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Inflammation and Prostate Cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618670/re-low-cd38-identifies-progenitor-like-inflammation-associated-luminal-cells-that-can-initiate-human-prostate-cancer-and-predict-poor-outcome
#1
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611094/agonist-specific-protein-interactomes-of-glucocorticoid-and-androgen-receptor-as-revealed-by-proximity-mapping
#2
Joanna K Lempiäinen, Einari A Niskanen, Kaisa-Mari Vuoti, Riikka E Lampinen, Helka Göös, Markku Varjosalo, Jorma J Palvimo
Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and androgen receptor (AR) are steroid-inducible transcription factors (TFs). GR and AR are central regulators of various metabolic, homeostatic and differentiation processes and hence important therapeutic targets, especially in inflammation and prostate cancer, respectively. Hormone binding to these steroid receptors (SRs) leads to DNA binding and activation or repression of their target genes with the aid of interacting proteins, coregulators. However, protein interactomes of these important drug targets have remained poorly defined...
June 13, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606735/neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-in-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-patients-treated-with-daily-oral-corticosteroids
#3
Niven Mehra, Adam Sharp, David Lorente, David Dolling, Semini Sumanasuriya, Bernadette Johnson, David Dearnaley, Chris Parker, Johann de Bono
BACKGROUND: The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been shown to be highly prognostic across many tumor types, and predictive of treatment outcome in advanced prostate cancer, and has been postulated to be an indirect measure of tumor inflammation. We evaluated the effect of low-dose steroids on NLR in men suffering from castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The NLR was evaluated in a prospective randomized phase II trial that compared prednisolone 5 mg twice daily and dexamethasone 0...
May 10, 2017: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593171/withania-somnifera-targets-interleukin-8-and-cyclooxygenase-2-in-human-prostate-cancer-progression
#4
Anand Setty Balakrishnan, Abel Arul Nathan, Mukesh Kumar, Sudhakar Ramamoorthy, Sathish Kumar Ramia Mothilal
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PC) is a common noncutaneous malignancy in men. The incidence of PC is increasing at an alarming rate across the globe. Progression of PC is associated with elevated levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in malignant cells. Overexpression of these players is accompanied by chronic inflammation, increased angiogenesis, proliferation, migration, and inhibition of apoptosis. Moreover, their elevated circulating levels promote the disease progression from androgen-dependent to androgen-independent state...
June 2017: Prostate International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585572/the-combination-of-histological-prostate-atrophy-and-inflammation-is-associated-with-lower-risk-of-prostate-cancer-in-biopsy-specimens
#5
D M Moreira, D M de O Freitas, J C Nickel, G L Andriole, R Castro-Santamaria, S J Freedland
BACKGROUND: To evaluate whether the presence of both prostate atrophy (PA) and chronic prostate inflammation (CPI) in the same biopsy and in the same biopsy core are associated with prostate cancer (PCa) risk and grade in repeat biopsies. METHODS: Retrospective analyses of 6132 men who were 50-75 years old undergoing 2-year repeat prostate biopsy after a negative baseline biopsy for PCa in the REduction by DUtasteride of prostate Cancer Events (REDUCE) study. PA, CPI and PCa were determined by central pathology...
June 6, 2017: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575697/pet-ct-with-18-f-choline-physiological-whole-bio-distribution-in-male-and-female-subjects-and-diagnostic-pitfalls-on-1000-prostate-cancer-patients-18-f-choline-pet-ct-bio-distribution-and-pitfalls-a-southern-italian-experience
#6
Ferdinando Calabria, Agostino Chiaravalloti, Carmelo Cicciò, Vincenzo Gangemi, Domenico Gullà, Federico Rocca, Gianpasquale Gallo, Giuseppe Lucio Cascini, Orazio Schillaci
INTRODUCTION: The (11)C/(18)F-choline is a PET/CT radiopharmaceutical useful in detecting tumors with high lipogenesis. (11)C/(18)F-choline uptake can occur in physiological conditions or tumors. The knowledge of its bio-distribution is essential to recognize physiologic variants or diagnostic pitfalls. Moreover, few information are available on the bio-distribution of this tracer in female patients. Our aim was to discuss some documented (18)F-choline PET/CT pitfalls in prostate cancer patients...
April 17, 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567040/a-unique-cellular-and-molecular-microenvironment-is-present-in-tertiary-lymphoid-organs-of-patients-with-spontaneous-prostate-cancer-regression
#7
María de la Luz García-Hernández, Norma Ofelia Uribe-Uribe, Ricardo Espinosa-González, W Martin Kast, Shabaana A Khader, Javier Rangel-Moreno
OBJECTIVE: Multiple solid cancers contain tertiary lymphoid organs (TLO). However, it is unclear whether they promote tumor rejection, facilitate tumor evasion, or simply whether they are a byproduct of chronic inflammation. We hypothesize that although chronic inflammation induces TLO formation, the tumor milieu can modulate TLO organization and functions in prostate cancer. Therefore, our study seeks to elucidate the cellular and molecular signatures in unique prostatectomy specimens from evanescent carcinoma patients to identify markers of cancer regression, which could be harnessed to modulate local immunosuppression or potentially enhance TLO function...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560677/mesenchymal-epithelial-transition-and-circulating-tumor-cells-in-small-cell-lung-cancer
#8
Gerhard Hamilton, Barbara Rath
Cancer patients die of metastatic disease but knowledge regarding individual steps of this complex process of intravasation, spread and extravasation leading to secondary lesions is incomplete. Subpopulations of tumor cells are supposed to undergo an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), to enter the bloodstream and eventually establish metastases in a reverse process termed mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET). Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) represents a unique model to study metastatic spread due to early dissemination and relapse, as well as availability of a panel of circulating cancer cell (CTC) lines recently...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560449/hypoxia-induced-angiopoietin-like-protein-4-as-a-clinical-biomarker-and-treatment-target-for-human-prostate-cancer
#9
Shinro Hata, Takeo Nomura, Kazunori Iwasaki, Ryuta Sato, Mutsushi Yamasaki, Fuminori Sato, Hiromitsu Mimata
Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) is a multifunctional protein, playing roles in glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammation, angiogenesis, and tumorigenesis. Recent research suggests that ANGPTL4 is induced by hypoxia and is a useful diagnostic or prognostic marker for various cancers. However, it remains unclear whether ANGPTL4 expression influences prostate cancer. Here we examined the biological and clinical relevance of ANGPTL4 expression in prostate cancer. Firstly we examined ANGPTL4 expression in the prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and LNCaP/CH incubated at 1% O2 for at least 6 months...
May 24, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557546/inflammation-associated-dna-methylation-patterns-in-epithelium-of-ulcerative-colitis
#10
Alan Barnicle, Cathal Seoighe, John M Greally, Aaron Golden, Laurence J Egan
Aberrant DNA methylation patterns have been reported in inflamed tissues and may play a role in disease. We studied DNA methylation and gene expression profiles of purified intestinal epithelial cells from ulcerative colitis patients, comparing inflamed and non-inflamed areas of the colon. We identified 577 differentially methylated sites (false discovery rate <0.2) mapping to 210 genes. From gene expression data from the same epithelial cells, we identified 62 differentially expressed genes with increased expression in the presence of inflammation at prostate cancer susceptibility genes PRAC1 and PRAC2...
May 30, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550641/a-fascia-lata-free-flap-in-pelvic-exenteration-for-fournier-gangrene-due-to-advanced-rectal-cancer-a-case-report
#11
Hiroshi Sawayama, Nobutomo Miyanari, Hidetaka Sugihara, Shiro Iwagami, Takao Mizumoto, Tatsuo Kubota, Yoshio Haga, Hideo Baba
BACKGROUND: Fournier gangrene due to advanced rectal cancer is a rapidly progressive gangrene of the perineum and buttocks. Emergency surgical debridement of necrotic tissue is crucial, and secondary surgery to resect tumors is necessary for wound healing. However, pelvic exenteration damages the pelvic floor, increasing the likelihood of herniation of internal organs into the infectious wound. The management of pelvic exenteration for rectal cancer with Fournier gangrene has not yet been established...
December 2017: Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539853/treatment-of-cancer-and-inflammation-with-low-dose-ionizing-radiation-three-case-reports
#12
Shuji Kojima, Mitsutoshi Tsukimoto, Noriko Shimura, Hironobu Koga, Akishisa Murata, Tsuyoshi Takara
There is considerable evidence from experimental studies in animals, as well as from clinical reports, that low-dose radiation hormesis is effective for the treatment of cancer and ulcerative colitis. In this study, we present 3 case reports that support the clinical efficacy of low-dose radiation hormesis in patients with these diseases. First, a patient with prostate cancer who had undergone surgical resection showed a subsequent increase in prostate-specific antigen (PSA). His PSA value started decreasing immediately after the start of repeated low-dose X-ray irradiation treatment and remained low thereafter...
January 2017: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507039/do-aspirin-and-other-nsaids-confer-a-survival-benefit-in-men-diagnosed-with-prostate-cancer-a-pooled-analysis-of-nih-aarp-and-plco-cohorts
#13
Cindy Ke Zhou, Sarah E Daugherty, Linda M Liao, Neal D Freedman, Christian C Abnet, Ruth Pfeiffer, Michael B Cook
Prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in U.S. men. There is an unmet need to identify modifiable risk factors for prostate cancer survival. Experimental studies have suggested that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may improve prostate cancer survival through antithrombotic and anti-inflammation mechanisms. Results from previous observational studies have been equivocal, and few have assessed whether an etiologically relevant time window of exposure exists. We sampled incident prostate cancer cases from two large U...
May 15, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497488/the-common-parasite-toxoplasma-gondii-induces-prostatic-inflammation-and-microglandular-hyperplasia-in-a-mouse-model
#14
Darrelle L Colinot, Tamila Garbuz, Maarten C Bosland, Liang Wang, Susan E Rice, William J Sullivan, Gustavo Arrizabalaga, Travis J Jerde
BACKGROUND: Inflammation is the most prevalent and widespread histological finding in the human prostate, and associates with the development and progression of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer. Several factors have been hypothesized to cause inflammation, yet the role each may play in the etiology of prostatic inflammation remains unclear. This study examined the possibility that the common protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii induces prostatic inflammation and reactive hyperplasia in a mouse model...
May 12, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493535/the-mongolian-gerbil-meriones-unguiculatus-as-a-model-for-inflammation-promoted-prostate-carcinogenesis
#15
Amado A Quintar, Bianca F Gonçalves, Sebastião R Taboga, Cristina A Maldonado
One of the recognized issues in prostate cancer research is the lack of animal models allowing the research of pathological, biochemical, and genetic factors in immunocompetent animals. Our research group has successfully employed the gerbil in several studies for prostate diseases. In the present work, we aimed to analyze the effect of chronic bacterial inflammation on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced prostate carcinogenesis in gerbils. Histopathological assessment of the prostatic complex revealed that treatment combinations with MNU plus testosterone or bacterial infection resulted in a promotion of prostate cancer, with bacterial inflammation being more effective in increasing premalignant and malignant tissular alterations than testosterone in the prostate...
May 11, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487955/regulation-of-mrna-gene-expression-of-members-of-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-transcription-factor-gene-family-by-angiotensin-ii-and-relaxin-2-in-normal-and-cancer-prostate-cell-lines
#16
Kamila Domińska, Karolina Kowalska, Zuzanna Elżbieta Matysiak, Elżbieta Płuciennik, Tomasz Ochędalski, Agnieszka Wanda Piastowska-Ciesielska
An increasing number of researchers are focusing on the influence of local peptide hormones such as angiotensin II (Ang II) and relaxin 2 (RLN2) in the regulation of inflammation and carcinogenesis. The interaction between the renin‑angiotensin system (RAS) and relaxin family peptide system (RFPS) is known to influence the proliferation, adhesion and migration of normal and cancer prostate cell lines. The aim of the present study was to evaluate changes in the expression of nuclear factor‑κB subunit 1 (NFKB1), nuclear factor‑κB subunit 2 (NFKB2), REL proto‑oncogene nuclear factor‑κB p65 subunit (REL), RELA proto‑oncogene nuclear factor‑κB subunit (RELA) and RELB proto‑oncogene nuclear factor‑κB subunit (RELB) mRNA caused by Ang II and RLN2...
June 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487844/inflammation-in-prostatic-hyperplasia-and-carcinoma-basic-scientific-approach
#17
REVIEW
Božo Krušlin, Davor Tomas, Tihana Džombeta, Marija Milković-Periša, Monika Ulamec
Chronic inflammation is associated with both benign conditions and cancer. Likewise, inflammatory cells are quite common in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostatic tissue harboring cancer. Triggers that activate inflammatory pathways in the prostate remain a subject of argument and are likely to be multifactorial, some of these being bacterial antigens, different chemical irritations, and metabolic disorders. Acute and chronic inflammation in prostate leads to accumulation of immunocompetent cells, mainly T lymphocytes and macrophages, but also neutrophils, eosinophils, and mast cells, depending on the type of offending agent...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487295/statin-use-serum-lipids-and-prostate-inflammation-in-men-with-a-negative-prostate-biopsy-results-from-the-reduce-trial
#18
Emma H Allott, Lauren E Howard, Adriana C Vidal, Daniel M Moreira, Ramiro Castro-Santamaria, Gerald L Andriole, Stephen J Freedland
Statin use is associated with lower advanced prostate cancer risk. In addition to cholesterol lowering, statins have systemic anti-inflammatory properties. However, their effect on histologic prostate inflammation is not well understood, particularly among men at increased prostate cancer risk but with a negative prostate biopsy. We examined associations between serum lipid levels, statin use, and histologic prostate inflammation using data from 6,655 men with a negative baseline prostate biopsy in the REduction by DUtasteride of prostate Cancer Events (REDUCE) trial...
June 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483457/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-pharmacology-of-nxt629-a-novel-and-selective-ppar%C3%AE-antagonist
#19
Karin J Stebbins, Alex R Broadhead, Geraldine Cabrera, Lucia D Correa, Davorka Messmer, Richard Bundey, Christopher Baccei, Yalda Bravo, Austin Chen, Nicholas S Stock, Peppi Prasit, Daniel S Lorrain
Peroxisome-proliferator activated receptors (PPAR) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily which regulate gene transcription. PPARα is a key regulator of lipid homeostasis and a negative regulator of inflammation. Under conditions of metabolic stress such as fasting or glucose deprivation, PPARα is upregulated in order to control gene expression necessary for processing alternate fuel sources (e.g. fatty acid oxidation) and thereby promote maintenance of cell viability. Clinically, PPARα expression is upregulated in diseased tissues such as melanoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, ovarian and prostate cancer...
May 5, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476530/enriching-gene-expression-profiles-will-help-personalize-prostate-cancer-management-for-african-americans-a-perspective
#20
REVIEW
Srinivasan Vijayakumar, John C Henegan, Xu Zhang, Wanmei Wang, William A Day, Vani Vijayakumar, Carlos S Moreno, Christian R Gomez
Prostate cancer (PCa) remains the most common form of cancer affecting men in the Western Hemisphere. Mortality rate is 130% higher among African-American men (AAM) than Caucasian-American men. As this trend is not new nor changing, there is an urgent need to identify markers with the ability to specifically distinguish aggressive PCa in the context of race. Gene expression patterns have been used as a tool to identify prognostic biomarkers for PCa to help reduce this disparity. Gene expression profiles reveal molecular mechanisms useful in understanding the biologic basis of tumorigenesis...
June 2017: Urologic Oncology
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