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Alexander Rohrmann, Dirk Sachse, Andreas Mulch, Heiko Pingel, Stefanie Tofelde, Ricardo N Alonso, Manfred R Strecker
Rainfall in the central Andes associated with the South American Monsoon and the South American Low-Level Jet results from orographic effects on atmospheric circulation exerted by the Andean Plateau and the Eastern Cordillera. However, despite its importance for South American climate, no reliable records exist that allow decoding the evolution of thresholds and interactions between Andean topography and atmospheric circulation, especially regarding the onset of humid conditions in the inherently dry southern central Andes...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
William S Currie, Sarah Kiger, Joan I Nassauer, Meghan Hutchins, Lauren L Marshall, Daniel G Brown, Rick L Riolo, Derek T Robinson, Stephanie K Hart
Exurban residential land (one housing unit per 0.2-16.2 ha) is growing in importance as a human-dominated land use. Carbon storage in the soils and vegetation of exurban land is poorly known, as are the effects on C storage of choices made by developers and residents. We studied C storage in exurban yards in southeastern Michigan, USA, across a range of parcel sizes and different types of neighborhoods. We divided each residential parcel into ecological zones (EZ) characterized by vegetation, soil, and human behavior such as mowing, irrigation, and raking...
July 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
N F Quinn, D C Brainard, Z Szendrei
Conservation tillage combined with cover crops or mulching may enhance natural enemy activity in agroecosystems by reducing soil disturbance and increasing habitat structural complexity. In particular, weed seed predation can increase with vegetation cover and reduced tillage, indicating that mulches may improve the quality of the habitat for weed seed foraging. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of tillage and mulching for conservation biological control in cucurbit fields. The effects of mulch and reduced tillage on arthropods and rates of weed seed loss from arenas were examined in field trials on sandy soils in 2014 and 2015...
October 15, 2016: Environmental Entomology
R B Kulkarni, J D Mulchandani, S V Rege
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Balwinder-Singh, E Humphreys, D S Gaydon, P L Eberbach
Machinery for sowing wheat directly into rice residues has become more common in the rice-wheat systems of the north-west Indo-Gangetic Plains of South Asia, with increasing numbers of farmers now potentially able to access the benefits of residue retention. However, surface residue retention affects soil water and temperature dynamics, thus the optimum sowing date and irrigation management for a mulched crop may vary from those of a traditional non-mulched crop. Furthermore, the effects of sowing date and irrigation management are likely to vary with soil type and seasonal conditions...
October 2016: Field Crops Research
Peter A Turner, John M Baker, Timothy J Griffis, Rodney T Venterea
Nitrous oxide (NO), produced primarily in agricultural soils, is a potent greenhouse gas and is the dominant ozone-depleting substance. Efforts to reduce NO emissions are underway, but mitigation results have been inconsistent. The leguminous perennial kura clover ( M. Bieb.) (KC) can grow side-by-side with cash crops in rotational corn ( L.)-soybean ( L.) systems. With biological nitrogen fixation, KC provides land managers an opportunity to reduce external fertilizer inputs, which may diminish problematic NO emissions...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
Gaurao Vasant Mali, Arun Suresh Dodamani, Gundabaktha Nagappa Karibasappa, Prashanthkumar Vishwakarma, Vardhaman Mulchand Jain
INTRODUCTION: Chemical plaque control measures are advocated to maintain proper oral hygiene. Ayurvedic medicines are alternatives considered with minimal side effects to treat systemic diseases and dental diseases. So the present study was conducted to assess the anti-plaque efficacy of Arimedadi (herbal) oil against 0.2% Chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash. AIM: To assess the anti-plaque efficacy of Arimedadi (herbal) oil against 0.2% Chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Xin Cathy Li, Christopher Wang, Ashok Mulchandani, Xin Ge
Many pathogenic bacteria utilize quorum sensing (QS) systems to regulate the expression of their virulence genes and promote the formation of biofilm, which renders pathogens with extreme resistance to conventional antibiotic treatments. As a novel approach for attenuating antibiotic resistance and in turn fighting chronic infections, enzymatic inactivation of QS signaling molecules, such as N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs), holds great promises. Instead of using bacterial lactonases that can evoke immune response when administered, we focus on the human paraoxonase 2 (huPON2)...
September 30, 2016: ACS Chemical Biology
Susanne A Fritz, Jussi T Eronen, Jan Schnitzler, Christian Hof, Christine M Janis, Andreas Mulch, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, Catherine H Graham
At global and regional scales, primary productivity strongly correlates with richness patterns of extant animals across space, suggesting that resource availability and climatic conditions drive patterns of diversity. However, the existence and consistency of such diversity-productivity relationships through geological history is unclear. Here we provide a comprehensive quantitative test of the diversity-productivity relationship for terrestrial large mammals through time across broad temporal and spatial scales...
September 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Kankan Li, Dong Ma, Juan Wu, Chao Chai, Yanxi Shi
The content of phthalate esters (PAEs) was investigated in 36 vegetable fields with plastic film mulching in Shandong Peninsula, East China. Soils at depths of 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, and 20-40 cm were collected, and 16 PAEs were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. PAEs were detected in all the analyzed samples. The total contents of the 16 PAEs (Σ16PAEs) ranged from 1.374 to 18.810 mg/kg, with an average of 6.470 mg/kg. Among the four areas of Shandong Peninsula, including Qingdao, Weihai, Weifang, and Yantai, the highest Σ16PAE in the soil was observed in Weifang district (9...
December 2016: Chemosphere
Xiukang Wang, Yingying Xing
Mulching and nitrogen are critical drivers of crop production for smallholders of the Loess Plateau in China. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of mulching and nitrogen fertilizer on the soil water content, soil nitrate-N content and vertical distribution in maize root-zone. The experiment was conducted over two consecutive years and used randomly assigned field plots with three replicates. The six treatments consisted of no fertilizer without plastic film (CK), plastic film mulching with no basal fertilizer and no top dressing (MN0), basal fertilizer with no top dressing and no mulching (BN1), plastic film mulching and basal fertilizer with no top dressing (MN1), basal fertilizer and top dressing with no mulching (BN2) and plastic film mulching with basal fertilizer and top dressing (MN2)...
2016: PloS One
Rashad Syed, Surinder Saggar, Kevin Tate, Bernd H A Rehm
Previous studies have demonstrated the effective utility of volcanic pumice soil to mitigate both high and low levels of methane (CH4) emissions through the activity of both γ-proteobacterial (type I) and α-proteobacterial (type II) aerobic methanotrophs. However, the limited availability of volcanic pumice soil necessitates the assessment of other farm soils and potentially suitable, economical and widely available biofilter materials. The potential biofilter materials, viz. farm soil (isolated from a dairy farm effluent pond bank area), pine biochar, garden waste compost and weathered pine bark mulch, were inoculated with a small amount of volcanic pumice soil...
November 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Feng Tan, Longchao Cong, Nuvia Maria Saucedo, Jinsuo Gao, Xiaona Li, Ashok Mulchandani
Divalent mercuric (Hg(2+)) ion is one of the most prevalent forms of mercury species in waters with high toxicity and bioaccumulation in the human body, for which sensitive and selective detection methods are highly necessary to carry out its recognition and quantification. Here an electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (RGO) based chemiresistive sensor was constructed and used for the detection of Hg(2+) ion in various water samples. Monolayer GO sheets were assembled onto interdigitated electrodes, followed by reduction through linear sweep voltammetry and then modification with a single-stranded DNA aptamer...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Peng Wang, Yunjia Liu, Neal W Menzies, J Bernhard Wehr, Martin D de Jonge, Daryl L Howard, Peter M Kopittke, Longbin Huang
Arsenic (As) is commonly associated with Cu ore minerals, with the resultant risk that As can be released offsite from mine tailings. We used synchrotron-based fluorescence X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) imaging to provide in situ, laterally-resolved speciation of As within tailings which differed in magnetite content (5-12%) and organic matter content (0-5%). Although the total As content was lower in tailings with low magnetite (LM), the soluble (pore water) As was actually 7-times higher in LM tailings than in high magnetite (HM) tailings...
November 2016: Environmental Pollution
Claudia Dislich, Alexander C Keyel, Jan Salecker, Yael Kisel, Katrin M Meyer, Mark Auliya, Andrew D Barnes, Marife D Corre, Kevin Darras, Heiko Faust, Bastian Hess, Stephan Klasen, Alexander Knohl, Holger Kreft, Ana Meijide, Fuad Nurdiansyah, Fenna Otten, Guy Pe'er, Stefanie Steinebach, Suria Tarigan, Merja H Tölle, Teja Tscharntke, Kerstin Wiegand
Oil palm plantations have expanded rapidly in recent decades. This large-scale land-use change has had great ecological, economic, and social impacts on both the areas converted to oil palm and their surroundings. However, research on the impacts of oil palm cultivation is scattered and patchy, and no clear overview exists. We address this gap through a systematic and comprehensive literature review of all ecosystem functions in oil palm plantations, including several (genetic, medicinal and ornamental resources, information functions) not included in previous systematic reviews...
August 11, 2016: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Xue Ni, Weiting Song, Huanchao Zhang, Xiulian Yang, Lianggui Wang
Different mulches have variable effects on soil physical properties and plant growth. This study aimed to compare the effects of mulching with inorganic (round gravel, RG), organic (wood chips, WC), and living (manila turf grass, MG) materials on soil properties at 0-5-cm and 5-10-cm depths, as well as on the growth and physiological features of Osmanthus fragrans L. 'Rixianggui' plants. Soil samples were collected at three different time points from field plots of O. fragrans plants treated with the different mulching treatments...
2016: PloS One
Sarat Kannepalli, Peter F Strom, Uta Krogmann, Vandana Subroy, Daniel Giménez, Robert Miskewitz
Large-scale open storage of wood mulch is common practice at wood recycling facilities. During rain and snow melt, leachate with soluble compounds and suspended particles is released from mulch stockpiles. The objective of this study was to determine the quality of leachate/runoff from wood recycling facilities to evaluate its potential to contaminate receiving waterbodies. Wood mulch (n = 30) and leachate/runoff (n = 26) samples were collected over 1.5 years from three wood recycling facilities in New Jersey, USA...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Melanie Nowak, Carina Wittke, Ines Lederer, Bernhard Klier, Maik Kleinwächter, Dirk Selmar
Many plant derived commodities contain traces of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs). The main source of these contaminations seems to be the accidental co-harvest of PA-containing weeds. Yet, based on the insights of the newly described phenomenon of the horizontal transfer of natural products, it is very likely that the PA-contaminations may also be due to an uptake of the alkaloids from the soil, previously being leached out from rotting PA-plants. The transfer of PAs was investigated using various herbs, which had been mulched with dried plant material from Senecio jacobaea...
December 15, 2016: Food Chemistry
Tiziana Masini, Barbara Birkaya, Simon van Dijk, Milon Mondal, Johan Hekelaar, Manuel Jäger, Anke C Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Mulchand S Patel, Anna K H Hirsch, Edelmiro Moman
The last decade has witnessed the reawakening of cancer metabolism as a therapeutic target. In particular, inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) holds remarkable promise. Dichloroacetic acid (DCA), currently undergoing clinical trials, is a unique PDK inhibitor in which it binds to the allosteric pyruvate site of the enzyme. However, the safety of DCA as a drug is compromised by its neurotoxicity, whereas its usefulness as an investigative tool is limited by the high concentrations required to exert observable effects in cell culture...
July 19, 2016: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
Hoda Malekpour, Pankaj Ramnani, Srilok Srinivasan, Ganesh Balasubramanian, Denis L Nika, Ashok Mulchandani, Roger K Lake, Alexander A Balandin
We investigate the thermal conductivity of suspended graphene as a function of the density of defects, ND, introduced in a controllable way. High-quality graphene layers are synthesized using chemical vapor deposition, transferred onto a transmission electron microscopy grid, and suspended over ∼7.5 μm size square holes. Defects are induced by irradiation of graphene with the low-energy electron beam (20 keV) and quantified by the Raman D-to-G peak intensity ratio. As the defect density changes from 2.0 × 10(10) cm(-2) to 1...
August 14, 2016: Nanoscale
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