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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092910/effects-of-in-utero-and-postnatal-exposure-to-secondhand-smoke-on-lung-function-by-gender-and-asthma-status-the-seven-northeastern-cities-snec-study
#1
Li-Wen Hu, Mo Yang, Shu Chen, Kuntal Shah, Yismaw Hailegiorgis, Richai Burgens, Michael Vaughn, Jin Huang, Pamela Xaverius, Gunther Paul, Lidia Morawska, Tao Lu, Shao Lin, Shou-Qiang Zhong, Min-Li Kong, Yan-Qi Xie, Yuan-Tao Hao, Xiao-Wen Zeng, Zhengmin Qian, Guang-Hui Dong
BACKGROUND: Little information exists on whether gender or asthma status modifies the effects of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure on lung function. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether gender or asthma status modifies the association of SHS exposure with lung function. METHODS: A total of 6,740 children (average 11.6 years) were recruited from 24 districts of 7 cities in northeast China in 2012. SHS exposure included exposure to environmental and maternal smoking both in utero and during early childhood (postnatal)...
January 17, 2017: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092778/electrocortical-consequences-of-image-processing-the-influence-of-working-memory-load-and-worry
#2
Evan J White, DeMond M Grant
Research suggests that worry precludes emotional processing as well as biases attentional processes. Although there is burgeoning evidence for the relationship between executive functioning and worry, more research in this area is needed. A recent theory suggests one mechanism for the negative effects of worry on neural indicators of attention may be working memory load, however few studies have examined this directly. The goal of the current study was to document the influence of both visual and verbal working memory load and worry on attention allocation during processing of emotional images in a cued image paradigm...
January 10, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092764/common-deregulated-gene-expression-profiles-and-morphological-changes-in-developing-zebrafish-larvae-exposed-to-environmental-relevant-high-to-low-concentrations-of-glucocorticoids
#3
Qiyu Chen, Caixia Li, Zhiyuan Gong, Eric Chun Yong Chan, Shane A Snyder, Siew Hong Lam
Synthetic glucocorticoids have been detected in environmental waters and their biological potency have raised concerns of their impact on aquatic vertebrates especially fish. In this study, developing zebrafish larvae exposed to representative glucocorticoids (dexamethasone, prednisolone and triamcinolone) at 50 pM to 50 nM from 3 h post-fertilisation to 5 days post-fertilisation were investigated. Microarray analysis identified 1255, 1531, and 2380 gene probes, which correspondingly mapped to 660, 882 and 1238 human/rodent homologs, as deregulated by dexamethasone, prednisolone and triamcinolone, respectively...
January 6, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092658/mutation-effects-predicted-from-sequence-co-variation
#4
Thomas A Hopf, John B Ingraham, Frank J Poelwijk, Charlotta P I Schärfe, Michael Springer, Chris Sander, Debora S Marks
Many high-throughput experimental technologies have been developed to assess the effects of large numbers of mutations (variation) on phenotypes. However, designing functional assays for these methods is challenging, and systematic testing of all combinations is impossible, so robust methods to predict the effects of genetic variation are needed. Most prediction methods exploit evolutionary sequence conservation but do not consider the interdependencies of residues or bases. We present EVmutation, an unsupervised statistical method for predicting the effects of mutations that explicitly captures residue dependencies between positions...
January 16, 2017: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092641/performance-characterization-of-a-novel-electronic-number-connection-test-to-detect-minimal-hepatic-encephalopathy-in-cirrhotic-patients
#5
Tilo Wuensch, Darius Ferenc Ruether, Caroline Zöllner, Tobias Mueller, Tobias Jung, Magnus Kaffarnik, Ursula Kassner, Eckart Schott, Stephan Kiefer, Johann Pratschke, Martin Stockmann, Maximilian Jara
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a frequent complication of cirrhosis, characterized by cognitive deficits that negatively impact patients' quality of life. The mild, minimal hepatic encephalopathy (mHE) can only be detected by psychometric tests and early mHE detection can prevent more severe complications or even survival times. Here, we aimed to investigate the feasibility and validity of the novel-developed electronic number connection test (eNCT), which is designed as a fast and easy-to-perform mHE patient self-test...
January 12, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092639/lithographic-patterning-of-antibodies-by-direct-lift-off-and-improved-surface-adhesion
#6
Sankalp Verma, Vivek Verma
The inherent property of antibodies binding to their antigen with high specificity makes them a strong candidate for sensing and detection applications. Microscale patterning of antibodies is desired for the miniaturization of sensors and fundamental cell biology studies. However, existing methodologies to pattern antibodies at the microscale are multi-step. In this work, we demonstrate microscale patterning of antibodies on a glass coverslip in a single step photolithography process. The microscale features of the photoresist were generated on the coverslip using photolithography, and the antibody solution was incubated...
January 16, 2017: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092637/non-invasive-classification-of-breast-microcalcifications-using-x-ray-coherent-scatter-computed-tomography
#7
Bahaa Ghammraoui, Lucretiu M Popescu
We investigate the use of energy dispersive x-ray coherent scatter computed tomography (ED-CSCT) as a non-invasive diagnostic method to differentiate between type I and type II breast calcifications. This approach is sensitive to the differences of composition and internal crystal structure of different types of microcalcifications. The study is carried out by simulating a CSCT system with a scanning pencil beam, considering a polychromatic x-ray source and an energy-resolving photon counting detector. In a first step, the multidimensional angle and energy distributed CSCT data is reduced to the projection-space distributions of only a few components, corresponding to the expected target composition: adipose, glandular tissue, weddellite (calcium oxalate) for type I calcifications, and hydroxyapatite for type II calcifications...
February 7, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092616/generation-and-characterization-of-a-monoclonal-antibody-against-duck-tembusu-virus-envelope-protein
#8
K Han, D Zhao, Y Liu, Q Liu, X Huang, J Yang, K Bi, T Xu, Y Li
Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) is a newly emerging pathogenic flavivirus that has caused massive economic losses to the duck industry in China. Envelope (E) protein of DTMUV is an important structural protein, which is able to induce protective immune response in target animals and can be used as specific serological diagnosis tool. In this study, a novel monoclonal antibody, designated mAb 3E9, was generated against DTMUV E protein. It is positive in indirect ELISA against both His-E protein and the purified whole viral antigen...
December 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092541/quality-assessment-of-sharpened-images-challenges-methodology-and-objective-metrics
#9
Lukas Krasula, Patrick Le Callet, Karel Fliegel, Milos Klima
Most of the effort in image quality assessment (QA) has been so far dedicated to the degradation of the image. However, there are also many algorithms in the image processing chain that can enhance the quality of an input image. These include procedures for contrast enhancement, deblurring, sharpening, up-sampling, denoising, transfer function compensation, etc. In this work, possible strategies for the quality assessment of sharpened images are investigated. This task is not trivial because the sharpening techniques can increase the perceived quality, as well as introduce artifacts leading to the quality drop (over-sharpening)...
January 10, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092529/sub-category-classifiers-for-multiple-instance-learning-and-its-application-to-retinal-nerve-fiber-layer-visibility-classification
#10
Siyamalan Manivannan, Caroline Cobb, Stephen Burgess, Emanuele Trucco
We propose a novel multiple instance learning method to assess the visibility (visible/not visible) of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) in fundus camera images. Using only image-level labels, our approach learns to classify the images as well as to localize the RNFL visible regions. We transform the original feature space to a discriminative subspace, and learn a region-level classifier in that subspace. We propose a margin-based loss function to jointly learn this subspace and the region-level classifier...
January 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092504/wall-shear-rate-measurement-validation-of-a-new-method-through-multiphysics-simulations
#11
Stefano Ricci, Abigail Swillens, Alessandro Ramalli, Patrick Segers, Piero Tortoli
Wall shear stress is known to affect the vessel endothelial function and to be related to important pathologies like the development of atherosclerosis. It is defined as the product of the blood viscosity by the blood velocity gradient at the wall position, i.e., the wall shear rate (WSR). The WSR measurement is particularly challenging in important cardiovascular sites, like the carotid bifurcation, because of the related complex flow configurations characterized by high spatial and temporal gradients, wall movement, and clutter noise...
January 2017: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092340/decompression-surgery-alone-versus-decompression-plus-fusion-in-symptomatic-lumbar-spinal-stenosis-a-swiss-prospective-multi-center-cohort-study-with-3-years-of-follow-up
#12
Nils H Ulrich, Jakob M Burgstaller, Giuseppe Pichierri, Maria M Wertli, Mazda Farshad, François Porchet, Johann Steurer, Ulrike Held
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of a prospective, multicenter cohort study. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the added effect of surgical fusion as compared to decompression surgery alone in symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis patients with spondylolisthesis. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The optimal surgical management of lumbar spinal stenosis patients with spondylolisthesis remains controversial. METHODS: Patients of the LSOS with confirmed DLSS and spondylolisthesis were enrolled in this study...
January 13, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092203/machine-learning-of-three-dimensional-right-ventricular-motion-enables-outcome-prediction-in-pulmonary-hypertension-a-cardiac-mr-imaging-study
#13
Timothy J W Dawes, Antonio de Marvao, Wenzhe Shi, Tristan Fletcher, Geoffrey M J Watson, John Wharton, Christopher J Rhodes, Luke S G E Howard, J Simon R Gibbs, Daniel Rueckert, Stuart A Cook, Martin R Wilkins, Declan P O'Regan
Purpose To determine if patient survival and mechanisms of right ventricular failure in pulmonary hypertension could be predicted by using supervised machine learning of three-dimensional patterns of systolic cardiac motion. Materials and Methods The study was approved by a research ethics committee, and participants gave written informed consent. Two hundred fifty-six patients (143 women; mean age ± standard deviation, 63 years ± 17) with newly diagnosed pulmonary hypertension underwent cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, right-sided heart catheterization, and 6-minute walk testing with a median follow-up of 4...
January 16, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092186/under-the-influence-of-facebook-excess-use-of-social-networking-sites-and-drinking-motives-consequences-and-attitudes-in-college-students
#14
Julia M Hormes
Background and aims Excessive use of social networking sites (SNS) has recently been conceptualized as a behavioral addiction (i.e., "disordered SNS use") using key criteria for the diagnosis of substance dependence and shown to be associated with a variety of impairments in psychosocial functioning, including an increased risk of problem drinking. This study sought to characterize associations between "disordered SNS use" and attitudes towards alcohol, drinking motives, and adverse consequences resulting from alcohol use in young adults...
March 2016: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091936/task-specific-motor-rehabilitation-therapy-after-stroke-improves-performance-in-a-different-motor-task-translational-evidence
#15
M El Amki, P Baumgartner, O Bracko, A R Luft, S Wegener
While the stroke survivor with a motor deficit strives for recovery of all aspects of daily life movements, neurorehabilitation training is often task specific and does not generalize to movements other than the ones trained. In rodent models of post-stroke recovery, this problem is poorly investigated as the training task is often the same as the one that measures motor function. The present study investigated whether motor training by pellet reaching translates into enhancement of different motor functions in rats after stroke...
January 14, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091927/effect-of-new-antiviral-agent-camphecin-on-behavior-of-mice
#16
A V Babina, V A Lavrinenko, O I Yarovaya, N F Salakhutdinov
We studied the effect of camphecin (1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-ylidene-aminoethanol) on mouse behavior in the open-field test. Camphecin possesses antiviral activity and inhibits viral replication, but its influence on the nervous system is poorly studied. Single camphecin injection produced no significant changes in behavioral patterns. Chronic camphecin administration (5 times over 2 weeks) to mice of different strains had no significant influence on open field behavior (motor, exploratory activity, anxiety, emotional state and vegetative functions)...
January 16, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091888/testing-the-cp-correction-procedure-with-different-dft-methods-on-h-bonding-complexes-of-%C3%AE%C2%BA-carrabiose-with-water-molecules
#17
Rachida Fodil, Majda Sekkal-Rahal, Adlane Sayede
Interaction of water molecules with κ-carrabiose disaccharide, within three H-bonding complexes, was investigated. Particular interest was focused on the way with which the BSSE correction has to be performed. Two strategies were used, either performing BSSE correction during or after optimization. For this aim, several DFT-functionals (hybrid GGA and hybrid meta-GGA) and 6-31 + G* basis set were considered. The results demonstrated the uselessness of including of BSSE-CP correction during optimization for all complexes...
January 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091611/multi-response-optimization-of-artemia-hatching-process-using-split-split-plot-design-based-response-surface-methodology
#18
V V Arun, Neelam Saharan, V Ramasubramanian, A M Babitha Rani, K R Salin, Ravindra Sontakke, Harsha Haridas, Deepak George Pazhayamadom
A novel method, BBD-SSPD is proposed by the combination of Box-Behnken Design (BBD) and Split-Split Plot Design (SSPD) which would ensure minimum number of experimental runs, leading to economical utilization in multi- factorial experiments. The brine shrimp Artemia was tested to study the combined effects of photoperiod, temperature and salinity, each with three levels, on the hatching percentage and hatching time of their cysts. The BBD was employed to select 13 treatment combinations out of the 27 possible combinations that were grouped in an SSPD arrangement...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091572/a-computational-psychiatry-approach-identifies-how-alpha-2a-noradrenergic-agonist-guanfacine-affects-feature-based-reinforcement-learning-in-the-macaque
#19
S A Hassani, M Oemisch, M Balcarras, S Westendorff, S Ardid, M A van der Meer, P Tiesinga, T Womelsdorf
Noradrenaline is believed to support cognitive flexibility through the alpha 2A noradrenergic receptor (a2A-NAR) acting in prefrontal cortex. Enhanced flexibility has been inferred from improved working memory with the a2A-NA agonist Guanfacine. But it has been unclear whether Guanfacine improves specific attention and learning mechanisms beyond working memory, and whether the drug effects can be formalized computationally to allow single subject predictions. We tested and confirmed these suggestions in a case study with a healthy nonhuman primate performing a feature-based reversal learning task evaluating performance using Bayesian and Reinforcement learning models...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091523/origin-of-anti-tumor-activity-of-the-cysteine-containing-go-peptides-and-further-optimization-of-their-cytotoxic-properties
#20
Irina I Tyuryaeva, Olga G Lyublinskaya, Ivan S Podkorytov, Nikolai R Skrynnikov
Antitumor GO peptides have been designed as dimerization inhibitors of prominent oncoprotein mucin 1. In this study we demonstrate that activity of GO peptides is independent of the level of cellular expression of mucin 1. Furthermore, these peptides prove to be broadly cytotoxic, causing cell death also in normal cells such as dermal fibroblasts and endometrial mesenchymal stem cells. To explore molecular mechanism of their cytotoxicity, we have designed and tested a number of new peptide sequences containing the key CxC or CxxC motifs...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
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