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Xiaolong Ren, Xiaoli Chen, Tie Cai, Ting Wei, Yang Wu, Shahzad Ali, Peng Zhang, Zhikuan Jia
In China, the ridge-furrow water conservation planting (RC) system is advantageous for improving crop yields and rainwater use efficiency. In RC planting system, plastic film-mulched ridges are employed for water harvesting while the furrows serve as infiltration and planting belts. To optimize the RC system and to overcome problems due to the lack of water in semi-humid areas at risk of drought, we mulched the furrows with 8% biodegradable film (RCSB), liquid film (RCSL), or no mulching in the furrows (RCSN), while conventional flat planting (CF) was employed as the control...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Kevin J Bisceglia, Monika Dharia, Manpreet Kaur, Francesca A Pavlovici
The leachability, potential ecotoxicity, and photolysis of trifluralin-impregnated mulch, a popular retail consumer gardening product, were investigated under environmentally realistic conditions. Leachability of trifluralin from impregnated mulch was low (< 1% of total extractable compound) and in the range of reported values for agricultural soils. No trifluralin transformation products were detected in mulch leachate. Yeast-based estrogenicity and androgenicity screens indicated that aqueous trifluralin is not estrogenic but is moderately androgenic at concentrations ~ 1e - 5 M...
November 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Long Chen, Megan Holmes, Elise Schaefer, Ashok Mulchandani, Xin Ge
We report a spore-based biocatalysis platform capable of producing and self-assembling active multimeric enzymes on a spore surface with a high loading density. This was achieved by co-expressing both a spore surface-anchoring scaffoldin protein containing multiple cohesin domains and a dockerin-tagged enzyme of interest in the mother cell compartment during Bacillus subtilis sporulation. Using this method, tetrameric β-galactosidase was successfully displayed on the spore surface with a loading density of 1...
November 13, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Haiting Hao, Xia Zhao, Yun Wang, Yubao Zhang, Zhongkui Xie, Zhihong Guo, Ruoyu Wang
Gravel and sand mulching is an indigenous technology used for the crop yield for at least 300 years in the loess area of northwest China; however, little is known about the changes of soil bacterial community and metabolic capability under the mulching. In this study, we investigated the soil microbial community structure and metabolic functional diversity during mulching using Illumina MiSeq sequencing and Biolog ECO method. Totally, 9417 OTUs were classified at 97% similarity level for soil samples after 0 (control), 4, 7, and 10 years of mulching...
November 9, 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Guihua Chen, Lauren Kolb, Michel A Cavigelli, Ray R Weil, Cerruti R R Hooks
Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important greenhouse gas and a catalyst of stratospheric ozone decay. Agricultural soils are the source of 75% of anthropogenic N2O emissions globally. Recently, significant attention has been directed at examining effects of conservation tillage on carbon sequestration in agricultural systems. However, limited knowledge is available regarding how these practices impact N2O emissions, especially for organic vegetable production systems. In this context, a three-year study was conducted in a well-drained sandy loam field transitioning to organic vegetable production in the Mid-Atlantic coastal plain of USA to investigate impacts of conservation tillage [strip till (ST) and no-till (NT)] and conventional tillage (CT) [with black plastic mulch (CT-BP) and bare-ground (CT-BG)] on N2O emissions...
October 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Vardhaman Mulchand Jain, Gundabaktha Nagappa Karibasappa, Arun Suresh Dodamani, Gaurao Vasant Mali
BACKGROUND: Due to consumption of various forms of tobacco in large amounts by Indian population, it has become a cause of concern for major oral diseases. In 2008, the WHO named tobacco as the world's single greatest cause of preventable death. It is also known that certain amount of carbohydrates are incorporated in processed tobacco to make it acceptable for consumption. Thus, its role in oral diseases becomes an important question at this point of time. Through this study, it is attempted to find out the carbohydrate content of various forms of tobacco by phenol-sulfuric acid method...
2017: Journal of Education and Health Promotion
Jerad H Dumolt, Sandhya K Radhakrishnan, Mohammed H Moghadasian, Khuong Le, Mulchand S Patel, Richard W Browne, Todd C Rideout
In hypercholesterolemic pregnancies, the maternal environment is characterized by excessive levels of atherogenic lipids that may increase cardiovascular disease risk in mothers and their offspring. We examined the influence of maternal hypercholesterolemia and phytosterol (PS) intervention on the concentration and metabolism of oxysterols, bioactive oxygenated cholesterol derivatives that regulate arterial health and lesion progression, in mothers and their newly weaned offspring. Twenty-one female apoE(-/-) mice were randomly assigned to three different diets throughout gestation and lactation: (1) chow, (2) high cholesterol (CH; 0...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Ayako Nagase, Yurika Tashiro-Ishii
The present study examined whether it is possible to simulate a local herbaceous coastal plant community on a roof, by studying the natural habitats of rocky sea coast plants and their propagation and performance on a green roof. After studying the natural habitat of coastal areas in Izu peninsula, a germination and cutting transplant study was carried out using herbaceous plants from the Jogasaki sea coast. Many plant species did not germinate at all and the use of cuttings was a better method than direct seeding...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
J F Meier, U Austermann-Haun, J Fettig, H Liebe, M Wichern
This experimental study investigates the anaerobic digestion of waste water from hydrothermal carbonisation of fine mulch (wood chips) in combination with a co-substrate for the first time. Two anaerobic reactors, an anaerobic filter (AF) and an anaerobic moving bed bioreactor (AnMBBR), were operated over a period of 131 days at mesophilic conditions. The organic loading rate was increased to a maximum of 8.5 g L(-l) d(-1) in the AF and the AnMBBR. Both reactors achieved similarly efficient chemical oxygen demand removal rates of 80% approximately (approx...
October 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Elizabeth K Dann, Duy P Le
The effects of silicon (Si) amendment have been studied in several plant/pathogen interactions; however, studies in horticultural tree crops are limited. Effects of amendment with soluble potassium silicate (AgSil(®)32, approximately 30% available Si), or milled cement building board by-products (Mineral Mulch (MM) or Mineral Dust (MD), containing 5% available Si) were investigated in field and greenhouse trials with avocado. Orchard soil drench applications with potassium silicate improved yield and quality of fruit, but visual health of trees declining from Phytophthora root rot (PRR) was not affected...
October 20, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Talitha C Santini, Yong G Peng
Globally, mineral processing activities produce an estimated 680 GL/yr of alkaline wastewater. Neutralizing pH and removing dissolved elements are the main goals of wastewater treatment prior to discharge. Here, we present the first study to explicitly evaluate the role of microbial communities in driving pH neutralization and element removal in alkaline wastewaters by fermentation of organic carbon, using bauxite residue leachate as a model system, and evaluate the effects of organic carbon complexity and microbial inoculum addition rates on the performance of these treatment systems at laboratory scale...
November 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Rolf Nestb, Sébastien Guéry
OBJECT: Improved precision fertilization by introducing sensors and remote control to secure fruit yield and reduce nutrient leaching in soil culture. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We broadcasted before bedding and mulching 50 g m(-2) of a multi-mineral fertilizer. Beds had two plant rows 20 cm apart, with plant distance of 25 cm. Experimental design was split plot with three replications and three treatments. Treatments: fertigation in large plots, cultivar in small plots and year...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Berry Research
Julien Verzeaux, Bertrand Hirel, Frédéric Dubois, Peter J Lea, Thierry Tétu
Nitrogen cycling in agroecosystems is heavily dependent upon arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) present in the soil microbiome. These fungi develop obligate symbioses with various host plant species, thus increasing their ability to acquire nutrients. However, AMF are particularly sensitive to physical, chemical and biological disturbances caused by human actions that limit their establishment. For a more sustainable agriculture, it will be necessary to further investigate which agricultural practices could be favorable to maximize the benefits of AMF to improve crop nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), thus reducing nitrogen (N) fertilizer usage...
November 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Hiroko Kitamoto, Shigenobu Yoshida, Motoo Koitabashi, Kimiko Yamamoto-Tamura, Hirokazu Ueda, Tohru Yarimizu, Yuka Sameshima-Yamashita
Agricultural mulch films made from biodegradable polymers (BP) have been used to decrease the burden of plastic waste recovery and recycling. However, their degradations depend largely on environmental conditions and sometimes do not proceed as desired. Yeast strains of Pseudozyma antarctica often isolated from rice husks were found to secrete an esterase to degrade BP films. Poly-butylene succinate-co-adipate (PBSA) films buried in unsterilized rice husks with 60% (w/w) moisture degraded rapidly compared to that buried in field soil...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Wei Zheng, Meijuan Wen, Zhiyuan Zhao, Jie Liu, Zhaohui Wang, Bingnian Zhai, Ziyan Li
Water deficit significantly limits dryland rainfed fruit production, so increasing water conservation is crucial for improving fruit productivity in arid and semiarid areas. In this study, we tested two treatments in an apple orchard: 1) PC treatment comprising black plastic mulch (BPM) (in-row) with weed control (inter-row); 2) and PGC treatment comprising BPM (in-row) combined with a summer cover crop (inter-row) of rape (Brassica campestris L.), which was sown in mid-June and was living from July to September...
2017: PloS One
Zhanjun Liu, Yan Meng, Miao Cai, Jianbin Zhou
Appropriate water-saving and nitrogen management strategies are critical for achieving sustainable agricultural development in dry sub-humid areas of the Chinese Loess Plateau. The present study was conducted in 2004, 2005, 2008, and 2012 based on a long-term field experiment and aimed to investigate the coupled impacts of mulching and N fertilization on maize yield, water use efficiency (WUE), and residual soil nitrate (RSN) accumulated in the soil profile (0-200 cm). The results demonstrated that mulch is conducive to increasing summer maize yield...
September 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Karl Auerswald, Franziska K Fischer, Michael Kistler, Melanie Treisch, Harald Maier, Robert Brandhuber
The interplay between natural site conditions and farming raises erosion by water above geological background levels. We examined the hypothesis that farmers take erosion into account in their farming decisions and switch to farming practices with lower erosion risk the higher the site-specific hazard becomes. Erosion since the last tillage was observed from aerial orthorectified photographs for 8100 fields belonging to 1879 farmers distributed across Bavaria (South Germany) and it was modeled by the Universal Soil Loss Equation using highly detailed input data (e...
February 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Laura E Jackson, Sucheta Kulkarni, Huabo Wang, Jie Lu, James M Dolezal, Sivakama S Bharathi, Sarangarajan Ranganathan, Mulchand S Patel, Rahul Deshpande, Frances Alencastro, Stacy G Wendell, Eric S Goetzman, Andrew W Duncan, Edward V Prochownik
Rapidly proliferating cells increase glycolysis at the expense of oxidative phosphorylation (oxphos) to generate sufficient levels of glycolytic intermediates for use as anabolic substrates. The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) is a critical mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes pyruvate's conversion to acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA), thereby connecting these two pathways in response to complex energetic, enzymatic, and metabolic cues. Here we utilized a mouse model of hepatocyte-specific PDC inactivation to determine the need for this metabolic link during normal hepatocyte regeneration and malignant transformation...
November 1, 2017: Cancer Research
Arthur Agnello, Kerik Cox, Jaume Lordan, Poliana Francescatto, Terence Robinson
Organic apple production in the eastern US is small and is mostly based on existing varieties, which are susceptible to scab, and rootstocks, which are susceptible to fire blight. This requires numerous sprays per year of various pesticides to produce acceptable fruit. From 2014 to 2016, we tested different arthropod, disease and weed management programs in an advanced tall spindle high-density production system that included disease-resistant cultivars and rootstocks, in an organic research planting of apples in Geneva, New York...
September 4, 2017: Insects
Melanie Bläsing, Wulf Amelung
At least 300 Mio t of plastic are produced annually, from which large parts end up in the environment, where it persists over decades, harms biota and enters the food chain. Yet, almost nothing is known about plastic pollution of soil; hence, the aims of this work are to review current knowledge on i) available methods for the quantification and identification of plastic in soil, ii) the quantity and possible input pathways of plastic into soil, (including first preliminary screening of plastic in compost), and iii) its fate in soil...
January 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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