine (LTG) is a broad-spectrum antiepileptic drug, it is likely to find epilepsy patients taking P. cupana and LTG simultaneously. Thus, this work aimed to investigate the potential interaction between P. cupana extract and LTG in rats. In a study, rats were orally co-administered with a single-dose of P. cupana extract (821 mg/kg) and LTG (10 mg/kg). In another study, rats were orally pre-treated for 14 days with P...
March 10, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Weijie Chen, Zenan Xia, Wei Liu, Xiaodong He, Weimin Zhang
PURPOSES: Our aim was to investigate the effects of selective celiac branch vagotomy on food intake and glycemic control after ileal transposition (IT) and the possible roles of the vagus on the improvement of diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty non-obese rats with diabetes underwent either IT, IT + celiac branch vagotomy (ITV), sham IT (SI), or sham IT + celiac branch vagotomy (SIV). They were pair fed, and the food intake, body weight, fasting plasma glucose, and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) level were monitored...
March 10, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Saori Kataoka, Toshio Norikura, Shin Sato
Maternal malnutrition is known to increase the risk of obesity in offspring. We investigated whether green tea extract (GTE) intake during lactation affects obesity-related fibrosis and inflammation in the kidney of high-fat-diet-fed adult offspring of protein-restricted-diet-fed dams during pregnancy and lactation. Pregnant Wistar rats received diets containing 20% (normal-protein, NP) or 8% (low-protein, LP) casein, and they received 0%-, 0.12%- or 0.24%-GTE-containing LP diets (LP/LP, LP/LGT and LP/HGT, respectively) during lactation...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Sy-Ying Leu, Yung-Chieh Tsai, Wen-Chi Chen, Chih-Hsiung Hsu, Yen-Mei Lee, Pao-Yun Cheng
Promoting white adipose tissue (WAT) to acquire brown-like characteristics is a promising approach for obesity treatment. Although raspberry ketone (RK) has been reported to possess antiobesity activity, its effects on the formation of brown-like adipocytes remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated the effects and underlying mechanism of RK on WAT browning in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and rats with ovariectomy (Ovx)-induced obesity. RK (100 μM) significantly induced browning of 3T3-L1 cells by increasing mitochondrial biogenesis and the expression of browning-specific proteins (PR domain containing 16, PRDM16; peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha, PGC-1α; uncoupling protein-1, UCP-1) and lipolytic enzymes (hormone-sensitive lipase and adipose triglyceride lipase)...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Hernán Gonzalo Villagarcía, María Cecilia Castro, Luisa González Arbelaez, Guillermo Schinella, María Laura Massa, Eduardo Spinedi, Flavio Francini
AIM: Hypothalamic obese rats are characterized by pre-diabetes, dyslipidemia, hyperadiposity, inflammation and, liver dysmetabolism with oxidative stress (OS), among others. We studied endocrine-metabolic dysfunctions and, liver OS and inflammation in both monosodium l-glutamate (MSG)-neonatally damaged and control litter-mate (C) adult male rats, either chronically treated with N-Acetyl-l-Cysteine since weaned (C-NAC and MSG-NAC) or not. METHODOLOGY: We evaluated circulating TBARS, glucose, insulin, triglycerides, uric acid (UA) and, aspartate and alanine amino-transferase; insulin sensitivity markers (HOMA indexes, Liver Index of Insulin Sensitivity -LISI-) were calculated and liver steps of the insulin-signaling pathway were investigated...
March 6, 2018: Life Sciences
Md Mahbubur Rahman, Myung-Jin Kim, Jin-Hyoung Kim, Sok-Ho Kim, Hyeon-Kyu Go, Mee-Hyang Kweon, Do-Hyung Kim
CONTEXT: Salicornia europaea (Amaranthaceae) (SE) has been shown to reduce obesity, but it remains a problem as a food supplement because of its high salt content (25-35% NaCl). OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the anti-obesity effects and mechanism of action of desalted SE powder (DSP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 50) were divided into a normal control group (NC), a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity control group (HFD), and HFD groups co-administered DSP (250 and 500 mg/kg) or Garcinia cambogia (Clusiaceae) extract (GE, 200 mg/kg, standard control) orally each day for 12 weeks...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
D Balan, Kit-Lam Chan, D Murugan, Sazaly AbuBakar, Pooi-Fong Wong
Bioactive compounds of Eurycoma longifolia (EL) jack were previously shown to reduce omentum fat mass and oestradiol-induced fatty uterine adhesion in rats. However, the exact role of EL on adipogenesis remains unknown. This study sought to investigate the effects of an EL standardized quassinoids-enriched fraction (SQEL) and the pure compound, eurycomanone, on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells. 3T3-L1 cells were induced to differentiate and treated for 8 days. The treatment reduced intracellular accumulation of lipid droplets and triglycerides in the differentiating adipocytes and induced lipolysis in matured adipocytes...
March 9, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Jia Ni, Lei Chen, Sulan Zhong, Qiaoxue Chai, Lin Zhang, Dan Wang, Shaobing Li, Jincai Zhang
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to explore the influence of periodontitis and scaling and root planning on insulin resistance and hepatic CD36 in obese rats with periodontitis. METHODS: Thirty-two specific pathogen free Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups of eight animals each as follows: healthy rats (healthy group), obese rats (obesity group), obese rats with periodontitis (non-therapy group), and obese rats with periodontitis who underwent periodontal scaling and root planning (SRP) (therapy group)...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Periodontology
Iris Ginés, Katherine Gil-Cardoso, Joan Serrano, Àngela Casanova-Martí, MTeresa Blay, Montserrat Pinent, Anna Ardévol, Ximena Terra
Obesity is highly associated with the pathologies included in the concept of the Metabolic Syndrome. Grape-seed proanthocyanins (GSPE) have showed very positive effects against all these metabolic disruptions; however, there is, as yet, no consensus about their effectiveness against an obesogenic challenge, such as a cafeteria diet. We determined the effectiveness of a dose of 500 mg GSPE/kg b.w. (body weight) against the obesogenic effects of a 17-week cafeteria diet, administered as a sub-chronic treatment, 10-15 days before, intermittently and at the end of the diet, in Wistar rats...
March 7, 2018: Nutrients
Ana Paula Toniazzo, Danusa M Arcego, Camilla Lazzaretti, Carine Lampert, Simone N Weis, Rodrigo Proto-Siqueira, Rachel Krolow, Carla Dalmaz
OBJECTIVE: Both stress exposure and high-fat diet (HFD) are contributors to the alarming prevalence of obesity. Leptin is secreted from adipose tissue and regulates appetite and body weight via the JAK-STAT3 pathway in the hypothalamus; it also regulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, modulating energy homeostasis. Leptin signaling may be impaired by HFD intake, and here we investigate whether social isolation during the prepubertal period, associated with chronic HFD, can exert long-term effects on metabolic parameters in a sex-specific manner...
November 29, 2017: Nutrition
Qilin Long, Lei Wang, Mei Zhou, Yuxin Wu, Tianbao Chen
Insulin, as one of the most important hormones regulating energy metabolism, plays an essential role in maintaining glucose and lipid homeostasis in vivo. Failure or insufficiency of insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells increases glucose and free fatty acid level in circulation and subsequently contributes to the emergence of hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia. Therefore, stimulating the insulin release benefits the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity significantly. Frog skin peptides have been extensively studied for their biological functions, among which, Phylloseptin peptides discovered in Phyllomedusinae frogs have been found to exert antimicrobial, antiproliferative and insulinotropic activities, while the mechanism associated with Phylloseptin-induced insulin secretion remains elusive...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Josué O Suárez-Ortiz, Felipe Cortés-Salazar, Ariadna L Malagón-Carrillo, Verónica E López-Alonso, Juan M Mancilla-Díaz, Juan G Tejas-Juárez, Rodrigo E Escartín-Pérez
Overeating is one of the most relevant clinical features in Binge Eating Disorder and in some obesity patients. According to several studies, alterations in the mesolimbic dopaminergic transmission produced by non-homeostatic feeding behavior may be associated with changes in the reward system similar to those produced by drugs of abuse. Although it is known that binge-eating is related with changes in dopaminergic transmission mediated by D2 receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcS), it has not been determined whether these receptors may be a potential target for the treatment of eating pathology with binge-eating...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Jie An, Liping Wang, Michael L Patnode, Vanessa K Ridaura, Jonathan M Haldeman, Robert D Stevens, Olga Ilkayeva, James R Bain, Michael J Muehlbauer, Erin L Glynn, Steven Thomas, Deborah Muoio, Scott A Summers, James E Vath, Thomas E Hughes, Jeffrey I Gordon, Christopher B Newgard
Current obesity interventions suffer from lack of durable effects and undesirable complications. Fumagillin, an inhibitor of methionine aminopeptidase-2, causes weight loss by reducing food intake, but with effects on weight that are superior to pair-feeding. Here, we show that feeding of rats on a high-fat diet supplemented with fumagillin (HF/FG) suppresses the aggressive feeding observed in pair-fed controls (HF/PF) and alters expression of circadian genes relative to the HF/PF group. Multiple indices of reduced energy expenditure are observed in HF/FG but not HF/PF rats...
March 8, 2018: JCI Insight
Takwa Bedhiafi, Kamel Charradi, Mouna Ben Azaiz, Mohamed Mahmoudi, Issam Msakni, Khawla Jebari, Ammar Bouziani, Ferid Limam, Ezzedine Aouani
Spleen is the largest lymphoid organ and obesity is related to an elevated risk of immunity dysfunction and the mechanism whereby fat adversely affects the spleen is poorly understood. This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of grape seed and skin extract (GSSE) and orlistat (Xenical, Xe) on high fat diet (HFD)-induced spleen lipotoxicity. Obese rats were treated either with GSSE (4 g/kg bw) or Xe (2 mg/kg bw) or GSSE + Xe and monitored for weight loss during 3 months. Animals were then sacrificed and their spleen used for the evaluation of lipotoxicity-induced oxidative stress and inflammation as well as the putative protection afforded by GSSE and Xe treatment...
March 7, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Kyung-Wan Baek, Hee-Jae Cha, Mee Sun Ock, Hong Soo Kim, Jeong-An Gim, Jung-Jun Park
Previously, we monitored the expression level of the pro-apoptotic proteins caspase-3 and cleaved poly-ADP-ribose polymerase in the skeletal muscle of high-fat diet-induced obese rats in order to assess muscle damage. In this study, we analyzed whether exercise or dietary adjustment was more effective at preventing high-fat diet-induced muscle damage. High-fat diet-induced obese rats were divided into three groups: the high-fat diet (HFD), the combined high-fat diet and exercise (HFD+EXE), and the dietary adjustment (DA) groups...
February 2018: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
Aneta Stefanidis, Nicole M Wiedmann, Sonika Tyagi, Andrew M Allen, Matthew J Watt, Brian J Oldfield
OBJECTIVE: The potential for brown adipose tissue (BAT) to be targeted as a therapeutic option to combat obesity has been heightened by the discovery of a brown-like form of inducible "beige" adipose tissue in white fat which has overlapping structural and functional properties to "classical" BAT. The likelihood that both beige and brown fat are recruited functionally by neural mechanisms, taken together with the lack of a detailed understanding of the nature of changes in the nervous system when white adipose tissue (WAT) is transformed to brown, provides the impetus for this study...
February 10, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
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