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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334278/local-and-landscape-drivers-of-parasitoid-abundance-richness-and-composition-in-urban-gardens
#1
Julia M Burks, Stacy M Philpott
Urbanization negatively affects biodiversity, yet some urban habitat features can support diversity. Parasitoid wasps, an abundant and highly diverse group of arthropods, can inhabit urban areas and do well in areas with higher host abundance, floral resources, or local or landscape complexity. Parasitoids provide biological control services in many agricultural habitats, yet few studies have examined diversity and abundance of parasitoids in urban agroecosystems to understand how to promote conservation and function...
March 8, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321358/examining-the-potential-of-forest-residue-based-amendments-for-post-wildfire-rehabilitation-in-colorado-usa
#2
Charles C Rhoades, Kerri L Minatre, Derek N Pierson, Timothy S Fegel, M Francesca Cotrufo, Eugene F Kelly
Wildfire is a natural disturbance, though elemental losses and changes that occur during combustion and post-fire erosion can have long-term impacts on soil properties, ecosystem productivity, and watershed condition. Here we evaluate the potential of forest residue-based materials to rehabilitate burned soils. We compare soil nutrient and water availability, and plant recovery after application of 37 t ha(-1) of wood mulch, 20 t ha(-1) of biochar, and the combination of the two amendments with untreated, burned soils...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303027/compensation-effect-of-winter-wheat-grain-yield-reduction-under-straw-mulching-in-wide-precision-planting-in-the-north-china-plain
#3
Xinhui Liu, Yujie Ren, Chao Gao, Zhenxing Yan, Quanqi Li
Climate change and the growing demand for food security force growers to identify ways both to improve food production and to reduce agricultural carbon emissions. Although straw mulching is known to decrease CO2 emissions, winter wheat grain yield in the North China Plain was declined under straw mulching. In an effort to determine the most effective way to increase winter wheat yield under straw mulching, a field experiment was conducted using two planting patterns (wide-precision planting and conventional-cultivation planting) and two straw mulching rates (0 and 0...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294117/erratum-spring-maize-yield-soil-water-use-and-water-use-efficiency-under-plastic-film-and-straw-mulches-in-the-loess-plateau
#4
Wen Lin, Wenzhao Liu, Qingwu Xue
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276074/survival-of-escherichia-coli-in-common-garden-mulches-spiked-with-synthetic-greywater
#5
Staci Boyte, Sarah Quaife, Jacqui Horswell, Alma Siggins
Reuse of domestic wastewater is increasingly practiced as a means to address global demands on freshwater. Greywater is primarily reused via sub-surface irrigation of gardens, where the soil environment is seen to be an integral part of the treatment process. The fate of biological contaminants (i.e. pathogens) in the soil is reasonably well understood, but their persistence and survival in soil cover layers is largely unexplored. This study investigated the ability of Escherichia coli to survive in common soil cover layers...
March 9, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264051/manipulating-plant-geometry-to-improve-microclimate-grain-yield-and-harvest-index-in-grain-sorghum
#6
Sushil Thapa, Bob A Stewart, Qingwu Xue, Yuanquan Chen
Cultivar selection, planting geometry, and plant population are the key factors determining grain sorghum yields in water deficit areas. The objective of this study was to investigate whether clump geometry (three plants clustered) improves microclimate within crop canopy when plants are grown under varying water levels. In a 2-yr sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) greenhouse study, plants were grown at two geometries (clump and conventional evenly spaced planting, ESP), two water levels (high and low, representing well-watered and water-limited condition, respectively), and three soil surface treatments (lid covered, straw-mulched, and bare)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262286/pulmonary-arterial-strain-and-remodeling-induced-stiffening-are-differentiated-in-a-chronic-model-of-pulmonary-hypertension
#7
Mark J Golob, Diana M Tabima, Gregory D Wolf, James L Johnston, Omid Forouzan, Ashley M Mulchrone, Heidi B Kellihan, Melissa L Bates, Naomi C Chesler
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a debilitating vascular disease that leads to pulmonary artery (PA) stiffening, which is a predictor of patient mortality. During PH development, PA stiffening adversely affects right ventricular function. PA stiffening has been investigated through the arterial nonlinear elastic response during mechanical testing using a canine PH model. However, only circumferential properties were reported and in the absence of chronic PH-induced PA remodeling. Remodeling can alter arterial nonlinear elastic properties via chronic changes in extracellular matrix (ECM) content and geometry...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251545/impact-of-tillage-practices-on-soil-bacterial-diversity-and-composition-under-the-tobacco-rice-rotation-in-china
#8
Yanping Lei, Yongliang Xiao, Lifeng Li, Chaoqiang Jiang, Chaolong Zu, Tian Li, Hui Cao
Tobacco-rice rotation is a common farming system in south China, and many tillage practices such as straw mulching, dolomite dust, and quicklime application have been adopted to improve crop production. These agricultural management practices alter soil physical and chemical properties and affect microbial life environment and community composition. In this research, six tillage practices including no tobacco and rice straw mulching (CK), tobacco and rice straw mulching (TrSr), rice straw returning fire (TrSc), tobacco and rice straw mulching with dolomite dust (TSD), rice straw returning fire and quicklime (TSQ), and rice straw returning fire, quicklime and reduced fertilizer (TSQf) were conducted to detect changes in soil bacterial diversity and composition using Illumina sequencing...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238364/design-and-performance-of-subgrade-biogeochemical-reactors
#9
Jeff Gamlin, Doug Downey, Brad Shearer, Paul Favara
Subgrade biogeochemical reactors (SBGRs), also commonly referred to as in situ bioreactors, are a unique technology for treatment of contaminant source areas and groundwater plume hot spots. SBGRs have most commonly been configured for enhanced reductive dechlorination (ERD) applications for chlorinated solvent treatment. However, they have also been designed for other contaminant classes using alternative treatment media. The SBGR technology typically consists of removal of contaminated soil via excavation or large-diameter augers, and backfill of the soil void with gravel and treatment amendments tailored to the target contaminant(s)...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230160/global-view-of-cognate-kinase-activation-by-the-human-pyruvate-dehydrogenase-complex
#10
Elena L Guevara, Luying Yang, Barbara Birkaya, Jieyu Zhou, Natalia S Nemeria, Mulchand S Patel, Frank Jordan
The human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) comprises four multidomain components, E1, E3, E2 and an E3-binding protein (E3BP), the latter two forming the core as E2·E3BP sub-complex. Pyruvate flux through PDC is regulated via phosphorylation (inactivation) at E1 by four PDC kinases (PDKs), and reactivation by two PDC phosphatases. Up-regulation of PDK isoform gene expression is reported in several forms of cancer, while PDKs may be further activated by PDC by binding to the E2·E3BP core. Hence, the PDK: E2·E3BP interaction provides new therapeutic targets...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229350/-set-in-stone-or-ray-of-hope-parents-beliefs-about-cause-and-prognosis-after-genomic-testing-of-children-diagnosed-with-asd
#11
Marian Reiff, Eva Bugos, Ellen Giarelli, Barbara A Bernhardt, Nancy B Spinner, Pamela L Sankar, Surabhi Mulchandani
Despite increasing utilization of chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) for autism spectrum disorders (ASD), limited information exists about how results influence parents' beliefs about etiology and prognosis. We conducted in-depth interviews and surveys with 57 parents of children with ASD who received CMA results categorized as pathogenic, negative or variant of uncertain significance. Parents tended to incorporate their child's CMA results within their existing beliefs about the etiology of ASD, regardless of CMA result...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221845/occurrence-and-dispersal-of-indicator-bacteria-on-cucumbers-grown-horizontally-or-vertically-on-various-mulch-types
#12
Shirley A Micallef, Mary Theresa Callahan, Sivaranjani Pagadala
No data exist on the impact of cultivation practices on food safety risks associated with cucumber. Cucumbers are typically grown horizontally over a mulch cover, with fruit touching the ground, but this vining plant grows well in vertical systems. To assess whether production system affects bacterial dispersal onto plants, field trials were conducted over 2 years. Cucumber cultivar 'Marketmore 76' was grown horizontally on plastic, straw, or bare ground or vertically on trellises installed on bare ground in soil previously amended with raw dairy manure...
October 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196688/biodiversity-and-topographic-complexity-modern-and-geohistorical-perspectives
#13
REVIEW
Catherine Badgley, Tara M Smiley, Rebecca Terry, Edward B Davis, Larisa R G DeSantis, David L Fox, Samantha S B Hopkins, Tereza Jezkova, Marjorie D Matocq, Nick Matzke, Jenny L McGuire, Andreas Mulch, Brett R Riddle, V Louise Roth, Joshua X Samuels, Caroline A E Strömberg, Brian J Yanites
Topographically complex regions on land and in the oceans feature hotspots of biodiversity that reflect geological influences on ecological and evolutionary processes. Over geologic time, topographic diversity gradients wax and wane over millions of years, tracking tectonic or climatic history. Topographic diversity gradients from the present day and the past can result from the generation of species by vicariance or from the accumulation of species from dispersal into a region with strong environmental gradients...
March 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184098/full-scale-experimental-investigation-to-quantify-building-component-ignition-vulnerability-from-mulch-beds-attacked-by-firebrand-showers
#14
Samuel L Manzello, Sayaka Suzuki, Daisaku Nii
Structure ignition by wind-driven firebrand showers is an important fire spread mechanism in large outdoor fires. Experiments were conducted with three common mulch types (shredded hardwood mulch, Japanese Cypress wood chips, and pine bark nuggets) placed adjacent to realistic-scale reentrant corners. In the first series of experiments, mulch beds were placed adjacent to a re-entrant corner constructed with wood studs and lined with oriented strand board (OSB) as the sheathing. The premise behind conducting experiments with no siding treatments applied was predicated on the notion that bare OSB mulch contact would be a worst-case scenario, and therefore, a wall assembly in the most vulnerable state to mulch ignition...
March 2017: Fire Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183912/merging-paleobiology-with-conservation-biology-to-guide-the-future-of-terrestrial-ecosystems
#15
REVIEW
Anthony D Barnosky, Elizabeth A Hadly, Patrick Gonzalez, Jason Head, P David Polly, A Michelle Lawing, Jussi T Eronen, David D Ackerly, Ken Alex, Eric Biber, Jessica Blois, Justin Brashares, Gerardo Ceballos, Edward Davis, Gregory P Dietl, Rodolfo Dirzo, Holly Doremus, Mikael Fortelius, Harry W Greene, Jessica Hellmann, Thomas Hickler, Stephen T Jackson, Melissa Kemp, Paul L Koch, Claire Kremen, Emily L Lindsey, Cindy Looy, Charles R Marshall, Chase Mendenhall, Andreas Mulch, Alexis M Mychajliw, Carsten Nowak, Uma Ramakrishnan, Jan Schnitzler, Kashish Das Shrestha, Katherine Solari, Lynn Stegner, M Allison Stegner, Nils Chr Stenseth, Marvalee H Wake, Zhibin Zhang
Conservation of species and ecosystems is increasingly difficult because anthropogenic impacts are pervasive and accelerating. Under this rapid global change, maximizing conservation success requires a paradigm shift from maintaining ecosystems in idealized past states toward facilitating their adaptive and functional capacities, even as species ebb and flow individually. Developing effective strategies under this new paradigm will require deeper understanding of the long-term dynamics that govern ecosystem persistence and reconciliation of conflicts among approaches to conserving historical versus novel ecosystems...
February 10, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177425/effects-on-the-underlying-water-column-by-extensive-floating-treatment-wetlands
#16
W H Strosnider, S E Schultz, K A Johnson Strosnider, R W Nairn
Floating treatment wetlands (FTWs) are an emerging engineering option with promise for simultaneous water quality improvement and habitat creation. Relatively little research has been published regarding their construction or effects on the underlying water column. In this field-scale experiment, four different extensive FTW designs were constructed using minimal materials, including drainpipe, burlap, mulch, utility netting, and reused polyethylene bottles. The FTWs were then planted with spp. (cattail) and L...
January 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166269/to-mulch-or-not-to-mulch-effects-of-gravel-mulch-toppings-on-plant-establishment-and-development-in-ornamental-prairie-plantings
#17
Anja Schmithals, Norbert Kühn
In recent years, North American prairie vegetation has served as a design model for highly attractive, low-cost and low-maintenance plantings in German urban green spaces. Where mixed-planting techniques, gravel mulch toppings and non-selective maintenance techniques such as mowing are used, prairie plantings are considered to be cost-effective alternative design concepts for public green space management. In this study, we investigated the establishment success of different mixtures of prairie species plantings on two sites with different soil conditions: topsoil and topsoil with graywacke gravel topping...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160653/monitoring-of-microbial-cell-viability-using-nanostructured-electrodes-modified-with-graphene-alumina-nanocomposite
#18
Rabeay Y A Hassan, Moataz M Mekawy, Pankaj Ramnani, Ashok Mulchandani
Microbial infections are rapidly increasing; however most of the existing microbiological and molecular detection methods are time consuming and/or cannot differentiate between the viable and dead cells which may overestimate the risk of infections. Therefore, a bioelectrochemical sensing platform with a high potential to the microbial-electrode interactions was designed based on decorated graphene oxide (GO) sheet with alumina (Al2O3) nanocrystals. GO-Al2O3 nanocomposite was synthesized using self-assembly of GO and Al2O3 and characterized using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman-spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV)...
May 15, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152487/a-heparin-functionalized-carbon-nanotube-based-affinity-biosensor-for-dengue-virus
#19
Daniel Wasik, Ashok Mulchandani, Marylynn V Yates
Dengue virus is an arthropod-borne virus transmitted primarily by Aedes mosquitos and is major cause of disease in tropical and subtropical regions. Colloquially known as Dengue Fever, infection can cause hemorrhagic disorders and death in humans and non-human primates. We report a novel electronic biosensor based on a single-walled carbon nanotube network chemiresistive transducer that is functionalized with heparin for low-cost, label-free, ultra-sensitive, and rapid detection of whole dengue virus (DENV)...
May 15, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142090/chemical-modification-of-the-cocoa-shell-surface-using-diazonium-salts
#20
Flavia Fioresi, Julien Vieillard, Radhouane Bargougui, Nabil Bouazizi, Patrick Nkuigue Fotsing, Emmanuel Djoufac Woumfo, Nicolas Brun, Nadine Mofaddel, Franck Le Derf
The outer portion of the cocoa bean, also known as cocoa husk or cocoa shell (CS), is an agrowaste material from the cocoa industry. Even though raw CS is used as food additive, garden mulch, and soil conditioner or even burnt for fuel, this biomass material has hardly ever been investigated for further modification. This article proposes a strategy of chemical modification of cocoa shell to add value to this natural material. The study investigates the grafting of aryl diazonium salt on cocoa shell. Different diazonium salts were grafted on the shell surface and characterized by infrared spectroscopy and scanning electronic microscopy imaging...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
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