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coinfection guidelines

Magda Yehia El Seify, Eman Mahmoud Fouda, Hanan Mohamed Ibrahim, Maha Muhammad Fathy, Asmaa Al Husseiny Ahmed, Walaa Shawky Khater, Noha Nagi Mohammed Salah El Deen, Heba Galal Mohamed Abouzeid, Nancy Riyad Ahmed Hegazy, Heba Salah Sayed Elbanna
BACKGROUND: While recognizing the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia is necessary for formulating local antimicrobial guidelines, limited data is published about this etiology in Egyptian pediatric patients. OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of bacterial and viral pathogens causing community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) among immunocompetent Egyptian infants and preschool children. METHODS: Ninety infants and preschool-age children admitted to our hospital with CAP were prospectively included in the study...
September 29, 2016: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
Imane El Dika, James J Harding, Ghassan K Abou-Alfa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is becoming an important cause of mortality in patients with HIV, attributed to coinfection with hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus, and the longer survival advantage these patients are achieving after introducing the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens. RECENT FINDINGS: In addition to hepatitis infection, immunosuppression secondary to HIV infection, direct impact of the virus on liver parenchyma, and the use of hepatotoxic antiretroviral drugs, all contribute to HCC pathogenesis...
October 15, 2016: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Marc Gregory Yu, Jenny Maureen Atun
Tuberculous (TB) lymphadenitis can mimic cervical node metastasis from papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) since the distribution and appearance of affected lymph nodes are similar. We present the case of an asymptomatic 50-year-old Filipino who sought consult for a gradually enlarging anterior neck mass and a single palpable cervical lymph node. Preoperative workup suggested a thyroid malignancy with nodal metastasis. He underwent total thyroidectomy with node dissection where histopathology confirmed follicular variant- (FV-) PTC...
2016: Case Reports in Medicine
Maria L Calero-Bernal, Isabel Martin-Garrido, Mikel Donazar-Ezcurra, Andrew H Limper, Eva M Carmona
Introduction. Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is rising in the non-HIV population and associates with higher morbidity and mortality. The aggressive immunosuppressive regimens, as well as the lack of stablished guidelines for chemoprophylaxis, are likely contributors to this increased incidence. Herein, we have explored the underlying conditions, immunosuppressive therapies, and clinical outcomes of PCP in HIV-negative patients. Methods. Retrospective analysis of PCP in HIV-negative patients at Mayo Clinic from 2006-2010...
2016: Canadian Respiratory Journal: Journal of the Canadian Thoracic Society
Elvira Singh, Gita Naidu, Mary-Ann Davies, Julia Bohlius
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: HIV-infected children are at an increased risk of developing cancer. Many of the cancers in HIV-infected children are linked to immunosuppression and oncogenic coinfections. Worldwide most HIV-infected children live in sub-Saharan Africa, but cancer data for this population are scarce. In this article, we review the current literature on the epidemiology and prevention of cancer in HIV-infected children. RECENT FINDINGS: Combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) reduces the risk of developing cancer in HIV-infected children...
September 28, 2016: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Mark Hull, Stephen Shafran, Alex Wong, Alice Tseng, Pierre Giguère, Lisa Barrett, Shariq Haider, Brian Conway, Marina Klein, Curtis Cooper
Background. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection occurs in 20-30% of Canadians living with HIV and is responsible for a heavy burden of morbidity and mortality. Purpose. To update national standards for management of HCV-HIV coinfected adults in the Canadian context with evolving evidence for and accessibility of effective and tolerable DAA therapies. The document addresses patient workup and treatment preparation, antiviral recommendations overall and in specific populations, and drug-drug interactions. Methods...
2016: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
S Kesselring, A Cescon, G Colley, C Osborne, W Zhang, J M Raboud, S R Hosein, A N Burchell, C Cooper, M B Klein, M Loutfy, N Machouf, Jsg Montaner, A Rachlis, C Tsoukas, R S Hogg, V D Lima
OBJECTIVES: To document the quality of initial HIV care in Canada using the Programmatic Compliance Score (PCS), to explore the association of the PCS with mortality, and to identify factors associated with higher quality of care. METHODS: We analysed data from the Canadian Observational Cohort Collaboration (CANOC), a multisite Canadian cohort of HIV-positive adults initiating combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) from 2000 to 2011. PCS indicators of noncompliance with HIV treatment guidelines include: fewer than three CD4 count tests in the first year of ART; fewer than three viral load tests in the first year of ART; no drug resistance testing before initiation; baseline CD4 count < 200 cells/mm(3) ; starting a nonrecommended ART regimen; and not achieving viral suppression within 6 months of initiation...
July 6, 2016: HIV Medicine
Jean-François Faucher, David Morquin, Jacques Reynes, Catherine Chirouze, Bruno Hoen, Vincent Le Moing
Liposomal amphotericin B (LAmb) may fail to heal Leishmania infantum visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the immunodeficient host. There are currently no guidelines on how to treat such patients and efficacy of miltefosine monotherapy seems limited in this indication. We present 2 cases of patients with VL and AIDS for which LAmb had to be interrupted (one because of toxicity, one because of treatment failure) and who were treated effectively with pentamidine followed by miltefosine.
October 2016: Parasitology International
Naveen Kumar, Sanjay Barua, Thachamvally Riyesh, Kundan K Chaubey, Krishan Dutt Rawat, Nitin Khandelwal, Anil K Mishra, Nitika Sharma, Surender S Chandel, Shalini Sharma, Manoj K Singh, Dinesh K Sharma, Shoor V Singh, Bhupendra N Tripathi
Successful purification of multiple viruses from mixed infections remains a challenge. In this study, we investigated peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) and foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) mixed infection in goats. Rather than in a single cell type, cytopathic effect (CPE) of the virus was observed in cocultured Vero/BHK-21 cells at 6th blind passage (BP). PPRV, but not FMDV could be purified from the virus mixture by plaque assay. Viral RNA (mixture) transfection in BHK-21 cells produced FMDV but not PPRV virions, a strategy which we have successfully employed for the first time to eliminate the negative-stranded RNA virus from the virus mixture...
2016: PloS One
Samsiya Ona, Rose L Molina, Khady Diouf
Mycoplasma genitalium is a facultative anaerobic organism and a recognized cause of nongonococcal urethritis in men. In women, M. genitalium has been associated with cervicitis, endometritis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), infertility, susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and adverse birth outcomes, indicating a consistent relationship with female genital tract pathology. The global prevalence of M. genitalium among symptomatic and asymptomatic sexually active women ranges between 1 and 6...
2016: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Subash Chandra Sonkar, Kirti Wasnik, Anita Kumar, Pratima Mittal, Daman Saluja
BACKGROUND: Trichomoniasis, a sexually transmitted disease (STD), is caused by Trichomonas vaginalis in both men and women. Screening of trichomoniasis is problematic in resource challenged settings as currently available, inexpensive diagnostic methods are of low sensitivity and/or specificity. In India, National AIDS Control organization (NACO) recommended syndromic case management (SCM) for treatment. The objective of the present study was to compare the utility of the NACO-NACP III Algorithms for STI/RTI treatment used by clinicians with PCR based diagnosis...
May 5, 2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Rui Zhang, Jiang Qian, Jie Guo, Yifei Yuan, Kang Xue, Han Yue, Ling Chen
Purpose. To describe the clinical manifestations and treatment outcomes of syphilitic uveitis in a Chinese population. Methods. This is a retrospective case series of 15 consecutive patients with syphilitic uveitis treated at a uveitis referral center between 2012 and 2015. Results. Fifteen patients were diagnosed with syphilitic uveitis based on positive serological tests. Nine patients were male. Coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus was detected in two patients. Twenty eyes presented with panuveitis and all patients had posterior involvement...
2016: Journal of Ophthalmology
Meredith E Clement, Lawrence P Park, Ann Marie Navar, Nwora Lance Okeke, Michael J Pencina, Pamela S Douglas, Susanna Naggie
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The potential impact of recently updated cholesterol guidelines on treatment of HIV- and HCV-infected veterans is unknown. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study to assess statin use and recommendations among 13 579 HIV-infected, 169 767 HCV-infected, and 6628 HIV/HCV-coinfected male veterans aged 40-75 years...
August 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Philip Bolduc, Navid Roder, Emily Colgate, Sarah H Cheeseman
The advent of combination antiretroviral drug regimens has transformed HIV infection from a fatal illness into a manageable chronic condition. All patients with HIV infection should be considered for antiretroviral therapy, regardless of CD4 count or HIV viral load, for individual benefit and to prevent HIV transmission. Antiretroviral drugs affect HIV in several ways: entry inhibitors block HIV entry into CD4 T cells; nucleotide and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors prevent reverse transcription from RNA to DNA via chain-terminating proteins; nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors prevent reverse transcription through enzymatic inhibition; integrase strand transfer inhibitors block integration of viral DNA into cellular DNA; protease inhibitors block maturation and production of the virus...
April 2016: FP Essentials
Fahimeh Bagheri Amiri, Ehsan Mostafavi, Ali Mirzazadeh
BACKGROUND: worldwide, hepatitis C and B virus infections (HCV and HCV), are the two most common coinfections with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and has become a major threat to the survival of HIV-infected persons. The review aimed to estimate the prevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV, HIV/HCV and HIV/HBV and triple coinfections in different subpopulations in Iran. METHOD: Following PRISMA guidelines, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of reports on prevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and HIV coinfections in different subpopulations in Iran...
2016: PloS One
José Antonio Iribarren, Rafael Rubio, Koldo Aguirrebengoa, Jose Ramón Arribas, Josu Baraia-Etxaburu, Félix Gutiérrez, Juan Carlos Lopez Bernaldo de Quirós, Juan Emilio Losa, José Ma Miró, Santiago Moreno, José Pérez Molina, Daniel Podzamczer, Federico Pulido, Melchor Riera, Antonio Rivero, José Sanz Moreno, Concha Amador, Antonio Antela, Piedad Arazo, Julio Arrizabalaga, Pablo Bachiller, Carlos Barros, Juan Berenguer, Joan Caylá, Pere Domingo, Vicente Estrada, Hernando Knobel, Jaime Locutura, José López Aldeguer, Josep Ma Llibre, Fernando Lozano, Josep Mallolas, Eduardo Malmierca, Celia Miralles, Pilar Miralles, Agustín Muñoz, Agustín Ocampo, Julián Olalla, Inés Pérez, Ma Jesús Pérez Elías, José Luis Pérez Arellano, Joaquín Portilla, Esteban Ribera, Francisco Rodríguez, Miguel Santín, Jesús Sanz Sanz, Ma Jesús Téllez, Miguel Torralba, Eulalia Valencia, Miguel Angel Von Wichmann
Despite the huge advance that antiretroviral therapy represents for the prognosis of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), opportunistic infections (OIs) continue to be a cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients. OIs often arise because of severe immunosuppression resulting from poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy, failure of antiretroviral therapy, or unawareness of HIV infection by patients whose first clinical manifestation of AIDS is an OI. The present article updates our previous guidelines on the prevention and treatment of various OIs in HIV-infected patients, namely, infections by parasites, fungi, viruses, mycobacteria, and bacteria, as well as imported infections...
October 2016: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
Anne De Monte, Johan Courjon, Rodolphe Anty, Eric Cua, Alissa Naqvi, Véronique Mondain, Jacqueline Cottalorda, Laurence Ollier, Valérie Giordanengo
Use of direct-acting antiviral drugs (DAAs) greatly improves management of adults infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) whether patients are treatment-naive or unsuccessfully pre-treated. Several inhibitors of viral nonstructural proteins (NS3/4A protease, NS5A and NS5B polymerase) allow a rapid HCV clearance and increase rates of sustained virological response. Both the EASL and AASLD guidelines have recently published up-to-date recommendations for their use, addressing each HCV genotype and particular situations...
May 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
P Kurira, C E Ndhlovu, Z A R Gomo
BACKGROUND: Co-infections have become significant causes of morbidity and mortality in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infected people. Due to shared routes of transmission, co-infection of HIV with Hepatitis B (HBV) and/or Hepatitis C (HCV) should be expected. In Zimbabwe, screening for both viruses in HIV infected people prior to treatment is not routinely practised despite the World Health Organisation (WHO) guidelines (2013) prioritising treatment where these co-infections exist...
September 2014: Central African Journal of Medicine
James M Chamberlain, Stephen J Teach, Katie L Hayes, Gia Badolato, Monika K Goyal
OBJECTIVES: Pediatric asthma is a highly prevalent disease, affecting over 7 million U.S. children and accounting for 750,000 annual emergency department (ED) visits. Guidelines from the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program recommend limited use of chest radiography (CXR), complete blood counts (CBCs), and antibiotics when managing acute exacerbations of asthma. However, studies suggest frequent overutilization of these resources. The objective was to evaluate differences between pediatric and general EDs in rates of CXRs, CBCs, and use of antibiotics for pediatric asthma exacerbations...
February 2016: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Amit Khatri, Sandeep Dutta, Haoyu Wang, Thomas Podsadecki, Roger Trinh, Walid Awni, Rajeev Menon
BACKGROUND: Guidelines for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection consistently recommend initiation of antiretroviral therapy in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)/HIV-1 coinfection. Therefore, potential drug interactions between antiretroviral drugs and HCV direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) must be carefully considered. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the compatibility of a novel combination of DAAs (the 3D regimen) with commonly prescribed HIV-1 protease inhibitors (PIs)...
April 15, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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