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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335853/effect-of-nonwoven-jute-agrotextile-mulch-on-soil-health-and-productivity-of-broccoli-brassica-oleracea-l-in-lateritic-soil
#1
Koushik Manna, Manik Chandra Kundu, Biplab Saha, Goutam Kumar Ghosh
A field experiment was conducted in winter season of 2015-2016 in the dry lateritic soil of Eastern India to study the effect of different thicknesses of nonwoven jute agrotextile mulches (NJATM) along with other mulches on soil health, growth and productivity of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.). The experiment was conducted in randomized block design with six treatments viz., T1 (control, i.e. no mulching), T2 (300 gsm NJATM), T3 (350 gsm NJATM), T4 (400 gsm NJATM), T5 (rice straw) and T6 (black polythene mulch), each of which was replicated four times...
January 16, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330452/assessment-of-the-responses-of-soil-pore-properties-to-combined-soil-structure-amendments-using-x-ray-computed-tomography
#2
Yonghui Yang, Jicheng Wu, Shiwei Zhao, Qingyuan Han, Xiaoying Pan, Fang He, Chun Chen
Soil amendments, such as straw mulch, organic fertilizers and superabsorbent polymer (SAP), are extensively applied to improve soil structure and porosity, and we reported the functional consequences of the individual application of these amendments in our previous study. However, whether combined amendments are more effective than their individual applications for improving soil pore structure is unknown. Here, we conducted X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning on undisturbed soil columns to investigate the efficiency of two-amendment application, including straw mulch and organic manure, SAP and organic manure, or SAP and straw mulch, for improving soil pore properties and pore distribution...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327189/using-a-high-organic-matter-biowall-to-treat-a-trichloroethylene-plume-at-the-beaver-dam-road-landfill
#3
Gabriela T Niño de Guzmán, Cathleen J Hapeman, Patricia D Millner, Laura L McConnell, Dana Jackson, David Kindig, Alba Torrents
Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a highly effective industrial degreasing agent and known carcinogen. It was frequently buried improperly in landfills and has subsequently become one of the most common groundwater and soil contaminants in the USA. A common strategy to remediate TCE-contaminated sites and to prevent movement of the TCE plumes into waterways is to construct biowalls which consist of biomaterials and amendments to enhance biodegradation. This approach was chosen to contain a TCE plume emanating from a closed landfill in Maryland...
January 11, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320450/nitrogen-nutrition-of-fruit-trees-to-reconcile-productivity-and-environmental-concerns
#4
Corina Carranca, Gustavo Brunetto, Massimo Tagliavini
Although perennial fruit crops represent 1% of global agricultural land, they are of a great economic importance in world trade and in the economy of many regions. The perennial woody nature of fruit trees, their physiological stages of growth, the root distribution pattern, and the presence of herbaceous vegetation in alleys make orchard systems efficient in the use and recycling of nitrogen (N). The present paper intends to review the existing literature on N nutrition of young and mature deciduous and evergreen fruit trees with special emphasis to temperate and Mediterranean climates...
January 10, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306843/early-thawing-after-snow-removal-and-no-straw-mulching-accelerates-organic-carbon-cycling-in-a-paddy-soil-in-northeast-china
#5
Hao Zhang, Jie Tang, Shuang Liang, Zhaoyang Li, Jingjing Wang, Sining Wang
Variations in soil organic carbon (SOC) have implications for atmospheric CO2 concentrations and the greenhouse effect. However, the effects of snow cover and straw mulching on the variations in SOC fractions across winter remain largely unknown. In this study, soil samples were collected during different stages of winter from an in situ experiment comprising three treatments: 1) snow removal with no straw mulching (Sn-SM-); 2) snow cover with no straw mulching (SC), and; 3) snow cover with straw mulching (SC + SM+)...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261293/biodegradable-pbat-pla-blend-with-bioactive-mcpa-phbv-conjugate-suppresses-weed-growth
#6
Iwona Kwiecień, Grazyna Adamus, Guozhan Jiang, Iza Radecka, Timothy C Baldwin, Habib R Khan, Brian Johnston, Valentina Pennetta, David Hill, Inna Bretz, Marek M Kowalczuk
The herbicide 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) conjugated with poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) was prepared via a melt transesterification route. The resultant bioactive oligomer was then mixed with a blend of polylactide (PLA) and poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) with different loadings; to manufacture films to be used as a bioactive, biodegradable mulch to deliver the herbicide to target broadleaf weed species. The biological targeting of the MCPA-PHBV conjugate in the mulch film was investigated under glasshouse conditions using faba bean (Vicia faba) as a selective (non-target) model crop species having broadleaf morphology...
December 20, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249028/effects-of-rice-straw-mulching-on-n2o-emissions-and-maize-productivity-in-a-rain-fed-upland
#7
Xiao Hong Wu, Wei Wang, Xiao Li Xie, Chun Mei Yin, Hai Jun Hou
In the hilly areas of southern China, uplands and paddies are located adjacent to each other. Using rice straw as mulch for upland soil may improve crop production and partially replace chemical fertilizers, which may mitigate N2O emissions. A field experiment was conducted to investigate the potential of rice straw mulching for mitigating N2O emissions and increasing crop production. The treatments included no mulching (CK), 5000 kg ha-1 of straw mulching (SM5), and 10,000 kg ha-1 of straw mulching (SM10)...
December 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182305/point-of-use-nanobiosensor-for-detection-of-dengue-virus-ns1-antigen-in-adult-aedes-aegypti-a-potential-tool-for-improved-dengue-surveillance
#8
Daniel Aaron Wasik, Ashok Mulchandani, Marylynn V Yates
Dengue virus (DENV) and its primary mosquito vectors Aedes spp., have spread to every continent except Antarctica, causing outbreaks and autochthonous transmission in previously disease-free regions. Recently, the spread of other arboviruses carried by invasive Aedes spp., such as Chikungunya and Zika, seem to be following similar trends as DENV and have renewed interest in monitoring and modelling arboviruses within mosquito vectors. Unfortunately, current commercially available detection methods are designed for the diagnosis of DENV in humans or are too expensive and complex for sustainable monitoring...
November 28, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179650/statin-related-adverse-effects-and-patient-education-a-study-from-resource-limited-settings
#9
Rubina Mulchandani, Tanica Lyngdoh, Praloy Chakraborty, Ashish Kumar Kakkar
BACKGROUND: Statins are the most widely prescribed class of drugs for coronary artery disease (CAD) patients and yet literature on the prevalence of statin related adverse effects (AEs) and gaps in patient education is quite limited especially in resource-limited settings of developing world. OBJECTIVES: The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of myopathy (muscle ailments) and other statin associated adverse effects among CAD patients on statin therapy...
November 27, 2017: Acta Cardiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163602/effects-of-ridge-furrow-system-combined-with-different-degradable-mulching-materials-on-soil-water-conservation-and-crop-production-in-semi-humid-areas-of-china
#10
Xiaolong Ren, Xiaoli Chen, Tie Cai, Ting Wei, Yang Wu, Shahzad Ali, Peng Zhang, Zhikuan Jia
In China, the ridge-furrow water conservation planting (RC) system is advantageous for improving crop yields and rainwater use efficiency. In RC planting system, plastic film-mulched ridges are employed for water harvesting while the furrows serve as infiltration and planting belts. To optimize the RC system and to overcome problems due to the lack of water in semi-humid areas at risk of drought, we mulched the furrows with 8% biodegradable film (RCSB), liquid film (RCSL), or no mulching in the furrows (RCSN), while conventional flat planting (CF) was employed as the control...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147986/leachability-and-potential-ecotoxic-impact-of-trifluralin-impregnated-mulch
#11
Kevin J Bisceglia, Monika Dharia, Manpreet Kaur, Francesca A Pavlovici
The leachability, potential ecotoxicity, and photolysis of trifluralin-impregnated mulch, a popular retail consumer gardening product, were investigated under environmentally realistic conditions. Leachability of trifluralin from impregnated mulch was low (< 1% of total extractable compound) and in the range of reported values for agricultural soils. No trifluralin transformation products were detected in mulch leachate. Yeast-based estrogenicity and androgenicity screens indicated that aqueous trifluralin is not estrogenic but is moderately androgenic at concentrations ~ 1e - 5 M...
November 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131302/highly-active-spore-biocatalyst-by-self-assembly-of-co-expressed-anchoring-scaffoldin-and-multimeric-enzyme
#12
Long Chen, Megan Holmes, Elise Schaefer, Ashok Mulchandani, Xin Ge
We report a spore-based biocatalysis platform capable of producing and self-assembling active multimeric enzymes on a spore surface with a high loading density. This was achieved by co-expressing both a spore surface-anchoring scaffoldin protein containing multiple cohesin domains and a dockerin-tagged enzyme of interest in the mother cell compartment during Bacillus subtilis sporulation. Using this method, tetrameric β-galactosidase was successfully displayed on the spore surface with a loading density of 1...
November 13, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124424/effects-of-gravel-sand-mulching-on-soil-bacterial-community-and-metabolic-capability-in-the-semi-arid-loess-plateau-china
#13
Haiting Hao, Xia Zhao, Yun Wang, Yubao Zhang, Zhongkui Xie, Zhihong Guo, Ruoyu Wang
Gravel and sand mulching is an indigenous technology used for the crop yield for at least 300 years in the loess area of northwest China; however, little is known about the changes of soil bacterial community and metabolic capability under the mulching. In this study, we investigated the soil microbial community structure and metabolic functional diversity during mulching using Illumina MiSeq sequencing and Biolog ECO method. Totally, 9417 OTUs were classified at 97% similarity level for soil samples after 0 (control), 4, 7, and 10 years of mulching...
November 9, 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111244/can-conservation-tillage-reduce-n2o-emissions-on-cropland-transitioning-to-organic-vegetable-production
#14
Guihua Chen, Lauren Kolb, Michel A Cavigelli, Ray R Weil, Cerruti R R Hooks
Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important greenhouse gas and a catalyst of stratospheric ozone decay. Agricultural soils are the source of 75% of anthropogenic N2O emissions globally. Recently, significant attention has been directed at examining effects of conservation tillage on carbon sequestration in agricultural systems. However, limited knowledge is available regarding how these practices impact N2O emissions, especially for organic vegetable production systems. In this context, a three-year study was conducted in a well-drained sandy loam field transitioning to organic vegetable production in the Mid-Atlantic coastal plain of USA to investigate impacts of conservation tillage [strip till (ST) and no-till (NT)] and conventional tillage (CT) [with black plastic mulch (CT-BP) and bare-ground (CT-BG)] on N2O emissions...
October 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109965/estimating-the-carbohydrate-content-of-various-forms-of-tobacco-by-phenol-sulfuric-acid-method
#15
Vardhaman Mulchand Jain, Gundabaktha Nagappa Karibasappa, Arun Suresh Dodamani, Gaurao Vasant Mali
BACKGROUND: Due to consumption of various forms of tobacco in large amounts by Indian population, it has become a cause of concern for major oral diseases. In 2008, the WHO named tobacco as the world's single greatest cause of preventable death. It is also known that certain amount of carbohydrates are incorporated in processed tobacco to make it acceptable for consumption. Thus, its role in oral diseases becomes an important question at this point of time. Through this study, it is attempted to find out the carbohydrate content of various forms of tobacco by phenol-sulfuric acid method...
2017: Journal of Education and Health Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107136/maternal-hypercholesterolemia-enhances-oxysterol-concentration-in-mothers-and-newly-weaned-offspring-but-is-attenuated-by-maternal-phytosterol-supplementation
#16
Jerad H Dumolt, Sandhya K Radhakrishnan, Mohammed H Moghadasian, Khuong Le, Mulchand S Patel, Richard W Browne, Todd C Rideout
In hypercholesterolemic pregnancies, the maternal environment is characterized by excessive levels of atherogenic lipids that may increase cardiovascular disease risk in mothers and their offspring. We examined the influence of maternal hypercholesterolemia and phytosterol (PS) intervention on the concentration and metabolism of oxysterols, bioactive oxygenated cholesterol derivatives that regulate arterial health and lesion progression, in mothers and their newly weaned offspring. Twenty-one female apoE(-/-) mice were randomly assigned to three different diets throughout gestation and lactation: (1) chow, (2) high cholesterol (CH; 0...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078119/habitat-template-approach-for-green-roofs-using-a-native-rocky-sea-coast-plant-community-in-japan
#17
Ayako Nagase, Yurika Tashiro-Ishii
The present study examined whether it is possible to simulate a local herbaceous coastal plant community on a roof, by studying the natural habitats of rocky sea coast plants and their propagation and performance on a green roof. After studying the natural habitat of coastal areas in Izu peninsula, a germination and cutting transplant study was carried out using herbaceous plants from the Jogasaki sea coast. Many plant species did not germinate at all and the use of cuttings was a better method than direct seeding...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068336/operation-of-an-anaerobic-filter-compared-with-an-anaerobic-moving-bed-bioreactor-for-the-treatment-of-waste-water-from-hydrothermal-carbonisation-of-fine-mulch
#18
J F Meier, U Austermann-Haun, J Fettig, H Liebe, M Wichern
This experimental study investigates the anaerobic digestion of waste water from hydrothermal carbonisation of fine mulch (wood chips) in combination with a co-substrate for the first time. Two anaerobic reactors, an anaerobic filter (AF) and an anaerobic moving bed bioreactor (AnMBBR), were operated over a period of 131 days at mesophilic conditions. The organic loading rate was increased to a maximum of 8.5 g L(-l) d(-1) in the AF and the AnMBBR. Both reactors achieved similarly efficient chemical oxygen demand removal rates of 80% approximately (approx...
October 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053639/effects-of-silicon-amendment-on-soilborne-and-fruit-diseases-of-avocado
#19
Elizabeth K Dann, Duy P Le
The effects of silicon (Si) amendment have been studied in several plant/pathogen interactions; however, studies in horticultural tree crops are limited. Effects of amendment with soluble potassium silicate (AgSil(®)32, approximately 30% available Si), or milled cement building board by-products (Mineral Mulch (MM) or Mineral Dust (MD), containing 5% available Si) were investigated in field and greenhouse trials with avocado. Orchard soil drench applications with potassium silicate improved yield and quality of fruit, but visual health of trees declining from Phytophthora root rot (PRR) was not affected...
October 20, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027790/microbial-fermentation-of-organic-carbon-substrates-drives-rapid-ph-neutralization-and-element-removal-in-bauxite-residue-leachate
#20
Talitha C Santini, Yong G Peng
Globally, mineral processing activities produce an estimated 680 GL/yr of alkaline wastewater. Neutralizing pH and removing dissolved elements are the main goals of wastewater treatment prior to discharge. Here, we present the first study to explicitly evaluate the role of microbial communities in driving pH neutralization and element removal in alkaline wastewaters by fermentation of organic carbon, using bauxite residue leachate as a model system, and evaluate the effects of organic carbon complexity and microbial inoculum addition rates on the performance of these treatment systems at laboratory scale...
November 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
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