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Cagla Temiz, Gokhan Cayci
Alkali soils have undesirable properties for crop production. However, these problematic areas can be reclaimed and regained for cultivation. Mulch materials have been used in the past to decrease salinity damage in saline soils. But information about using mulch materials for alkali soil reclamation is rare. The aim of this study was to determine the combined effects of different levels of gypsum applied with straw or pumice mulch materials on the reclamation of an alkali soil. Results obtained from soil extracts during the leaching water cycles showed that gypsum and mulch materials caused significant differences in sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and electrical conductivity (EC) values...
May 17, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Qiaochong He, Dongqing Zhang, Kevan Main, Chuanping Feng, Sarina J Ergas
There is a lack of information on denitrification of saline wastewaters, such as those from marine recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS), ion exchange brines and wastewater in areas where sea water is used for toilet flushing. In this study, side-by-side microcosms were used to compare methanol, fish waste (FW), wood chips, elemental sulfur (S0 ) and a combination of wood chips and sulfur for saline wastewater denitrification. The highest denitrification rate was obtained with methanol (23.4 g N/(m3 ·d)), followed by FW (4...
May 8, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Sreejata Bandopadhyay, Lluis Martin-Closas, Ana M Pelacho, Jennifer M DeBruyn
Agricultural plastic mulch films are widely used in specialty crop production systems because of their agronomic benefits. Biodegradable plastic mulches (BDMs) offer an environmentally sustainable alternative to conventional polyethylene (PE) mulch. Unlike PE films, which need to be removed after use, BDMs are tilled into soil where they are expected to biodegrade. However, there remains considerable uncertainty about long-term impacts of BDM incorporation on soil ecosystems. BDMs potentially influence soil microbial communities in two ways: first, as a surface barrier prior to soil incorporation, indirectly affecting soil microclimate and atmosphere (similar to PE films) and second, after soil incorporation, as a direct input of physical fragments, which add carbon, microorganisms, additives, and adherent chemicals...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yooeun Chae, Youn-Joo An
Plastic pollution in the environment is currently receiving worldwide attention. Improper dumping of disused or abandoned plastic wastes leads to contamination of the environment. In particular, the disposal of municipal wastewater effluent, sewage sludge landfill, and plastic mulch from agricultural activities is a serious issue and of major concern regarding soil pollution. Compared to plastic pollution in the marine and freshwater ecosystems, that in the soil ecosystem has been relatively neglected. In this study, we discussed plastic pollution in the soil environment and investigated research on the effects of plastic wastes, especially microplastics, on the soil ecosystem...
May 9, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Shao Ping DU, Zhong Ming Ma, Liang Xue
The distribution characteristics of soil aggregates and their organic carbon in gravel-mulched land with different planting years (5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 years) were studied based on a long-term field trial. The results showed that the soil aggregate fraction showed a fluctuation (down-up-down) trend with the decrease of soil aggregate size. The soil aggregates were distributed mainly in the size of >5 mm for less than 10 years cultivation, and 0.05-0.25 mm for more than 15 years. The content of aggregates over 0...
May 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Yi Kun Wang, Ai Wu Jin, Sheng Zuo Fang
Soil infiltration, soil physical and chemical properties, root length density and soil fauna diversity were studied in Phyllostachys heterocycla forests with different mulching times in southwest Zhejiang Province, China. Significant differences of soil infiltration capability were found among the forests with different mulching times and among soil layers. Soil infiltration capability generally declined in the deeper soil layers. With mulching management, soil infiltration capability increased under the first mulching, and then declined with the increase of mulching times...
May 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
A Cassigneul, P Benoit, C Nobile, V Bergheaud, V Dumeny, V Etiévant, A Maylin, E Justes, L Alletto
At the time of spring pre-emergent herbicide application, the soil surface in conservation agriculture is most of the time covered by cover crops (CC) mulches. The state of these mulches depends on their destruction date and on the selected species. Sorption and degradation of 14 C-S-metolachlor on and within 8 decaying CC-covered (2 species × 4 initial decomposition state) soils corresponding to conservation agriculture were compared to its fate in bare soil (BS) corresponding to conventional agriculture...
August 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Xing Xiu Yu, Miao Miao Xui, Jin Hui Zhao, Jia Peng Zhang, Wei Wang, Ya Li Guo, Juan Hua Xiao
The objective of this study was to investigate the rate of nitrogen mineralization in various soil layers (0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm) and its influencing factors under plastic film mulching ridge-furrow in a corn field of Wulongchi small watershed, Danjiangkou Reservoir Area. Results showed that the rate of soil ammonification decreased with soil depth during the entire maize growth period. The rate of nitrification in seedling, jointing, and heading stages decreased in the following order: 10-20 cm > 0-10 cm > 20-30 cm, while it increased with soil depth in maturation stage...
April 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Jian Can Liu, Ze Lin Wang, Shan Chao Yue, Shi Qing Li
A one-year field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of plastic film mulching (FM) and nitrogen application rates applied to rain-fed maize fields on net global warming potential (Net GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) at the Changwu Agricultural and Ecological Experimental Station. Both GWP and GHGI were affected by the plastic film mulching and nitrogen application rate. Under the FM treatment, maize yield ranged from 1643 to 16699 kg·hm-2 , the net GWP (CO2 -eq) ranged from 595 to 4376 kg·hm-2 ·a-1 , and the GHGI (CO2 -eq) ranged from 213 to 358 kg·t-1 ...
April 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Wan Lu Zhai, Chuan Bao Yang, Xiao Ping Zhang, Gui Bin Gao, Zhe Ke Zhong
We analyzed the dynamics of stand growth and soil nutrient availability during the degradation processes of Phyllostachys praecox plantation, taking the advantage of bamboo forest stands with different mulching ages (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 a). The results showed the aboveground and belowground biomass of bamboo forest reached the maximum value when they were covered by three years, which was significantly increased by 14.6% and 146.6% compared with the control. The soil nutrient content was affected by the mulching age and soil layer...
April 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Hong Xia He, Zhao Hui Wang, Ming Bao, Xiao Long Ma, Xu She, Gang He, Wei Hong Qiu
A field experiment was conducted to examine the effects of plastic film mulching (PM), straw retention (SR) and planting green manure (GM) on grain yield and nutrient concentrations of winter wheat. Compared to the traditional pattern (TP), plastic film mulching showed no significant effect on the average yield over the three years but increased the average phosphorus (P) uptake and concentration in grain by 8.4% and 13.0%, respectively. The average uptake of nitrogen (N), sulfur (S) and iron (Fe) was decreased by 12...
March 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Yujie Ren, Chao Gao, Huifang Han, Quanqi Li
No-tillage management practices reduce net CO2 losses from farmland and keep soil from degrading, but also decrease winter wheat grain yield and water use efficiency (WUE) in the North China Plain (NCP). Suitable management practices, namely, the choice of genotypes, could enhance crop yield and WUE; however, how the WUE and CO2 exchange responds to no-tillage practices and winter wheat genotypes remains unclear. In the 2015-2016 and 2016-2017 winter wheat growing seasons in the NCP, a field experiment was carried out, and tested two tillage methods (no-tillage with mulching and conventional tillage) and two winter wheat genotypes ('Tainong 18' and 'Jimai 22')...
April 20, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Min Jie Hu, Liang Chao Jiang, Shou Zhong Li, Li Feng Zhou, Chuan Tong
Photosynthesis controls crop growth and yield, and differences in planting methods and soil moisture can significantly affect the photosynthetic characteristics of crops. Grain filling stage and milking stage are two important stages of maize from flowering to maturity, which are essential for maize grain formation and dry matter accumulation. The effects of different mulching and drip irrigation patterns on the photosynthetic characteristics and maize yield at grain filling and milking stages were investigated in a field experiment in the Hetao Irrigation District, Inner Mongolia...
December 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Ming Jun Zhang, Ling Ling Li, Jun Hong Xie, Zheng Kai Peng, Jin Hu Ren
A field experiment was conducted to explore the mechanism of cultivation measures in affecting crop yield by investigating root distribution in spring wheat-pea rotation based on a long-term conservation tillage practices in a farming region of Gansu. The results showed that with the develo-pment of growth period, the total root length, root surface area of spring wheat and pea showed a consistent trend of increase after initial decrease and reached the maximum at flowering stage. Higher root distribution was found in the 0-10 cm soil layer at seedling and 10-30 cm soil layer at flowering and maturity stages in spring wheat, while in the field pea, higher root distribution was found in the 0-10 cm soil layer at seedling and maturity, and in the 10-30 cm soil layer at flowering stages...
December 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Gaoyuan Liu, Yuhuan Zuo, Qi Zhang, Lili Yang, Erlong Zhao, Lianyou Liang, Yan' An Tong
Mulching is critical for increasing water availability and hence winter wheat production in dryland farming systems. A two-year study was conducted to assess the effects of mulches on soil water storage (SWS), temperature, water use efficiency (WUE) and yields of winter wheat on the Loess Plateau. Four treatments were examined: conventional flat planting (CK), straw mulch (FPS), transparent plastic film mulch (FPP) and ridge-furrow with plastic film-mulched ridge and straw-mulched furrow (RFPS). Compared with CK, RFPS greatly increased SWS from 0-60 cm, FPP increased SWS from 0-40 cm, and FPS slightly increased SWS from 0-60 cm; however, FPP significantly (P < 0...
April 25, 2018: Scientific Reports
Qing Li Gong, Bing Nian Zhai, Wei Zheng, Jie Liu, Zhao Xia Zheng, Zhi Yuan Zhao, Zi Yan Li, Zhao Hui Wang
The split-plot design was adopted in this experiment, with main treatments of grass cover and control and sub-treatments included four fertilization regimes: no fertilization, CK; manure, M; N,P and K fertilizer, NPK; and NPK fertilizer combined with manure, MNPK. Microplate fluorimetry was used to study the effects of grass cover combined with different fertilization regimes on the enzyme activities in apple orchard. The results showed that after mowing the grass (the residues were left on the soil surface as mulch), the soil water content, available P, nitrite nitrogen and the activities of βX, NAG, βG, CBH were increased compared to the control, with no significant differences for total nitrogen, soil organic carbon, and AKP activity...
January 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Lin Lin Zhang, Shi Jun Sun, Zhi Jun Chen, Hao Jiang, Xu Dong Zhang, Dao Cai Chi
In order to investigate the effect of different colored plastic film mulching and planting density on spring maize dry matter accumulation and yield in the rain-fed area of the Northeast China, a complete combination field experiment which was comprised by three types of mulching (non-mulching, transparent plastic film mulching and black plastic film mulching) and five densities (60000, 67500, 75000, 82500 and 90000 plants·hm-2 ), was conducted to analyze the water and heat effect, dry matter accumulation and yield of spring maize (Liangyu 99)...
January 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Liang Zhang, Henry Y Sintim, Andy I Bary, Douglas G Hayes, Larry C Wadsworth, Marife B Anunciado, Markus Flury
Polyethylene mulch films used in agriculture are a major source of plastic pollution in soils. Biodegradable plastics have been introduced as alternative to commonly-used polyethylene. Here we studied the interaction of earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) with polyethylene and biodegradable plastic mulches. The objective was to assess whether earthworms would select between different types of mulches when foraging for food, and whether they drag macroscopic plastic mulch into the soil. Laboratory experiments were carried out with earthworms in Petri dishes and mesocosms...
April 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
David Hanigan, Lisa Truong, Jared Schoepf, Takayuki Nosaka, Anjali Mulchandani, Robert L Tanguay, Paul Westerhoff
Both nanoparticulate (nZnO and nTiO2 ) and organic chemical ultraviolet (UV) filters are active ingredients in sunscreen and protect against skin cancer, but limited research exists on the environmental effects of sunscreen release into aquatic systems. To examine the trade-offs of incorporating nanoparticles (NPs) into sunscreens over the past two decades, we targeted endpoints sensitive to the potential risks of different UV filters: solar reactive oxygen production in water and disruption of zebrafish embryo development...
March 27, 2018: Water Research
Guowen Tang, Mengyang Liu, Qian Zhou, Haixia He, Kai Chen, Haibo Zhang, Jiahui Hu, Qinghui Huang, Yongming Luo, Hongwei Ke, Bin Chen, Xiangrong Xu, Minggang Cai
Microplastics and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated to study the influence of human activities and to find their possible relationship on the coastal environments, where the coastal areas around Xiamen are undergoing intensive processes of industrialization and urbanization in the southeast China. The abundance of microplastics in Xiamen coastal areas was 103 to 2017particles/m3 in surface seawater and 76 to 333 particles/kg in sediments. Concentrations of dissolved PAHs varied from 18...
April 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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