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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936575/coupled-effects-of-mulching-and-nitrogen-fertilization-on-crop-yield-residual-soil-nitrate-and-water-use-efficiency-of-summer-maize-in-the-chinese-loess-plateau
#1
Zhanjun Liu, Yan Meng, Miao Cai, Jianbin Zhou
Appropriate water-saving and nitrogen management strategies are critical for achieving sustainable agricultural development in dry sub-humid areas of the Chinese Loess Plateau. The present study was conducted in 2004, 2005, 2008, and 2012 based on a long-term field experiment and aimed to investigate the coupled impacts of mulching and N fertilization on maize yield, water use efficiency (WUE), and residual soil nitrate (RSN) accumulated in the soil profile (0-200 cm). The results demonstrated that mulch is conducive to increasing summer maize yield...
September 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892722/behavior-of-farmers-in-regard-to-erosion-by-water-as-reflected-by-their-farming-practices
#2
Karl Auerswald, Franziska K Fischer, Michael Kistler, Melanie Treisch, Harald Maier, Robert Brandhuber
The interplay between natural site conditions and farming raises erosion by water above geological background levels. We examined the hypothesis that farmers take erosion into account in their farming decisions and switch to farming practices with lower erosion risk the higher the site-specific hazard becomes. Erosion since the last tillage was observed from aerial orthorectified photographs for 8100 fields belonging to 1879 farmers distributed across Bavaria (South Germany) and it was modeled by the Universal Soil Loss Equation using highly detailed input data (e...
September 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883002/genetic-dissociation-of-glycolysis-and-the-tca-cycle-affects-neither-normal-nor-neoplastic-proliferation
#3
Laura E Jackson, Sucheta Kulkarni, Huabo Wang, Jie Lu, James M Dolezal, Sivakama S Bharathi, Sarangarajan Ranganathan, Mulchand S Patel, Rahul Deshpande, Frances Alencastro, Stacy G Wendell, Eric S Goetzman, Andrew W Duncan, Edward V Prochownik
Rapidly proliferating cells increase glycolysis at the expense of oxidative phosphorylation (oxphos) to generate sufficient levels of glycolytic intermediates for use as anabolic substrates. The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) is a critical mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes pyruvate's conversion to acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA), thereby connecting these two pathways in response to complex energetic, enzymatic and metabolic cues. Here we utilized a mouse model of hepatocyte-specific PDC inactivation to determine the need for this metabolic link during normal hepatocyte regeneration and malignant transformation...
September 7, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869562/comparative-programs-for-arthropod-disease-and-weed-management-in-new-york-organic-apples
#4
Arthur Agnello, Kerik Cox, Jaume Lordan, Poliana Francescatto, Terence Robinson
Organic apple production in the eastern US is small and is mostly based on existing varieties, which are susceptible to scab, and rootstocks, which are susceptible to fire blight. This requires numerous sprays per year of various pesticides to produce acceptable fruit. From 2014 to 2016, we tested different arthropod, disease and weed management programs in an advanced tall spindle high-density production system that included disease-resistant cultivars and rootstocks, in an organic research planting of apples in Geneva, New York...
September 4, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863373/plastics-in-soil-analytical-methods-and-possible-sources
#5
REVIEW
Melanie Bläsing, Wulf Amelung
At least 300 Mio t of plastic are produced annually, from which large parts end up in the environment, where it persists over decades, harms biota and enters the food chain. Yet, almost nothing is known about plastic pollution of soil; hence, the aims of this work are to review current knowledge on i) available methods for the quantification and identification of plastic in soil, ii) the quantity and possible input pathways of plastic into soil, (including first preliminary screening of plastic in compost), and iii) its fate in soil...
August 29, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833312/complete-degradation-of-dimethyl-phthalate-by-a-comamonas-testosterone-strain
#6
Jing Li, Feng Luo, Dian Chu, Huanling Xuan, Xianzhu Dai
A Comamonas testosterone bacterial strain, named as DB-7, capable of utilizing dimethyl phthalate (DMP) as sole carbon source and energy for growth was isolated from soil with plastic film mulching by an enrichment culture technique. This bacterium was identified as C. testosterone by 16S rRNA sequence analysis and phospholipid fatty acid profile. DB-7 could degrade more than 99% of 450 mg L(-1) DMP within 14 hours, and degraded DMP of different concentrations rapidly. The optimal degradation temperature and pH were 30-35 °C and pH 9...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828548/optimum-ridge-to-furrow-ratio-in-ridge-furrow-mulching-systems-for-improving-water-conservation-in-maize-zea-may-l-production
#7
Weiwei Li, Xiaoxia Wen, Juan Han, Yang Liu, Wei Wu, Yuncheng Liao
Water-saving cultivation techniques have been attracting increased attention worldwide. Ridge-furrow mulching system (RFMS), as a prospective rainwater harvesting system, has been widely adopted in arid and semi-arid areas. Field experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 to compare soil water storage, soil temperature, maize yield, and water use efficiency (WUE) among different ridge/furrow width arrangements in RFMS comprised of three different ridge/furrow ratios, i.e., 40:70 cm (RFMS40), 55:55 cm (RFMS55), and 70:40 cm (RFMS70) and conventional flat planting (CK, without mulching)...
August 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822924/local-and-landscape-scale-land-cover-affects-microclimate-and-water-use-in-urban-gardens
#8
Brenda B Lin, Monika H Egerer, Heidi Liere, Shalene Jha, Peter Bichier, Stacy M Philpott
Urban gardens in Central California are highly vulnerable to the effects of climate change, experiencing both extended high heat periods as well as water restrictions because of severe drought conditions. This puts these critical community-based food production systems at risk as California is expected to experience increasing weather extremes. In agricultural systems, increased vegetation complexity, such as greater structure or biodiversity, can increase the resilience of food production systems from climate fluctuations...
August 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820743/sleep-apnea-a-review-of-diagnostic-sensors-algorithms-and-therapies
#9
Mehdi Shokoueinejad, Chris Fernandez, Emily Carroll, Fa Wang, Jake Levin, Sam Rusk, Nick Glattard, Ashley Mulchrone, Xuan Zhang, Ailiang Xie, Mihaela Teodorescu, Jerome Dempsey, John Webster
While public awareness of sleep related disorders is growing, sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) remains a public health and economic challenge. Over the last two decades, extensive controlled epidemiologic research has clarified the incidence, risk factors including the obesity epidemic, and global prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), as well as establishing a growing body of literature linking OSA with cardiovascular morbidity, mortality, metabolic dysregulation, and neurocognitive impairment. The US Institute of Medicine Committee on Sleep Medicine estimates that 50-70 million US adults have sleep or wakefulness disorders...
August 18, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814759/influence-of-film-mulching-on-soil-microbial-community-in-a-rainfed-region-of-northeastern-china
#10
Wenyi Dong, Pengfei Si, Enke Liu, Changrong Yan, Zhe Zhang, Yanqing Zhang
Information about the effect of plastic film mulching (PFM) on the soil microbial communities of rainfed regions remains scarce. In the present study, Illumina Hiseq sequencer was employed to compare the soil bacterial and fungal communities under three treatments: no mulching (NM), spring mulching (SM) and autumn mulching (AM) in two layers (0-10 and, 10-20 cm). Our results demonstrated that the plastic film mulching (PFM) application had positive effects on soil physicochemical properties as compared to no-mulching (NM): higher soil temperature (ST), greater soil moisture content (SMC) and better soil nutrients...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803379/effects-of-live-myriophyllum-aquaticum-and-its-straw-on-cadmium-accumulation-in-nasturtium-officinale
#11
Kewen Huang, Lijin Lin, Fabo Chen, Ming'an Liao, Jin Wang, Yi Tang, Yunsong Lai, Dong Liang, Hui Xia, Xun Wang, Wei Ren
The purpose of this study is to determine whether the allelopathy of living Myriophyllum aquaticum and its straw has the same effects; two pot experiments were conducted to study the effects of intercropping using M. aquaticum and its straw on the growth and cadmium (Cd) accumulation of Nasturtium officinale. Different planting ratios (1:3, 2:2 and 3:1) of N. officinale and M. aquaticum led to an increase in the biomass of both plant species and increased the Cd content in roots and shoots of N. officinale, but led to a reduction in the Cd content in roots and shoots of M...
August 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747000/response-of-soil-dissolved-organic-matter-to-microplastic-addition-in-chinese-loess-soil
#12
Hongfei Liu, Xiaomei Yang, Guobin Liu, Chutao Liang, Sha Xue, Hao Chen, Coen J Ritsema, Violette Geissen
Plastic debris is accumulating in agricultural land due to the increased use of plastic mulches, which is causing serious environmental problems, especially for biochemical and physical properties of the soil. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays a central role in driving soil biogeochemistry, but little information is available on the effects of plastic residues, especially microplastic, on soil DOM. We conducted a soil-incubation experiment in a climate-controlled chamber with three levels of microplastic added to loess soil collected from the Loess Plateau in China: 0% (control, CK), 7% (M1) and 28% (M2) (w/w)...
October 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724103/nematode-community-response-to-green-infrastructure-design-in-a-semiarid-city
#13
Mitchell A Pavao-Zuckerman, Christine Sookhdeo
Urbanization affects ecosystem function and environmental quality through shifts in ecosystem fluxes that are brought on by features of the built environment. Green infrastructure (GI) has been suggested as a best management practice (BMP) to address urban hydrologic and ecological impacts of the built environment, but GI practice has only been studied from a limited set of climatic conditions and disciplinary approaches. Here, we evaluate GI features in a semiarid city from the perspective of soil ecology through the application of soil nematode community analysis...
May 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713395/economic-and-environmental-assessment-of-seed-and-rhizome-propagated-miscanthus-in-the-uk
#14
Astley Hastings, Michal Mos, Jalil A Yesufu, Jon McCalmont, Kai Schwarz, Reza Shafei, Chris Ashman, Chris Nunn, Heinrich Schuele, Salvatore Cosentino, Giovanni Scalici, Danilo Scordia, Moritz Wagner, John Clifton-Brown
Growth in planted areas of Miscanthus for biomass in Europe has stagnated since 2010 due to technical challenges, economic barriers and environmental concerns. These limitations need to be overcome before biomass production from Miscanthus can expand to several million hectares. In this paper, we consider the economic and environmental effects of introducing seed based hybrids as an alternative to clonal M. x giganteus (Mxg). The impact of seed based propagation and novel agronomy was compared with current Mxg cultivation and used in 10 commercially relevant, field scale experiments planted between 2012 and 2014 in the United Kingdom, Germany, and Ukraine...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657129/acetyl-coa-production-from-pyruvate-is-not-necessary-for-preservation-of-myelin
#15
Gustavo Della-Flora Nunes, Lauren Mueller, Nicholas Silvestri, Mulchand S Patel, Lawrence Wrabetz, M Laura Feltri, Yannick Poitelon
Oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells not only form myelin in the central and peripheral nervous system, but also provide metabolic and trophic support to the axons they ensheathe. Acetyl-CoA is potentially a key molecule in Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes because it is at the crossroads of cellular lipid biosynthesis and energy generation. The main route for acetyl-CoA production is the oxidation of pyruvate by the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC). PDC deficiency in humans results in neurodegeneration and developmental impairments in both white and gray matter structures...
October 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648493/the-use-of-fructosamine-in-cystic-fibrosis-related-diabetes-cfrd-screening
#16
Grace Y Lam, Michelle Doll-Shankaruk, Jan Dayton, Karina Rodriguez-Capote, Trefor N Higgins, Dylan Thomas, Kimberley Mulchey, Maeve P Smith, Neil E Brown, Winnie M Leung, Mathew P Estey
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether serum fructosamine correlates with glycemic control and clinical outcomes in patients being screened for cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD). METHODS: Fructosamine and percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV1) were measured in patients undergoing a 2h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) for CFRD screening. Fractional serum fructosamine (FSF) was calculated as fructosamine/total protein. RESULTS: FSF exhibited a positive correlation with 2h OGTT results (r(2)=0...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622652/deterioration-pattern-of-six-biodegradable-potentially-low-environmental-impact-mulches-in-field-conditions
#17
Marta M Moreno, Sara González-Mora, Jaime Villena, Juan A Campos, Carmen Moreno
Polyethylene plastic mulches are widely used in agriculture due to the countless advantages they have. However, the environmental problems associated with their use have led us to look for alternative mulch materials which degrade naturally and quickly, impact the environment less and function satisfactorily. To this end, biodegradable plastics and paper mulches are being used, but aspects related to their degradation should be studied more in-depth. This work provides the deterioration pattern of six biodegradable mulch materials (i...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611817/rational-water-and-nitrogen-management-improves-root-growth-increases-yield-and-maintains-water-use-efficiency-of-cotton-under-mulch-drip-irrigation
#18
Hongzhi Zhang, Aziz Khan, Daniel K Y Tan, Honghai Luo
There is a need to optimize water-nitrogen (N) applications to increase seed cotton yield and water use efficiency (WUE) under a mulch drip irrigation system. This study evaluated the effects of four water regimes [moderate drip irrigation from the third-leaf to the boll-opening stage (W1), deficit drip irrigation from the third-leaf to the flowering stage and sufficient drip irrigation thereafter (W2), pre-sowing and moderate drip irrigation from the third-leaf to the boll-opening stage (W3), pre-sowing and deficit drip irrigation from the third-leaf to the flowering stage and sufficient drip irrigation thereafter (W4)] and N fertilizer at a rate of 520 kg ha(-1) in two dressing ratios [7:3 (N1), 2:8 (N2)] on cotton root morpho-physiological attributes, yield, WUE and the relationship between root distribution and dry matter production...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607420/yield-phenology-relations-and-water-use-efficiency-of-maize-zea-mays-l-in-ridge-furrow-mulching-system-in-semiarid-east-african-plateau
#19
Fei Mo, Jian-Yong Wang, Feng-Min Li, Simon N Nguluu, Hong-Xu Ren, Hong Zhou, Jian Zhang, Charles W Kariuki, Patrick Gicheru, Levis Kavagi, Wesly K Cheruiyot, You-Cai Xiong
Yield-phenology relation is a critical issue affecting rainfed maize field productivity in semiarid east African Plateau (EAP). We first introduced Chinese ridge-furrow mulching (RFM) system to EAP, using three maize cultivars with early-, mid- and late-maturing traits as test materials. A two-year field experiment was conducted in a semiarid farm of Kenya from 2012 to 2013. Three treatments were designed: alternative ridge and furrow with transparent plastic mulching (FT), with black plastic mulching (FB) and without mulching (CK)...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567681/study-on-the-removal-of-hormones-from-domestic-wastewaters-with-lab-scale-constructed-wetlands-with-different-substrates-and-flow-directions
#20
José Alberto Herrera-Melián, Rayco Guedes-Alonso, Alejandro Borreguero-Fabelo, José Juan Santana-Rodríguez, Zoraida Sosa-Ferrera
Eight wastewater samples from a university campus were analysed between May and July of 2014 to determine the concentration of 14 natural and synthetic steroid hormones. An on-line solid-phase extraction combined with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (on-line SPE-UHPLC-MS/MS) was used as extraction, pre-concentration and detection method. In the samples studied, three oestrogens (17β-estradiol, estrone and estriol), two androgens (boldenone and testosterone), three progestogens (norgestrel, progesterone and norethisterone) and one glucocorticoid (prednisone) were detected...
May 31, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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