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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907252/residential-yards-as-designer-ecosystems-effects-of-yard%C3%A2-management-on-land-snail-species-composition
#1
Elizabeth A Bergey, Laura L Figueroa
Residential yards comprise the majority of green space in urban landscapes, yet are an understudied system because of access issues and because yards may be considered biologically depauperate. Yards are purposely created and managed and, hence, qualify as designer ecosystems, a term borrowed from restoration ecology. We investigated whether yard management (watering regime, mulching, and chemical use) or dog presence affected land snail assemblage composition and described the pattern of native vs. nonnative species among yards...
December 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904457/altering-conidial-dispersal-of-alternaria-solani-by-modifying-microclimate-in-tomato-crop-canopy
#2
Prashant Prakash Jambhulkar, Nitiprasad Jambhulkar, Madanlal Meghwal, Gauri Shankar Ameta
Early blight of tomato caused by Alternaria solani, is responsible for severe yield losses in tomato. The conidia survive on soil surface and old dry lower leaves of the plant and spread when suitable climatic conditions are available. Macroclimatic study reveals that highest inoculum concentration of Alternaria spores appeared in May 2012 to 2013 and lowest concentration during January 2012 to 2013. High night temperature positively correlated and significantly (P < 0.01) involved in conidial spore dispersal and low relative humidity (RH) displayed significant (P < 0...
December 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891761/agro-ecological-management-of-a-soil-dwelling-orthopteran-pest-in-vineyards
#3
Jerry Asalma Nboyine, Stephane Boyer, David J Saville, Stephen David Wratten
The efficacy of different combinations of under-vine and inter-row treatments for managing a soil-dwelling orthopteran pest, weta (Hemiandrus sp.), in vineyards was investigated over two seasons. This insect damages vine buds, thus reducing subsequent grape yield. The under-vine treatments comprised pea straw mulch, mussel shells, tick beans (Vicia faba Linn. var minor (Fab)), plastic sleeves on vine trunks (treated control) and control (no intervention), while inter-rows contained either the existing vegetation or tick beans...
November 28, 2016: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857768/comparative-assessment-of-antimicrobial-efficacy-of-different-hand-sanitizers-an-in-vitro-study
#4
Vardhaman Mulchand Jain, Gundabaktha Nagappa Karibasappa, Arun Suresh Dodamani, Vishwakarma K Prashanth, Gaurao Vasant Mali
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of four different hand sanitizers against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus faecalis as well as to assess and compare the antimicrobial effectiveness among four different hand sanitizers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study is an in vitro study to evaluate antimicrobial efficacy of Dettol, Lifebuoy, PureHands, and Sterillium hand sanitizers against clinical isolates of the aforementioned test organisms...
September 2016: Dental Research Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847188/effects-of-straw-and-plastic-film-mulching-on-greenhouse-gas-emissions-in-loess-plateau-china-a-field-study-of-2-consecutive-wheat-maize-rotation-cycles
#5
Haixin Chen, Jingjing Liu, Afeng Zhang, Jing Chen, Gong Cheng, Benhua Sun, Xiaomin Pi, Miles Dyck, Bingcheng Si, Ying Zhao, Hao Feng
Mulching practices have long been used to modify the soil temperature and moisture conditions and thus potentially improve crop production in dryland agriculture, but few studies have focused on mulching effects on soil gaseous emissions. We monitored annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions under the regime of straw and plastic film mulching using a closed chamber method on a typical winter-wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Xiaoyan 22) and summer-maize (Zea mays L. cv Qinlong 11) rotation field over two-year period in the Loess Plateau, northwestern China...
November 12, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806098/soil-salt-distribution-and-tomato-response-to-saline-water-irrigation-under-straw-mulching
#6
Yaming Zhai, Qian Yang, Yunyu Wu
To investigate better saline water irrigation scheme for tomatoes that scheduling with the compromise among yield (Yt), quality, irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) and soil salt residual, an experiment with three irrigation quotas and three salinities of irrigation water was conducted under straw mulching in northern China. The irrigation quota levels were 280 mm (W1), 320 mm (W2) and 360 mm (W3), and the salinity levels were 1.0 dS/m (F), 3.0 dS/m (S1) and 5.0 dS/m (S2). Compared to freshwater, saline water irrigations decreased the maximum leaf area index (LAIm) of tomatoes, and the LAIm presented a decline tendency with higher salinity and lower irrigation quota...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798798/biology-and-management-of-two-important-conyza-weeds-a-global-review
#7
Ali Ahsan Bajwa, Sehrish Sadia, Hafiz Haider Ali, Khawar Jabran, Arslan Masood Peerzada, Bhagirath Singh Chauhan
Weed management is one of the prime concerns for sustainable crop production. Conyza bonariensis and Conyza canadensis are two of the most problematic, noxious, invasive and widespread weeds in modern-day agriculture. The biology, ecology and interference of C. bonariensis and C. canadensis have been reviewed here to highlight pragmatic management options. Both these species share a unique set of biological features, which enables them to invade and adapt a wide range of environmental conditions. Distinct reproductive biology and an efficient seed dispersal mechanism help these species to spread rapidly...
October 31, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798654/highly-arid-oasis-yield-soil-mineral-n-accumulation-and-n-balance-in-a-wheat-cotton-rotation-with-drip-irrigation-and-mulching-film-management
#8
Jinling Lv, Hua Liu, Xihe Wang, Kaihui Li, Changyan Tian, Xuejun Liu
Few systematic studies have been carried out on integrated N balance in extremely arid oasis agricultural areas. A two-year field experiment was conducted to evaluate the N input and output balances under long-term fertilization conditions. Five treatments were chosen, namely CK (no fertilizer), NPK, NPKS (10% straw return N and 90% chemical N), NPKM (one third urea-N, two thirds sheep manure) and NPKM+ (1.5 times NPKM). The results show an abundance of dry and wet N deposition (33 kg N ha-1 yr-1) in this area...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790583/comparative-assessment-of-antimicrobial-efficacy-of-different-antibiotic-coated-gutta-percha-cones-on-enterococcus-faecalis-an-invitro-study
#9
Vardhaman Mulchand Jain, Gundabaktha Nagappa Karibasappa, Arun Suresh Dodamani, Prashanth Kumar Vishwakarma, Gaurao Vasant Mali
INTRODUCTION: The major goal of endodontic treatment is to eliminate bacteria from the root canals and prevent re-infection. Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) has been attributed to be the most common organism for the endodontic treatment failures. The choice of endodontic material that have high antimicrobial efficacy can help in decreasing/avoiding growth of micro-organisms and facilitate the success rate of treatment. AIM: The present study was designed with an aim to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of antibiotic coated gutta-percha cones on E...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767043/miocene-orographic-uplift-forces-rapid-hydrological-change-in-the-southern-central-andes
#10
Alexander Rohrmann, Dirk Sachse, Andreas Mulch, Heiko Pingel, Stefanie Tofelde, Ricardo N Alonso, Manfred R Strecker
Rainfall in the central Andes associated with the South American Monsoon and the South American Low-Level Jet results from orographic effects on atmospheric circulation exerted by the Andean Plateau and the Eastern Cordillera. However, despite its importance for South American climate, no reliable records exist that allow decoding the evolution of thresholds and interactions between Andean topography and atmospheric circulation, especially regarding the onset of humid conditions in the inherently dry southern central Andes...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755762/multi-scale-heterogeneity-in-vegetation-and-soil-carbon-in-exurban-residential-land-of-southeastern-michigan-usa
#11
William S Currie, Sarah Kiger, Joan I Nassauer, Meghan Hutchins, Lauren L Marshall, Daniel G Brown, Rick L Riolo, Derek T Robinson, Stephanie K Hart
Exurban residential land (one housing unit per 0.2-16.2 ha) is growing in importance as a human-dominated land use. Carbon storage in the soils and vegetation of exurban land is poorly known, as are the effects on C storage of choices made by developers and residents. We studied C storage in exurban yards in southeastern Michigan, USA, across a range of parcel sizes and different types of neighborhoods. We divided each residential parcel into ecological zones (EZ) characterized by vegetation, soil, and human behavior such as mowing, irrigation, and raking...
July 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744313/the-effect-of-conservation-tillage-and-cover-crop-residue-on-beneficial-arthropods-and-weed-seed-predation-in-acorn-squash
#12
N F Quinn, D C Brainard, Z Szendrei
Conservation tillage combined with cover crops or mulching may enhance natural enemy activity in agroecosystems by reducing soil disturbance and increasing habitat structural complexity. In particular, weed seed predation can increase with vegetation cover and reduced tillage, indicating that mulches may improve the quality of the habitat for weed seed foraging. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of tillage and mulching for conservation biological control in cucurbit fields. The effects of mulch and reduced tillage on arthropods and rates of weed seed loss from arenas were examined in field trials on sandy soils in 2014 and 2015...
October 15, 2016: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27728289/incidence-of-inherited-risk-factors-in-cases-of-venous-thrombosis
#13
R B Kulkarni, J D Mulchandani, S V Rege
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698532/evaluation-of-the-effects-of-mulch-on-optimum-sowing-date-and-irrigation-management-of-zero-till-wheat-in-central-punjab-india-using-apsim
#14
Balwinder-Singh, E Humphreys, D S Gaydon, P L Eberbach
Machinery for sowing wheat directly into rice residues has become more common in the rice-wheat systems of the north-west Indo-Gangetic Plains of South Asia, with increasing numbers of farmers now potentially able to access the benefits of residue retention. However, surface residue retention affects soil water and temperature dynamics, thus the optimum sowing date and irrigation management for a mulched crop may vary from those of a traditional non-mulched crop. Furthermore, the effects of sowing date and irrigation management are likely to vary with soil type and seasonal conditions...
October 2016: Field Crops Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695759/impact-of-kura-clover-living-mulch-on-nitrous-oxide-emissions-in-a-corn-soybean-system
#15
Peter A Turner, John M Baker, Timothy J Griffis, Rodney T Venterea
Nitrous oxide (NO), produced primarily in agricultural soils, is a potent greenhouse gas and is the dominant ozone-depleting substance. Efforts to reduce NO emissions are underway, but mitigation results have been inconsistent. The leguminous perennial kura clover ( M. Bieb.) (KC) can grow side-by-side with cash crops in rotational corn ( L.)-soybean ( L.) systems. With biological nitrogen fixation, KC provides land managers an opportunity to reduce external fertilizer inputs, which may diminish problematic NO emissions...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630949/comparative-evaluation-of-arimedadi-oil-with-0-2-chlorhexidine-gluconate-in-prevention-of-plaque-and-gingivitis-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#16
Gaurao Vasant Mali, Arun Suresh Dodamani, Gundabaktha Nagappa Karibasappa, Prashanthkumar Vishwakarma, Vardhaman Mulchand Jain
INTRODUCTION: Chemical plaque control measures are advocated to maintain proper oral hygiene. Ayurvedic medicines are alternatives considered with minimal side effects to treat systemic diseases and dental diseases. So the present study was conducted to assess the anti-plaque efficacy of Arimedadi (herbal) oil against 0.2% Chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash. AIM: To assess the anti-plaque efficacy of Arimedadi (herbal) oil against 0.2% Chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623343/engineering-soluble-human-paraoxonase-2-for-quorum-quenching
#17
Xin Cathy Li, Christopher Wang, Ashok Mulchandani, Xin Ge
Many pathogenic bacteria utilize quorum sensing (QS) systems to regulate the expression of their virulence genes and promote the formation of biofilm, which renders pathogens with extreme resistance to conventional antibiotic treatments. As a novel approach for attenuating antibiotic resistance and in turn fighting chronic infections, enzymatic inactivation of QS signaling molecules, such as N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs), holds great promises. Instead of using bacterial lactonases that can evoke immune response when administered, we focus on the human paraoxonase 2 (huPON2)...
September 30, 2016: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621451/twenty-million-year-relationship-between-mammalian-diversity-and-primary-productivity
#18
Susanne A Fritz, Jussi T Eronen, Jan Schnitzler, Christian Hof, Christine M Janis, Andreas Mulch, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, Catherine H Graham
At global and regional scales, primary productivity strongly correlates with richness patterns of extant animals across space, suggesting that resource availability and climatic conditions drive patterns of diversity. However, the existence and consistency of such diversity-productivity relationships through geological history is unclear. Here we provide a comprehensive quantitative test of the diversity-productivity relationship for terrestrial large mammals through time across broad temporal and spatial scales...
September 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27596820/distribution-of-phthalate-esters-in-agricultural-soil-with-plastic-film-mulching-in-shandong-peninsula-east-china
#19
Kankan Li, Dong Ma, Juan Wu, Chao Chai, Yanxi Shi
The content of phthalate esters (PAEs) was investigated in 36 vegetable fields with plastic film mulching in Shandong Peninsula, East China. Soils at depths of 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, and 20-40 cm were collected, and 16 PAEs were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. PAEs were detected in all the analyzed samples. The total contents of the 16 PAEs (Σ16PAEs) ranged from 1.374 to 18.810 mg/kg, with an average of 6.470 mg/kg. Among the four areas of Shandong Peninsula, including Qingdao, Weihai, Weifang, and Yantai, the highest Σ16PAE in the soil was observed in Weifang district (9...
December 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27560826/effects-of-mulching-and-nitrogen-on-soil-nitrate-n-distribution-leaching-and-nitrogen-use-efficiency-of-maize-zea-mays-l
#20
Xiukang Wang, Yingying Xing
Mulching and nitrogen are critical drivers of crop production for smallholders of the Loess Plateau in China. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of mulching and nitrogen fertilizer on the soil water content, soil nitrate-N content and vertical distribution in maize root-zone. The experiment was conducted over two consecutive years and used randomly assigned field plots with three replicates. The six treatments consisted of no fertilizer without plastic film (CK), plastic film mulching with no basal fertilizer and no top dressing (MN0), basal fertilizer with no top dressing and no mulching (BN1), plastic film mulching and basal fertilizer with no top dressing (MN1), basal fertilizer and top dressing with no mulching (BN2) and plastic film mulching with basal fertilizer and top dressing (MN2)...
2016: PloS One
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