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hepatitis B guidelines

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306597/diagnosis-of-viral-hepatitis
#1
Philippa J Easterbrook, Teri Roberts, Anita Sands, Rosanna Peeling
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections and HIV-HBV and HCV coinfection are major causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. Testing and diagnosis is the gateway for access to both treatment and prevention services, but there remains a large burden of undiagnosed infection globally. We review the global epidemiology, key challenges in the current hepatitis testing response, new tools to support the hepatitis global response (2016-2020 Global Hepatitis Health Sector strategy, and 2017 WHO guidelines on hepatitis testing and their key recommendations) and future directions and innovations in hepatitis diagnostics...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284515/hepatitis-b-and-pregnancy
#2
Eliana Castillo, Kellie Murphy, Julie van Schalkwyk
OBJECTIVE: To review the epidemiology, natural history, evaluation, and treatment of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection during pregnancy. This will aid obstetric care providers in counseling their patients regarding perinatal risks and management options available to pregnant women with hepatitis B. OUTCOMES: Outcomes evaluated include thresholds for HBV anti-viral treatment for prevention of perinatal transmission and for invasive procedures during pregnancy for women with hepatitis B infection...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270432/immunogenicity-of-augmented-compared-with-standard-dose-hepatitis-b-vaccine-in-pediatric-patients-on-dialysis-a-midwest-pediatric-nephrology-consortium-study
#3
Jason M Misurac, Rene G VanDeVoorde, Mahmoud Kallash, Franca M Iorember, Kera E Luckritz, Michelle N Rheault, Jennifer G Jetton, Martin A Turman, Gaurav Kapur, Katherine E Twombley, Shireen Hashmat, Donald J Weaver, Jeffrey D Leiser, Corina Nailescu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patients on maintenance dialysis have a higher risk of unresponsiveness to hepatitis B vaccination and loss of hepatitis B immunity. Adult guidelines recommend augmented dosing (40 mcg/dose), resulting in improved response in adults. We sought to determine whether children on dialysis mount a similar antibody response when given standard or augmented dosing of hepatitis B vaccine. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: This is a retrospective review of patients on dialysis aged <19 years from May 1, 2008 to May 1, 2013 at 12 pediatric dialysis units...
March 7, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267387/hepatitis-b-virus-vaccination-in-hiv-infected-people-a-review
#4
François-Xavier Catherine, Lionel Piroth
HBV immunization is highly recommended in people infected with HIV. However, the classical schedule used in the general population has been shown to be insufficient in people living with HIV. This review summarizes the main studies dealing with HBV vaccination in people living with HIV, depending on their baseline status (in particular, never vaccinated, already vaccinated, or with an isolated anti-HBc serological profile). It shows that reinforced 40µg intramuscular HBV vaccination schedules are now frequently recommended, either initially in people never vaccinated, or in the lack of an anamnestic response in other situations...
February 16, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260595/a-danish-nationwide-questionnaire-study-of-hepatitis-b-virus-screening-before-immunosuppressive-therapy
#5
Kristine Ifigenia Bunyoz, Henrik Krarup, Nina Weis
INTRODUCTION: Difficulty in identifying patients who are at risk for hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation makes it import-ant to screen for HBV before initiating immunosuppressive therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate screening procedures for HBV infection before initiation of immunosuppressive therapy and to explore HBV treatment strategies. METHODS: All Danish units of haematology, oncology, dermatology, rheumatology and gastroenterology using immunosuppressive agents were invited to fill out a questionnaire for The Danish Database for Hepatitis B and C...
March 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251119/fibrosis-assessment-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-hbv-infection
#6
REVIEW
Pathik Parikh, John D Ryan, Emmanuel A Tsochatzis
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of liver morbidity and mortality worldwide. While a proportion of the 250 million individuals chronically infected with HBV will not come to significant harm or require therapy, many others risk developing complications of the end-stage liver disease such as decompensated cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), without intervention. Due to the complex natural history of HBV infection, patients require an expert assessment to interpret biochemistry, viral serology and appropriately stage the disease, and to initiate monitoring and/or therapy where indicated...
February 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251118/optimizing-antiviral-agents-for-hepatitis-b-management-in-malignant-lymphomas
#7
REVIEW
Oluwatobi O Ozoya, Julio Chavez, Lubomir Sokol, Samir Dalia
The global scale of hepatitis B infection is well known but its impact is still being understood. Missed hepatitis B infection impacts lymphoma therapy especially increased risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation and poor treatment outcomes. The presence of undiagnosed chronic hepatitis also undermines chronic HBV screening methods that are based on a positive HBsAg alone. The goal of this review is to evaluate the literature for optimizing antiviral therapy for lymphoma patients with HBV infection or at risk of HBV reactivation...
February 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251116/pediatric-hepatitis-b-treatment
#8
REVIEW
Haruki Komatsu, Ayano Inui, Tomoo Fujisawa
Although the introduction of hepatitis B vaccine has been contributing to the reduction in the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers worldwide, the treatment of children with chronic HBV infection is a challenge to be addressed. HBeAg seroconversion, which induces low replication of HBV, is widely accepted as the first goal of antiviral treatment in children with chronic hepatitis B. However, spontaneous HBeAg seroconversion is highly expected in children with chronic HBV infection. Therefore, the identification of children who need antiviral treatment to induce HBeAg seroconversion is essential in the management of chronic HBV infection...
February 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251100/quantitative-nucleic-acid-amplification-methods-and-their-implications-in-clinical-virology
#9
REVIEW
Mini P Singh, Shipra Galhotra, Karnika Saigal, Archit Kumar, Radha Kanta Ratho
Recently, a number of techniques have been approved for quantification of viral nucleic acids in clinical samples. Viral load (VL) tests have considerable importance in the management of patients and are widely used in routine diagnosis. In clinical virology, VL testing are important to monitor the antiviral treatment, to initiate preemptive therapy, to understand pathogenesis, and to evaluate the infectivity. These tests have now become a part of many diagnostic and treatment guidelines. Considering the various challenges for in-house viral testing related to the standardization, validation, and precision; they are gradually being replaced by the United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) cleared tests...
January 2017: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222098/multicenter-study-of-skin-rashes-and-hepatotoxicity-in-antiretroviral-na%C3%A3-ve-hiv-positive-patients-receiving-non-nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor-plus-nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitors-in-taiwan
#10
Pei-Ying Wu, Chien-Yu Cheng, Chun-Eng Liu, Yi-Chien Lee, Chia-Jui Yang, Mao-Song Tsai, Shu-Hsing Cheng, Shih-Ping Lin, De-Yu Lin, Ning-Chi Wang, Yi-Chieh Lee, Hsin-Yun Sun, Hung-Jen Tang, Chien-Ching Hung
OBJECTIVES: Two nucleos(t)ide reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) plus 1 non-NRTI (nNRTI) remain the preferred or alternative combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) for antiretroviral-naive HIV-positive patients in Taiwan. The three most commonly used nNRTIs are nevirapine (NVP), efavirenz (EFV) and rilpivirine (RPV). This study aimed to determine the incidences of hepatotoxicity and skin rashes within 4 weeks of initiation of cART containing 1 nNRTI plus 2 NRTIs. METHODS: Between June, 2012 and November, 2015, all antiretroviral-naive HIV-positive adult patients initiating nNRTI-containing cART at 8 designated hospitals for HIV care were included in this retrospective observational study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219610/bictegravir-versus-dolutegravir-each-with-emtricitabine-and-tenofovir-alafenamide-for-initial-treatment-of-hiv-1-infection-a-randomised-double-blind-phase-2-trial
#11
Paul E Sax, Edwin DeJesus, Gordon Crofoot, Douglas Ward, Paul Benson, Robin Dretler, Anthony Mills, Cynthia Brinson, Julie Peloquin, Xuelian Wei, Kirsten White, Andrew Cheng, Hal Martin, Erin Quirk
BACKGROUND: All recent treatment guidelines recommend integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) as components of initial HIV therapy. Bictegravir, a novel, once-daily, unboosted INSTI, showed potent activity in a 10 day monotherapy study and has a high in-vitro resistance barrier. On the basis of these results, we did a phase 2 trial comparing bictegravir with dolutegravir. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, phase 2 trial, we recruited previously untreated adults (aged ≥18 years) with HIV-1 infections from 22 outpatient centres in the USA...
February 14, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218868/-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-and-d-national-consensus-guideline-in-hungary-from-15-october-2016
#12
Gábor Horváth, Zsuzsanna Gerlei, Judit Gervain, Gabriella Lengyel, Mihály Makara, Alajos Pár, László Rókusz, Ferenc Szalay, István Tornai, Klára Werling, Béla Hunyady
Diagnosis and treatment of HBV/HDV infection means for the patient to be able to maintain working capacity, to increase quality of life, to prevent cancer, and to prolong life expectancy, while society benefits from eliminating the chances of further transmission of the viruses, and decreasing the overall costs of serious complications. The guideline delineates the treatment algorithms for 2017 set by a consensus meeting of physicians involved in the treatment of these diseases. The prevalence of HBV infection in the Hungarian general population is 0...
February 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198787/serologic-responses-after-hepatitis-b-vaccination-in-preterm-infants-born-to-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-positive-mothers-singapore-experience
#13
Tan Xt Christelle, Chan Si Min, Le Ye Lee, Christina Ong, Kong Boo Phua, Marion M Aw, Sharon Saw, Guan Huei Lee, Franco Wong, Koh Cheng Thoon
BACKGROUND: The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends a 4-dose vaccination schedule for preterm low birth weight infants (<2kg) and a 3-dose vaccination schedule for preterm infants (≥2kg) born to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive mothers. However, data remain limited for these high risk infants and the optimal dosing schedule in Asia is not well established. AIM: We aimed to evaluate the serologic vaccine responses in preterm infants born to HBsAg positive mothers using current vaccination guidelines...
February 13, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197805/economic-analysis-and-budget-impact-of-tenofovir-and-entecavir-in-the-first-line-treatment-of-hepatitis-b-virus-in-italy
#14
M Ruggeri, M Basile, S Coretti, C Drago, A Cicchetti
BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis B is a common, progressive disease, particularly when viral replication is detected. Oral antivirals can suppress viral replication and prevent or delay the development of cirrhosis and liver-related complications. The treatments of chronic hepatitis B cannot totally cure the disease but can prevent its progression to hepatocellular carcinoma, decreasing the levels of both morbidity and mortality. To date, there are several therapies indicated by the international guidelines as first-line treatments for the management of hepatitis B; two of the most effective are those based on either tenofovir or entecavir...
February 14, 2017: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194210/recommended-immunization-schedule-for-children-and-adolescents-immunization-guideline-8th-edition-released-by-the-korean-pediatric-society-in-2015
#15
REVIEW
Jong-Hyun Kim, Eun Hwa Choi, Su Eun Park, Yae-Jean Kim, Dae Sun Jo, Yun-Kyung Kim, Byung-Wook Eun, Jina Lee, Soo-Young Lee, Hyunju Lee, Ki Hwan Kim, Kyung-Hyo Kim
This report includes the recommended immunization schedule table for children and adolescents based on the 8th (2015) and revised 7th (2012) Immunization Guidelines released by the Committee on Infectious Diseases of the Korean Pediatric Society (KPS). Notable revised recommendations include: reorganization of the immunization table with a list of vaccines on the vertical axis and the corresponding age on the horizontal axis; reflecting the inclusion of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, and hepatitis A vaccine into the National Immunization Program since 2012; addition of general recommendations for 2 new Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccines and their interchangeability with existing JE vaccines; addition of general recommendations for quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccines and scope of the recommended targets for vaccination; and emphasizing catch-up immunization of Tdap vaccine...
December 2016: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154539/temporal-association-of-certain-neuropsychiatric-disorders-following-vaccination-of-children-and-adolescents-a-pilot-case-control-study
#16
Douglas L Leslie, Robert A Kobre, Brian J Richmand, Selin Aktan Guloksuz, James F Leckman
BACKGROUND: Although the association of the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine with autism spectrum disorder has been convincingly disproven, the onset of certain brain-related autoimmune and inflammatory disorders has been found to be temporally associated with the antecedent administration of various vaccines. This study examines whether antecedent vaccinations are associated with increased incidence of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), anorexia nervosa (AN), anxiety disorder, chronic tic disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, major depressive disorder, and bipolar disorder in a national sample of privately insured children...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152859/faster-ways-of-pursuing-quality-control-using-ehr-electronic-health-record
#17
Samip R Master, Glenn Morris Mills, Richard P Mansour
169 Background: In this era of electronic health records (EHR), quality monitoring can be a fast repetitive process. Having access to the relational database of the EHR permits rapid case identification and quality indicator determination. We hereby describe evaluation of hepatitis B testing prior to rituximab administration, a quality measure as per ASCO guidelines. METHODS: We connected SQL Query Manager with EPIC Clarity database. Using the object model for medication orders, location and department, we used SQL language to build a temporary dataset of all patients who have a completed order for a Rituximab infusion at a specific department location within the past 6 months...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133068/-resection-of-adrenal-metastasis-after-chemotherapy-and-radiation-therapy-for-a-patient-with-stage-iv-b-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#18
Hiroyuki Kanomata, Yasuji Seyama, Hiroki Kudo, Atsumi Tamura, Yuzo Toyama, Gen Kimura, Tooru Tanizawa, Masahiro Warabi, Masamichi Takahashi, Yujiro Matsuoka, Shunsuke Kondo, Yukio Miyamoto, Nobutaka Umekita
In the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma, atypical, off guideline multidisciplinary approaches are sometimes effective. A 70-year-old man was diagnosed with multiple hepatocellular carcinomas, multiple bone metastases, and a right adrenal metastasis. Sunitinib was started and the primary hepatic lesions and bone metastases disappeared. However, his adrenal metastasis worsened. Sorafenib, radiotherapy, and some investigational agents were administered, but the adrenal metastasis did not respond. There were no other new lesions except the adrenal lesion 4 years after the initial treatment, so we decided to perform a resection...
November 2016: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123559/cervical-intraepithelial-neoplasia-in-pregnancy-interference-of-pregnancy-status-with-p16-and-ki-67-protein-expression
#19
Andrea Ciavattini, Francesco Sopracordevole, Jacopo Di Giuseppe, Lorenzo Moriconi, Guendalina Lucarini, Francesca Mancioli, Antonio Zizzi, Gaia Goteri
To date, there are evidence-based guidelines available for cervical dysplasia diagnosed in pregnancy. Certain functional biomarkers have proven useful in the prediction of regressing and non-regressing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) lesions in non-pregnant women. In the present study, Ki-67 and p16 immunostaining were evaluated in different grades of CIN lesions diagnosed in pregnant or non-pregnant women with the aim to identify any differences in order to better understand the behavior of CIN in pregnancy...
January 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098111/incidence-of-hepatitis-c-virus-seroconversion-among-hemodialysis-patients-in-the-nile-delta-of-egypt-a-single-center-study
#20
Amany Talaat Kamal, Mohamed Nazmy Farres, Abeer Mohamed Eissa, Naglaa Ahmed Arafa, Raafat Saad Abdel-Reheem
Egypt has the highest worldwide prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, caused in part by nosocomial transmission. Patients on hemodialysis (HD) are at especially high risk of infection. We aimed to estimate the incidence of seroconversion among HCV-negative patients undergoing regular HD at a unit in a large public hospital in the Nile Delta of Egypt, which implements the Egyptian Ministry of Health guidelines for infection control, and an isolation policy for hepatitis-positive patients. We also assessed the adherence to infection control practices and evaluated nurses and physicians' knowledge and attitude toward infection control procedures...
January 2017: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
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