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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078891/is-biodegradable-plastic-mulch-the-solution-to-agriculture-s-plastic-problem
#1
Henry Y Sintim, Markus Flury
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 12, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067640/effects-of-different-substrates-in-the-mitigation-of-algae-induced-high-ph-wastewaters-in-a-pilot-scale-free-water-surface-wetland-system
#2
Meng Jin, Pascale Champagne, Geoffrey Hall
Waste stabilization ponds (WSPs), as part of municipal wastewater treatment strategies, can exhibit variability in performance due to climatic conditions. Under elevated temperature and strong solar radiation, algal blooms and subsequent high pH effluents have often been observed. In this study, four substrates (gravel, peat, organic mulch, and topsoil) were evaluated for their ability to attenuate high pH effluents from a WSP. Synthetic wastewater with pH > 9.5, and low organic and nutrient loadings, was used to mimic algal-induced high pH effluents in 72 L rectangular bench-scale superficial constructed wetland configuration reactors...
January 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054647/improving-rice-production-sustainability-by-reducing-water-demand-and-greenhouse-gas-emissions-with-biodegradable-films
#3
Zhisheng Yao, Xunhua Zheng, Chunyan Liu, Shan Lin, Qiang Zuo, Klaus Butterbach-Bahl
In China, rice production is facing unprecedented challenges, including the increasing demand, looming water crisis and on-going climate change. Thus, producing more rice at lower environmental cost is required for future development, i.e., the use of less water and the production of fewer greenhouse gas (GHG) per unit of rice. Ground cover rice production systems (GCRPSs) could potentially address these concerns, although no studies have systematically and simultaneously evaluated the benefits of GCRPS regarding yields and considering water use and GHG emissions...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053209/comparison-between-ground-ant-hymenoptera-formicidae-communities-foraging-in-the-straw-mulch-of-sugarcane-crops-and-in-the-leaf-litter-of-neighboring-forests
#4
N S Silva, L P Saad, D R Souza-Campana, O C Bueno, M S C Morini
In many sugarcane plantations in Brazil, the straw is left on the soil after harvesting, and vinasse, a by-product of the production of sugar and ethanol, is used for fertigation. Our goal was to compare ant community composition and species richness in the straw mulch of sugarcane crops with the leaf litter of neighboring forests. We tested the hypothesis that ant communities in the straw mulch of vinasse-irrigated sugarcane crops and in the forest leaf litter were similar, because the combination of straw mulching and vinasse irrigation has a positive effect on soil fauna...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030551/dynamic-changes-of-soil-surface-organic-carbon-under-different-mulching-practices-in-citrus-orchards-on-sloping-land
#5
Chiming Gu, Yi Liu, Ibrahim Mohamed, Runhua Zhang, Xiao Wang, Xinxin Nie, Min Jiang, Margot Brooks, Fang Chen, Zhiguo Li
Mulching management has been used in many places all over the world to improve agricultural sustainability. However, the cycling of carbon in the soil under applications of mulch on sloping arable land is not yet fully understood. A four-year field experiment was carried out in Xiaofuling watershed of Danjiangkou reservoir in China. The object was to evaluate the effects of the application of straw mulch (ST) and grass mulch (GT) on dynamic changes in soil organic carbon and its fractions. Results showed that mulch applied on the soil surface increased the contents of SOC and its active fractions in the soil...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028103/the-effect-of-conservation-tillage-and-cover-crop-residue-on-beneficial-arthropods-and-weed-seed-predation-in-acorn-squash
#6
N F Quinn, D C Brainard, Z Szendrei
Conservation tillage combined with cover crops or mulching may enhance natural enemy activity in agroecosystems by reducing soil disturbance and increasing habitat structural complexity. In particular, weed seed predation can increase with vegetation cover and reduced tillage, indicating that mulches may improve the quality of the habitat for weed seed foraging. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of tillage and mulching for conservation biological control in cucurbit fields. The effects of mulch and reduced tillage on arthropods and rates of weed seed loss from arenas were examined in field trials on sandy soils in 2014 and 2015...
December 2016: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018984/application-of-the-weps-and-sweep-models-to-non-agricultural-disturbed-lands
#7
J Tatarko, S J van Donk, J C Ascough, D G Walker
Wind erosion not only affects agricultural productivity but also soil, air, and water quality. Dust and specifically particulate matter ≤10 μm (PM-10) has adverse effects on respiratory health and also reduces visibility along roadways, resulting in auto accidents. The Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS) was developed by the USDA-Agricultural Research Service to simulate wind erosion and provide for conservation planning on cultivated agricultural lands. A companion product, known as the Single-Event Wind Erosion Evaluation Program (SWEEP), has also been developed which consists of the stand-alone WEPS erosion submodel combined with a graphical interface to simulate soil loss from single (i...
December 2016: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986318/sensitivity-analysis-of-the-stics-macro-model-to-identify-cropping-practices-reducing-pesticides-losses
#8
Sabine-Karen Lammoglia, David Makowski, Julien Moeys, Eric Justes, Enrique Barriuso, Laure Mamy
STICS-MACRO is a process-based model simulating the fate of pesticides in the soil-plant system as a function of agricultural practices and pedoclimatic conditions. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of crop management practices on water and pesticide flows in contrasted environmental conditions. We used the Morris screening sensitivity analysis method to identify the most influential cropping practices. Crop residues management and tillage practices were shown to have strong effects on water percolation and pesticide leaching...
December 13, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981594/enhanced-yields-and-soil-quality-in-a-wheat-maize-rotation-using-buried-straw-mulch
#9
Zhibin Guo, Hui Liu, Shuixia Wan, Keke Hua, Chaoqiang Jiang, Daozhong Wang, Chuanlong He, Xisheng Guo
BACKGROUND: Straw return may improve soil quality and crop yields. In a two-year field study, a straw return method (ditch-buried straw return, DB-SR) was used to investigate the soil quality and crop productivity effects on a wheat-corn rotation system. This study consisted of three treatments, each with three replicates: (1) mineral fertilization alone (CK0); (2) mineral fertilization + 7500 kg ha(-1) wheat straw incorporated at depth of 0-15 cm (NPKWS); and (3) mineral fertilization + 7500 kg ha(-1) wheat straw ditch buried at 15-30 cm (NPKDW)...
December 16, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977916/spore-displayed-enzyme-cascade-with-tunable-stoichiometry
#10
Long Chen, Ashok Mulchandani, Xin Ge
Taking the advantages of inert and stable nature of endospores, we developed a biocatalysis platform for multiple enzyme immobilization on Bacillus subtilis spore surface. Among B. subtilis outer coat proteins, CotG mediated a high expression level of Clostridium thermocellum cohesin (CtCoh) with a functional display capability of ∼10(4) molecules per spore of xylose reductase C. termocellum dockerin fusion protein (XR-CtDoc). By co-immobilization of phosphite dehydrogenase (PTDH) on spore surface via Ruminococcus flavefaciens cohesin-dockerin modules, regeneration of NADPH was achieved...
December 15, 2016: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976710/spring-maize-yield-soil-water-use-and-water-use-efficiency-under-plastic-film-and-straw-mulches-in-the-loess-plateau
#11
Wen Lin, Wenzhao Liu, Qingwu Xue
To compare the soil water balance, yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of spring maize under different mulching types in the Loess Plateau, a 7-year field experiment was conducted in the Changwu region of the Loess Plateau. Three treatments were used in this experiment: straw mulch (SM), plastic film mulch (PM) and conventional covering without mulch (CK). Results show that the soil water change of dryland spring maize was as deep as 300 cm depth and hence 300 cm is recommended as the minimum depth when measure the soil water in this region...
December 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932219/the-effects-of-long-term-management-on-patterns-of-carbon-storage-in-a-northern-highbush-blueberry-production-system
#12
Denise Nemeth, John G Lambrinos, Bernadine C Strik
Perennial crops potentially provide a sink for atmospheric carbon. However, there is a poor understanding of how perennial crops differ in their carbon allocation patterns, and few studies have tested how agronomic practices such as fertilization influence long-term patterns of carbon allocation in actual production systems. In this study, we report results of a long-term field experiment that tested the individual and combined effects of organic matter incorporation and nitrogen fertilization on carbon allocation...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907252/residential-yards-as-designer-ecosystems-effects-of-yard%C3%A2-management-on-land-snail-species-composition
#13
Elizabeth A Bergey, Laura L Figueroa
Residential yards comprise the majority of green space in urban landscapes, yet are an understudied system because of access issues and because yards may be considered biologically depauperate. Yards are purposely created and managed and, hence, qualify as designer ecosystems, a term borrowed from restoration ecology. We investigated whether yard management (watering regime, mulching, and chemical use) or dog presence affected land snail assemblage composition and described the pattern of native vs. nonnative species among yards...
December 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904457/altering-conidial-dispersal-of-alternaria-solani-by-modifying-microclimate-in-tomato-crop-canopy
#14
Prashant Prakash Jambhulkar, Nitiprasad Jambhulkar, Madanlal Meghwal, Gauri Shankar Ameta
Early blight of tomato caused by Alternaria solani, is responsible for severe yield losses in tomato. The conidia survive on soil surface and old dry lower leaves of the plant and spread when suitable climatic conditions are available. Macroclimatic study reveals that highest inoculum concentration of Alternaria spores appeared in May 2012 to 2013 and lowest concentration during January 2012 to 2013. High night temperature positively correlated and significantly (P < 0.01) involved in conidial spore dispersal and low relative humidity (RH) displayed significant (P < 0...
December 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891761/agro-ecological-management-of-a-soil-dwelling-orthopteran-pest-in-vineyards
#15
Jerry Asalma Nboyine, Stephane Boyer, David J Saville, Stephen David Wratten
The efficacy of different combinations of under-vine and inter-row treatments for managing a soil-dwelling orthopteran pest, weta (Hemiandrus sp.), in vineyards was investigated over two seasons. This insect damages vine buds, thus reducing subsequent grape yield. The under-vine treatments comprised pea straw mulch, mussel shells, tick beans (Vicia faba Linn. var minor (Fab)), plastic sleeves on vine trunks (treated control) and control (no intervention), while inter-rows contained either the existing vegetation or tick beans...
November 28, 2016: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857768/comparative-assessment-of-antimicrobial-efficacy-of-different-hand-sanitizers-an-in-vitro-study
#16
Vardhaman Mulchand Jain, Gundabaktha Nagappa Karibasappa, Arun Suresh Dodamani, Vishwakarma K Prashanth, Gaurao Vasant Mali
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of four different hand sanitizers against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus faecalis as well as to assess and compare the antimicrobial effectiveness among four different hand sanitizers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study is an in vitro study to evaluate antimicrobial efficacy of Dettol, Lifebuoy, PureHands, and Sterillium hand sanitizers against clinical isolates of the aforementioned test organisms...
September 2016: Dental Research Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847188/effects-of-straw-and-plastic-film-mulching-on-greenhouse-gas-emissions-in-loess-plateau-china-a-field-study-of-2-consecutive-wheat-maize-rotation-cycles
#17
Haixin Chen, Jingjing Liu, Afeng Zhang, Jing Chen, Gong Cheng, Benhua Sun, Xiaomin Pi, Miles Dyck, Bingcheng Si, Ying Zhao, Hao Feng
Mulching practices have long been used to modify the soil temperature and moisture conditions and thus potentially improve crop production in dryland agriculture, but few studies have focused on mulching effects on soil gaseous emissions. We monitored annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions under the regime of straw and plastic film mulching using a closed chamber method on a typical winter-wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Xiaoyan 22) and summer-maize (Zea mays L. cv Qinlong 11) rotation field over two-year period in the Loess Plateau, northwestern China...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806098/soil-salt-distribution-and-tomato-response-to-saline-water-irrigation-under-straw-mulching
#18
Yaming Zhai, Qian Yang, Yunyu Wu
To investigate better saline water irrigation scheme for tomatoes that scheduling with the compromise among yield (Yt), quality, irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) and soil salt residual, an experiment with three irrigation quotas and three salinities of irrigation water was conducted under straw mulching in northern China. The irrigation quota levels were 280 mm (W1), 320 mm (W2) and 360 mm (W3), and the salinity levels were 1.0 dS/m (F), 3.0 dS/m (S1) and 5.0 dS/m (S2). Compared to freshwater, saline water irrigations decreased the maximum leaf area index (LAIm) of tomatoes, and the LAIm presented a decline tendency with higher salinity and lower irrigation quota...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798798/biology-and-management-of-two-important-conyza-weeds-a-global-review
#19
Ali Ahsan Bajwa, Sehrish Sadia, Hafiz Haider Ali, Khawar Jabran, Arslan Masood Peerzada, Bhagirath Singh Chauhan
Weed management is one of the prime concerns for sustainable crop production. Conyza bonariensis and Conyza canadensis are two of the most problematic, noxious, invasive and widespread weeds in modern-day agriculture. The biology, ecology and interference of C. bonariensis and C. canadensis have been reviewed here to highlight pragmatic management options. Both these species share a unique set of biological features, which enables them to invade and adapt a wide range of environmental conditions. Distinct reproductive biology and an efficient seed dispersal mechanism help these species to spread rapidly...
October 31, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798654/highly-arid-oasis-yield-soil-mineral-n-accumulation-and-n-balance-in-a-wheat-cotton-rotation-with-drip-irrigation-and-mulching-film-management
#20
Jinling Lv, Hua Liu, Xihe Wang, Kaihui Li, Changyan Tian, Xuejun Liu
Few systematic studies have been carried out on integrated N balance in extremely arid oasis agricultural areas. A two-year field experiment was conducted to evaluate the N input and output balances under long-term fertilization conditions. Five treatments were chosen, namely CK (no fertilizer), NPK, NPKS (10% straw return N and 90% chemical N), NPKM (one third urea-N, two thirds sheep manure) and NPKM+ (1.5 times NPKM). The results show an abundance of dry and wet N deposition (33 kg N ha-1 yr-1) in this area...
2016: PloS One
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