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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549352/eye-abduction-reduces-but-does-not-eliminate-competition-in-the-oculomotor-system
#1
Paul J Boon, Jan Theeuwes, Artem V Belopolsky
Although it is well established that there is a tight coupling between covert attention and the eye movement system there is an ongoing controversy whether this relationship is functional. Previous studies demonstrated that disrupting the ability to execute an eye movement interferes with the allocation of covert attention. One technique that prevents the execution of an eye movement involves the abduction of the eye in the orbit while presenting the stimuli outside of the effective oculomotor range (Craighero, Nascimben, & Fadiga, 2004)...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549268/modulation-of-hpa-axis-response-to-social-stress-in-schizophrenia-by-childhood-trauma
#2
Claudia Lange, Christian G Huber, Daniela Fröhlich, Stefan Borgwardt, Undine E Lang, Marc Walter
HPA axis functioning plays an important role in the etiology of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD). However, only few studies have examined HPA axis responsivity to psychosocial stress in SSD, and results are heterogeneous. Furthermore, childhood trauma is known to influence psychopathology and treatment outcome in SSD, but studies on the influence of childhood trauma on stress related HPA axis activity are missing. The purpose of this study was to investigate cortisol response to a psychosocial stress challenge in SSD patients, and to examine its association with severity of childhood trauma...
May 20, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549258/immunohistochemical-localization-of-cannabinoid-receptor-1-cb1-in-the-submandibular-gland-of-mice-under-normal-conditions-and-when-stimulated-by-isoproterenol-or-carbachol
#3
Wipawee Thoungseabyoun, Apussara Tachow, Sawetree Pakkarato, Atsara Rawangwong, Suthankamon Krongyut, Waraporn Sakaew, Hisatake Kondo, Wiphawi Hipkaeo
OBJECTIVE: We wished to investigate the subcellular localization of CB1, a receptor for the endocannabinoids in mouse submandibular glands (SMGs) under normal conditions and when stimulated by adrenergic or cholinergic agonists. MATERIALS AND METHODS: SMGs of both male and female adult mice were utilized for immunoblotting and immuno-light and -electron microscopic analyses. Isoproterenol and carbachol were used as adrenergic and cholinergic stimulants, respectively...
May 17, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549243/australian-football-players-experiencing-groin-pain-exhibit-reduced-subscale-scores-of-activities-of-daily-living-and-sport-and-recreation-on-the-hagos-questionnaire-a-case-control-study
#4
Michael K Drew, Gregory Lovell, Thorvaldur S Palsson, Pauline E Chiarelli, Peter G Osmotherly
OBJECTIVES: To report normative responses to the HAGOS questionnaire for Australian football players and to determine whether any of the HAGOS questionnaire sub scales can differentiate players with and without groin pain. DESIGN: Case-control. SETTING: Clinical setting. PARTICIPANTS: Professional (n = 66) and semi-professional (n = 9) Australian football (AF) players with current groin pain (n = 16) and controls (n = 57) without current groin pain...
April 20, 2017: Physical Therapy in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549241/establishing-the-brief-assessment-of-cognition-short-form
#5
Max Lam, Mingyuan Wang, Wanping Huang, Goi Khia Eng, Attilio Rapisarda, Michael Kraus, Sim Kang, R S E Keefe, Jimmy Lee
The study aims to identify and validate a parsimonious subset of tests in the commonly used Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) that allows the evaluation of global cognitive ability. Several permutations of subtests from the BACS were examined to identify the best subset of tests to compose the short form measure. The Brief Assessment of Cognition-Short Form (BAC-SF) was evaluated for convergent validity in healthy and psychiatric samples (N = 3718). Verbal Memory, Digit Sequencing, and Symbol Coding subtests were found to best summarize the variance of composite scores in both Asian and US Norming samples (r = 0...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549163/factors-influencing-the-academic-performance-of-children-with-sickle-cell-anaemia-in-ekiti-south-west-nigeria
#6
Oladele Simeon Olatunya, Oluwasola Julius Oke, Bankole Peter Kuti, Iyiade Adeseye Ajayi, Oyebanji Olajuyin, Olubunmi Omotosho-Olagoke, Adekunle Bamidele Taiwo, Opeyemi Ayodeji Faboya, Ayodeji Ajibola
Background: There is a paucity of information on factors that influence the school performance of children with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) in Nigeria, despite her huge burden of the disease. Methods: In total, 101 children with SCA were recruited at a paediatric clinic in Nigeria. Their socio-demographic-matched classmates were the controls. Academic performance and cognitive functioning were obtained from school reports and Ziler's Draw-a-Person Test, respectively...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549157/exposure-to-acute-psychosocial-stress-disrupts-the-luteinizing-hormone-surge-independent-of-estrous-cycle-alterations-in-female-mice
#7
Elizabeth R Wagenmaker, Suzanne M Moenter
The disruptive effects of severe stress on reproductive function are well documented, but surprisingly few studies exist that demonstrate milder psychosocial stressors interfere with the ovarian cycle in females. We hypothesized repeated application of psychosocial stress would disrupt estrous cycles in mice. Mice were transferred to a new cage, transported to a new room and restrained (2h) for 21 consecutive days. Contrary to our hypothesis, this paradigm did not affect estrous cycles. We next tested the hypothesis that a single exposure to mild stress disrupts a specific aspect of the cycle: the proestrous luteinizing hormone (LH) surge...
May 25, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549101/loneliness-and-objectively-measured-physical-capability-in-middle-aged-adults
#8
Rikke Lund, Jelena Laban, Gitte L Petersen, Agnete Dissing, Åse Marie Hansen, Naja H Rod
Loneliness is associated with poor functional ability in older people. Little is known about this association in the middle-aged. The aim is to investigate if perceived loneliness is associated with lower physical capability among middle-aged men and women and if the associations of loneliness with physical capability interact with socioeconomic position and cohabitation status. 5224 participants from Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank (CAMB) aged 49-62 years (mean age 54) were included. Handgrip strength (measured by a dynamometer) and maximal number of chair rises in 30 s was recorded...
May 25, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549077/clinical-criteria-for-subtyping-parkinson-s-disease-biomarkers-and-longitudinal-progression
#9
Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad, Yashar Zeighami, Alain Dagher, Ronald B Postuma
Parkinson's disease varies widely in clinical manifestations, course of progression and biomarker profiles from person to person. Identification of distinct Parkinson's disease subtypes is of great priority to illuminate underlying pathophysiology, predict progression and develop more efficient personalized care approaches. There is currently no clear way to define and divide subtypes in Parkinson's disease. Using data from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative, we aimed to identify distinct subgroups via cluster analysis of a comprehensive dataset at baseline (i...
May 25, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548920/evaluation-of-biofidelity-of-thums-pedestrian-model-under-a-whole-body-impact-conditions-with-a-generic-sedan-buck
#10
Taotao Wu, Taewung Kim, Varun Bollapragada, David Poulard, Huipeng Chen, Matthew B Panzer, Jason L Forman, Jeff R Crandall, Bengt Pipkorn
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to evaluate the biofidelity of the Total Human Model for Safety (THUMS; Ver. 4.01) pedestrian finite element models (PFEM) in a whole-body pedestrian impact condition using a well-characterized generic pedestrian buck model. METHODS: The biofidelity of THUMS PFEM was evaluated with respect to data from 3 full-scale postmortem human subject (PMHS) pedestrian impact tests, in which a pedestrian buck laterally struck the subjects using a pedestrian buck at 40 km/h...
May 29, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548559/the-yucatan-minipig-tmj-disc-structure-function-relationships-support-its-suitability-for-human-comparative-studies
#11
Natalia Vapniarsky, Ashkan Aryaei, Boaz Arzi, Jerry C Hu, David C Hatcher, Kyriacos A Athanasiou
Frequent involvement of the disc in temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders warrants attempts to tissue engineer TMJ disc replacements. Physiologically, a great degree of similarity is seen between humans and farm pigs (FPs), but the pig's rapid growth confers a significant challenge for in vivo experiments. Minipigs have a slower growth rate and are smaller than FPs, but minipig TMJ discs have yet to be fully characterized. The objective of this study was to determine the suitability of the minipig for TMJ studies by extensive structural and functional characterization...
May 26, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548558/the-role-of-genetic-testing-in-epilepsy-diagnosis-and-management
#12
Yvonne G Weber, Saskia Biskup, Katherine L Helbig, Sarah von Spiczak, Holger Lerche
Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. More than 500 epilepsy-associated genes have been described in the literature. Most of these genes play an important role in neuronal excitability, cortical development or synaptic transmission. A growing number of genetic variations have implications on diagnosis and prognostic or therapeutic advice in terms of a personalized medicine. Area covered: The review presents the different forms of genetic epilepsies with respect to their underlying genetic and functional pathophysiology and aims to give advice for recommended genetic testing...
May 26, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548545/mild-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-why-spirometry-is-not-sufficient
#13
Amany F Elbehairy, Grace Parraga, Katherine A Webb, J Alberto Neder, Denis E O'Donnell
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) - an inflammatory disease of the airways, alveoli and lung microvasculature - is a leading cause of death worldwide. Smokers with milder airway obstruction constitute the majority of patients with this disease. Many studies have shown increased morbidity, activity-related dyspnea, exercise intolerance and mortality in such patients, compared with age-matched healthy populations. Clinical evaluation of symptomatic smokers with ostensibly mild airway obstruction poses a challenge in clinical practice as spirometry can obscure extensive heterogeneous pathophysiological impairment...
May 26, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548544/neuropsychological-impairment-in-hashimoto-s-encephalopathy-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#14
Liorah Sabbah-Talasazan, Irene Piryatinsky
Hashimoto's encephalopathy (HE) is a rare neurological syndrome characterized by the presence of positive serum antithyroid antibodies, altered mental status, and clinical response to glucocorticoid therapy. Although HE has been documented in the literature from a medical standpoint, reports on the neuropsychological presentation of this syndrome are scarce. This article presents a literature review of cognitive deficits reported in HE cases. In addition, we describe the case of a 76-year-old Russian speaking woman diagnosed with HE in May 2012...
May 26, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548476/is-cold-blood-cardioplegia-absolutely-superior-to-cold-crystalloid-cardioplegia-in-aortic-valve-surgery
#15
Daniel A Lerman, Matilde Otero-Losada, Kiddy Ume, Pablo A Salgado, Sai Prasad, Kelvin Lim, Bruno Péault, Nasri Alotti
BACKGROUND: Experimental evidence suggests that blood cardioplegia (BCP) may be superior to cold crystalloid cardioplegia (CCP) for myocardial protection. However, robust clinical data are lacking. We compared post-operative outcome of patients undergoing aortic valve replacement (AVR) using cold anterograde-retrograde intermittent BCP versus anterograde (CCP). METHODS: Adult consecutive isolated AVR performed between April 2006 and February 2011 at the Royal Infirmary Hospital of Edinburgh were retrospectively analyzed...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548278/neuropeptide-s-precursor-knockout-mice-display-memory-and-arousal-deficits
#16
Xiaobin Liu, Wei Si, Celia Garau, Kay Jüngling, Hans-Christian Pape, Stefan Schulz, Rainer K Reinscheid
Activation of Neuropeptide S (NPS) signaling has been found to produce arousal, wakefulness, anxiolytic-like behaviors and enhanced memory formation. In order to further study physiological functions of the NPS system, we generated NPS precursor knockout mice by homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. NPS(-/-) mice were viable, fertile, and anatomically normal, when compared to their wildtype and heterozygous littermates. The total number of NPS neurons - although no longer synthesizing the peptide - was not affected by the knockout, as analyzed in NPS(-/-) /NPS(EGFP) double-transgenic mice...
May 26, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548212/an-electromyographic-study-on-the-sequential-recruitment-of-bilateral-sternocleidomastoid-and-masseter-muscle-activity-during-gum-chewing
#17
Shao-Xiong Guo, Bao-Yong Li, Yuan Zhang, Li-Juan Zhou, Lu Liu, Sven E Widmalm, Mei-Qing Wang
BACKGROUND: Mandibular functions are associated with electromyographic activity of the jaw muscles and also the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM). The precise spatiotemporal relation of SCM and masticatory muscles activities during chewing is worthy of investigation. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the sequential recruitment of SCM and masseter activities during chewing as indicated by the spatiotemporal locations of their activity peaks. METHODS: Jaw movements and bilateral surface electromyographic activity of SCM and masseter were recorded during gum chewing in 20 healthy subjects...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548044/falcon-a-highly-flexible-open-source-software-for-closed-loop-neuroscience
#18
Davide Ciliberti, Fabian Kloosterman
OBJECTIVE: Closed-loop experiments provide unique insights into brain dynamics and function. Here, we demonstrate an open-source software platform that enables high-performance real-time processing of streaming experimental data, suitable for a wide range of closed-loop experiments. APPROACH: We wrote a C++ multi-threaded software (Falcon) in which the user can load and execute an arbitrary processing graph. Each node in the graph is internally mapped to a single thread and nodes communicate with each other through thread-safe buffers...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547941/mathematical-modeling-of-e6-p53-interactions-in-cervical-cancer
#19
Faryal Khattak, Muhammad Haseeb, Sahar Fazal, A I Bhatti, Mukhtar Ullah
Background: Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women throughout the world. The human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 viral protein plays an essential role in proteasomal degradation of the cancer suppressant protein p53. As a result, p53 negative regulation and apoptosis relevant activities are abrogated, facilitating development of cervical cancer. Methods: A mathematical model of E6-p53 interactions was developed using mathematical laws. In-silico simulations were carried out on CellDesigner and as a test case the small molecule drug RITA was considered for its ability to rescue the functions of tumor suppressor p53 by inhibiting E6 mediated proteasomal degradation...
April 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547922/videofluoroscopic-assessment-of-the-pathophysiology-of-chronic-poststroke-oropharyngeal-dysphagia
#20
N Vilardell, L Rofes, V Arreola, A Martin, D Muriana, E Palomeras, O Ortega, P Clavé
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) is a major complaint following stroke, associated with poor clinical outcome and high mortality rates. We aimed at characterizing the kinematics of swallow response associated with unsafe swallowing in chronic poststroke patients with OD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Consecutive poststroke patients with a positive volume-viscosity swallow test for OD 3 months following stroke were studied by videofluoroscopy (VFS). Demographical and clinical factors and kinematics of swallow response were compared between those poststroke patients with safe swallow (penetration-aspiration scale, PAS≤2) and those with unsafe swallow (PAS≥3)...
May 25, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
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