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Lijin Lin, Fabo Chen, Jin Wang, Ming'an Liao, Xiulan Lv, Zhihui Wang, Huanxiu Li, Qunxian Deng, Hui Xia, Dong Liang, Yi Tang, Xun Wang, Yunsong Lai, Wei Ren
To determine whether the living hyperaccumulator plants and their straws have the same effects on the growth and heavy metal accumulation of common plants, two pot experiments (intercropping experiment and straw mulch experiment) were conducted to study the effects of living hyperaccumulator plants (Solanum photeinocarpum, Tagetes erecta, Galinsoga parviflora and Bidens pilosa) and their straws on the growth and cadmium (Cd) accumulation of common plant Cyphomandra betacea seedlings. Intercropping with T. erecta or B...
March 3, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Jeanine F Amacher, Helen T Hobbs, Aaron C Cantor, Lochan Shah, Marco-Jose Rivero, Sarah A Mulchand, John Kuriyan
Cbl proteins are E3 ubiquitin ligases specialized for the regulation of tyrosine kinases by ubiquitylation. Human Cbl proteins are activated by tyrosine phosphorylation, thus setting up a feedback loop whereby the activation of tyrosine kinases triggers their own degradation. Cbl proteins are targeted to their substrates by a phosphotyrosine-binding SH2 domain. Choanoflagellates, unicellular eukaryotes that are closely related to metazoans, also contain Cbl. The tyrosine kinase complement of choanoflagellates is distinct from that of metazoans, and it is unclear if choanoflagellate Cbl is regulated similarly to metazoan Cbl...
March 2, 2018: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Juan Hu, Jinggui Wu, Xiaojing Qu, Jianming Li
The objective of this work was to evaluate the variation in the amount and structure of humic acid (HA) after the application of organic wastes (OWs) in semiarid soil under plastic mulched drip irrigation, measured by elemental composition, excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence, and carbon 13 nuclear magnetic resonance (13 C CPMAS NMR). The experiment involved chemical fertilizer combined with chicken manure (CM), sheep manure (SM), maize straw (MS), fodder grass (FG), and tree leaves (TL), while chemical fertilizer only was used as control (CK)...
February 22, 2018: Chemosphere
Mika Hatada, Noya Loew, Yuka Inose-Takahashi, Junko Okuda-Shimazaki, Wakako Tsugawa, Ashok Mulchandani, Koji Sode
Enzyme based electrochemical biosensors are divided into three generations according to their type of electron transfer from the cofactors of the enzymes to the electrodes. Although the 3rd generation sensors using direct electron transfer (DET) type enzymes are ideal, the number of enzyme types which possess DET ability is limited. In this study, we report of a glucose sensor using mediator-modified glucose dehydrogenase (GDH), that was fabricated by a new quick-and-easy method using the pre-functionalized amine reactive phenazine ethosulfate (arPES)...
February 9, 2018: Bioelectrochemistry
M Manwaring, H M Wallace, H J Weaver
Sugarcane farmers can utilise a soil conservation technique called green cane trash blanketing, a form of mulching that can increase plant productivity through a number of channels, e.g., via altering soil physical, chemical and biological characteristics, and influence soil arthropod assemblages. Predatory mites (Mesostigmata) are important components of soil communities because they can control populations of other soil-dwelling pest species. Our aim was to characterise mulch-influenced predatory Mesostigmata community assemblages in sugarcane soils in Queensland, Australia...
February 21, 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Adnan Šišić, Jelena Baćanović-Šišić, Petr Karlovsky, Raphaël Wittwer, Florian Walder, Enio Campiglia, Emanuele Radicetti, Hanna Friberg, Jörg Peter Baresel, Maria R Finckh
Leguminous cover crop and living mulch species show not only great potential for providing multiple beneficial services to agro-ecosystems, but may also present pathological risks for other crops in rotations through shared pathogens, especially those of the genus Fusarium. Disease severity on roots of subterranean clover, white clover, winter and summer vetch grown as cover crop and living mulch species across five European sites as well as the frequency, distribution and aggressiveness to pea of Fusarium spp...
2018: PloS One
Wee L Yee, Peter S Chapman
Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens (Curran; Diptera: Tephritidae), occurs in unmanaged cherries (Prunus spp.) across dry climates in Washington State and other regions in western United States and Canada. To help explain the fly's distribution in arid climates, we determined the effects of adding water to bare and grass-covered soils on pupal survival rates and adult emergence patterns of R. indifferens in central Washington. Water was added ('irrigated') or not to bare soil and grass-covered soil in cylinders pressed into the ground...
February 9, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Amanda L Buchanan, Cerruti R R Hooks
Winter cover crop mulches can diversify agricultural habitats and provide a range of benefits for crop production and pest management. Here we report the influence of strip tilled winter cover crop mulches on arthropod abundance in organic vegetable plots. Crookneck squash (Cucurbita pepo L.; Cucurbitales: Cucurbitaceae) was direct seeded into mowed and strip tilled barley (Hordeum vulgare L.; Poales: Poaceae), crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.; Fabales: Fabaceae), a barley + crimson clover mixture, or a no-cover crop control...
February 9, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Piotr Robakowski, Ernest Bielinis, Kerrie Sendall
This study addressed whether competition under different light environments was reflected by changes in leaf absorbed light energy partitioning, photosynthetic efficiency, relative growth rate and biomass allocation in invasive and native competitors. Additionally, a potential allelopathic effect of mulching with invasive Prunus serotina leaves on native Quercus petraea growth and photosynthesis was tested. The effect of light environment on leaf absorbed light energy partitioning and photosynthetic characteristics was more pronounced than the effects of interspecific competition and allelopathy...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Plant Research
Xiaoyu Li, Lijuan Liu, Huijin Yang, Yan Li
Environmental factors and human activities play important roles in carbon fixation and emissions generated from croplands. Eddy covariance measurements in a drip-irrigated, film-mulched cotton field were used to analyze the relationships between carbon fluxes and environmental factors in Wulanwusu, northern Xinjiang, an arid region of Northwest China. Our results showed that the cumulative net carbon flux (NEE) was -304.8 g C m-2 (a strong sink) over the whole cotton growing season in 2012, which was more than that in cotton cropland without plastic film mulching and drip-irrigation...
2018: PloS One
Abhijeet B Muley, Sandeep A Chaudhari, Ketan H Mulchandani, Rekha S Singhal
The present article describes extraction of chitosan from prawn shells waste and its application in thermal stabilization of Fusarium sp. ICT SAC1 cutinase by non-covalent and covalent conjugation. Extracted chitosan represented 78.40% degree of deacetylation (DDA), a molecular weight of 173 kDa and was soluble in 1% acetic acid with 2.8 ± 0.15% insoluble matter. The structural (FTIR, NMR and XRD) and thermal characterization (DSC and TGA) indicated unique properties for chitosan. Plausible chitosan structure was also deduced...
January 20, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Koushik Manna, Manik Chandra Kundu, Biplab Saha, Goutam Kumar Ghosh
A field experiment was conducted in winter season of 2015-2016 in the dry lateritic soil of Eastern India to study the effect of different thicknesses of nonwoven jute agrotextile mulches (NJATM) along with other mulches on soil health, growth and productivity of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.). The experiment was conducted in randomized block design with six treatments viz., T1 (control, i.e. no mulching), T2 (300 gsm NJATM), T3 (350 gsm NJATM), T4 (400 gsm NJATM), T5 (rice straw) and T6 (black polythene mulch), each of which was replicated four times...
January 16, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Yonghui Yang, Jicheng Wu, Shiwei Zhao, Qingyuan Han, Xiaoying Pan, Fang He, Chun Chen
Soil amendments, such as straw mulch, organic fertilizers and superabsorbent polymer (SAP), are extensively applied to improve soil structure and porosity, and we reported the functional consequences of the individual application of these amendments in our previous study. However, whether combined amendments are more effective than their individual applications for improving soil pore structure is unknown. Here, we conducted X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning on undisturbed soil columns to investigate the efficiency of two-amendment application, including straw mulch and organic manure, SAP and organic manure, or SAP and straw mulch, for improving soil pore properties and pore distribution...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Gabriela T Niño de Guzmán, Cathleen J Hapeman, Patricia D Millner, Laura L McConnell, Dana Jackson, David Kindig, Alba Torrents
Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a highly effective industrial degreasing agent and known carcinogen. It was frequently buried improperly in landfills and has subsequently become one of the most common groundwater and soil contaminants in the USA. A common strategy to remediate TCE-contaminated sites and to prevent movement of the TCE plumes into waterways is to construct biowalls which consist of biomaterials and amendments to enhance biodegradation. This approach was chosen to contain a TCE plume emanating from a closed landfill in Maryland...
January 11, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Corina Carranca, Gustavo Brunetto, Massimo Tagliavini
Although perennial fruit crops represent 1% of global agricultural land, they are of a great economic importance in world trade and in the economy of many regions. The perennial woody nature of fruit trees, their physiological stages of growth, the root distribution pattern, and the presence of herbaceous vegetation in alleys make orchard systems efficient in the use and recycling of nitrogen (N). The present paper intends to review the existing literature on N nutrition of young and mature deciduous and evergreen fruit trees with special emphasis to temperate and Mediterranean climates...
January 10, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Hao Zhang, Jie Tang, Shuang Liang, Zhaoyang Li, Jingjing Wang, Sining Wang
Variations in soil organic carbon (SOC) have implications for atmospheric CO2 concentrations and the greenhouse effect. However, the effects of snow cover and straw mulching on the variations in SOC fractions across winter remain largely unknown. In this study, soil samples were collected during different stages of winter from an in situ experiment comprising three treatments: 1) snow removal with no straw mulching (Sn-SM-); 2) snow cover with no straw mulching (SC), and; 3) snow cover with straw mulching (SC + SM+)...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Iwona Kwiecień, Grazyna Adamus, Guozhan Jiang, Iza Radecka, Timothy C Baldwin, Habib R Khan, Brian Johnston, Valentina Pennetta, David Hill, Inna Bretz, Marek M Kowalczuk
The herbicide 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) conjugated with poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) was prepared via a melt transesterification route. The resultant bioactive oligomer was then mixed with a blend of polylactide (PLA) and poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) with different loadings; to manufacture films to be used as a bioactive, biodegradable mulch to deliver the herbicide to target broadleaf weed species. The biological targeting of the MCPA-PHBV conjugate in the mulch film was investigated under glasshouse conditions using faba bean (Vicia faba) as a selective (non-target) model crop species having broadleaf morphology...
December 20, 2017: Biomacromolecules
Xiao Hong Wu, Wei Wang, Xiao Li Xie, Chun Mei Yin, Hai Jun Hou
In the hilly areas of southern China, uplands and paddies are located adjacent to each other. Using rice straw as mulch for upland soil may improve crop production and partially replace chemical fertilizers, which may mitigate N2O emissions. A field experiment was conducted to investigate the potential of rice straw mulching for mitigating N2O emissions and increasing crop production. The treatments included no mulching (CK), 5000 kg ha-1 of straw mulching (SM5), and 10,000 kg ha-1 of straw mulching (SM10)...
December 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Daniel Wasik, Ashok Mulchandani, Marylynn V Yates
Dengue virus (DENV) and its primary mosquito vectors Aedes spp. have spread to every continent except Antarctica, causing outbreaks and autochthonous transmission in previously disease-free regions. Recently, the spread of other arboviruses carried by invasive Aedes spp., such as Chikungunya and Zika, seem to be following similar trends as DENV and have renewed interest in monitoring and modeling arboviruses within mosquito vectors. Unfortunately, current commercially available detection methods are designed for the diagnosis of DENV in humans or are too expensive and complex for sustainable monitoring...
January 2, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Rubina Mulchandani, Tanica Lyngdoh, Praloy Chakraborty, Ashish Kumar Kakkar
BACKGROUND: Statins are the most widely prescribed class of drugs for coronary artery disease (CAD) patients and yet literature on the prevalence of statin related adverse effects (AEs) and gaps in patient education is quite limited especially in resource-limited settings of developing world. OBJECTIVES: The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of myopathy (muscle ailments) and other statin associated adverse effects among CAD patients on statin therapy...
November 27, 2017: Acta Cardiologica
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