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Daniel G Couch, Henry Maudslay, Brett Doleman, Jonathan N Lund, Saoirse E O'Sullivan
Background: Clinical trials investigating the use of cannabinoid drugs for the treatment of intestinal inflammation are anticipated secondary to preclinical literature demonstrating efficacy in reducing inflammation. Methods: We systematically reviewed publications on the benefit of drugs targeting the endo-cannabinoid system in intestinal inflammation. We collated studies examining outcomes for meta-analysis from EMBASE, MEDLINE and Pubmed until March 2017. Quality was assessed according to mSTAIR and SRYCLE score...
March 19, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Zhen-Zhen Li, Ya-Liang Huang, Hong-Jun Song, You-Juan Wang, Yan Huang
BACKGROUND: Solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) are common imaging findings. Many studies have indicated that F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-FDG-PET/CT) is an accurate test for distinguishing benign and malignant SPNs. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of F-FDG-PET/CT in the diagnosis of malignant SPNs. METHODS: We systematically searched the PubMed and Embase databases up to March 2017, and published data on sensitivity, specificity, and other measures of diagnostic accuracy of F-FDG-PET/CT in the diagnosis of malignant SPNs were meta-analyzed...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Nuno Rui Paulino Pereira, Just A van der Linde, Hassanin Alkaduhimi, Umile Giuseppe Longo, Michel P J van den Bekerom
Background: The primary aim of the present study was to review, summarize and compare the redislocation risk for collision athletes and noncollision athletes after an open Bristow-Latarjet procedure. Our secondary aim was to summarize return to sport, satisfaction, pain and complications. Methods: We conducted a systematic review in PubMed and EMBASE of articles until 1 July 2016. We included all studies describing Bristow-Latarjet like procedures as a result of glenohumeral instability, mentioning redislocation rates in collision athletes with >2 years of follow-up...
April 2018: Shoulder & Elbow
Enju Liu, Laura Pimpin, Masha Shulkin, Sarah Kranz, Christopher P Duggan, Dariush Mozaffarian, Wafaie W Fawzi
(1) Background: The effects of zinc supplementation on child growth, and prior reviews of these studies, have shown mixed results. We aim to systematically review and meta-analyze randomized controlled trials evaluating effects of preventive zinc supplementation for 3 months or longer during pregnancy or in children up to age 5 years on pregnancy outcomes and child growth; (2) Methods: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and trial registries for eligible trials up to October 10, 2017...
March 20, 2018: Nutrients
Meidai Kasai, Federica Cipriani, Brice Gayet, Luca Aldrighetti, Francesca Ratti, Juan M Sarmiento, Olivier Scatton, Ki-Hun Kim, Ibrahim Dagher, Baki Topal, John Primrose, Takeo Nomi, David Fuks, Mohammad Abu Hilal
BACKGROUND: The role of laparoscopy for major hepatectomies remains a matter of development to be further assessed. The purpose of this study is to compare the short- and long-term outcomes between laparoscopic and open major hepatectomies meta-analyzing individual patient data from published comparative studies. METHODS: All retrospective studies comparing between laparoscopic and open major hepatectomies published until March 2017 were identified independently by 2 reviewers by searching in PubMed and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials...
March 16, 2018: Surgery
W David Hill
Intelligence and educational attainment are strongly genetically correlated. This relationship can be exploited by Multi-Trait Analysis of GWAS (MTAG) to add power to Genome-wide Association Studies (GWAS) of intelligence. MTAG allows the user to meta-analyze GWASs of different phenotypes, based on their genetic correlations, to identify association's specific to the trait of choice. An MTAG analysis using GWAS data sets on intelligence and education was conducted by Lam et al. (2017). Lam et al. (2017) reported 70 loci that they described as 'trait specific' to intelligence...
March 19, 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
Masha Shulkin, Laura Pimpin, David Bellinger, Sarah Kranz, Wafaie Fawzi, Christopher Duggan, Dariush Mozaffarian
Background: Epidemiologic studies link maternal seafood and n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) consumption with improved childhood cognitive development; trials show mixed results. Objective: We investigated effects of n-3 PUFA supplementation on child cognitive and visual outcomes. Methods: We systematically reviewed and meta-analyzed randomized controlled trials of n-3 PUFA supplementation in mothers or infants (age ≤2 y) and evaluated standardized measures of cognitive or visual development up to age 18 y...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Philippe Desmarais, Catherine Miville, Ángela Milán-Tomás, Quoc Dinh Nguyen, Carmen Ojeda-López, Mario Masellis, Sandra E Black, Danielle Molinari Andrade, Nathan Herrmann
OBJECTIVES: To analyze age representation trends over time in antiepileptic drug (AED) trials and to assess trial design elements as possible barriers to enrollment of elderly patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO, and meta-analyzed demographic data of cohorts enrolled in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of AEDs published since 1991. Data analysis included trends of age representation over time and trial design elements associated with average age of enrolled cohorts...
March 6, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Verônica Colpani, Cristina P Baena, Loes Jaspers, Gabriella M van Dijk, Ziba Farajzadegan, Klodian Dhana, Myrte J Tielemans, Trudy Voortman, Rosanne Freak-Poli, Gilson G V Veloso, Rajiv Chowdhury, Maryam Kavousi, Taulant Muka, Oscar H Franco
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, incidence and death increases from around the time of menopause comparing to women in reproductive age. A healthy lifestyle can prevent CVD, but it is unclear which lifestyle factors may help maintain and improve cardiovascular health for women after menopausal transition. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to evaluate the association between modifiable lifestyle factors (specifically smoking, physical activity, alcohol intake, and obesity), with CVD and mortality in middle-aged and elderly women...
March 10, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Andres Zorrilla-Vaca, Jinlei Li
INTRODUCTION: Femoral nerve block (FNB) appears to have higher postoperative analgesic benefits compared with the patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, the role of sciatic nerve block (SNB) as a complement to FNB remains controversial. We performed a meta-analysis assessing the benefits of the SNB as a complement to FNB, as well as comparing the efficacy of single-injection versus continuous SNB in TKA. METHODS: Our group conducted a systematic literature search in PubMed, EMBASE and Google Scholar...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Anesthesia
Jonathan R I Coleman, Julien Bryois, Héléna A Gaspar, Philip R Jansen, Jeanne E Savage, Nathan Skene, Robert Plomin, Ana B Muñoz-Manchado, Sten Linnarsson, Greg Crawford, Jens Hjerling-Leffler, Patrick F Sullivan, Danielle Posthuma, Gerome Breen
Variance in IQ is associated with a wide range of health outcomes, and 1% of the population are affected by intellectual disability. Despite a century of research, the fundamental neural underpinnings of intelligence remain unclear. We integrate results from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of intelligence with brain tissue and single cell gene expression data to identify tissues and cell types associated with intelligence. GWAS data for IQ (N = 78,308) were meta-analyzed with a study comparing 1247 individuals with mean IQ ~170 to 8185 controls...
March 8, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
M Sauvan, N Chabbert-Buffet, S Geoffron, G Legendre, J-M Wattier, H Fernandez
OBJECTIVE: To analyse the literature on the treatment of adolescent painful endometriosis. METHOD: This work is based on a Review of the literature between January 2006 and December 2017. The Medline (Pubmed) and Cochrane database were searched for meta-analyzes, randomized trials, literature reviews, controlled, not controlled and retrospective studies published on the subject. Studies concerning adolescent's dysmenorrhea without endometriosis were excluded. RESULTS: Study quality is heterogeneous...
March 5, 2018: Gynecologie, Obstetrique, Fertilite & Senologie
Amy-Lee Sesel, Louise Sharpe, Sharon L Naismith
BACKGROUND: Psychosocial interventions are often used as an adjunct to the medical management of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the efficacy of such approaches for a range of psychosocial indications remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of psychosocial therapies for people with MS (PwMS). METHODS: We searched 6 electronic databases (Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, and Clinicaltrials...
March 8, 2018: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics
Scott C Faucett, Benjamin Peter Geisler, Jorge Chahla, Aaron J Krych, Peter R Kurzweil, Abigail M Garner, Shan Liu, Robert F LaPrade, Jan B Pietzsch
BACKGROUND: Medial meniscus root tears are a common knee injury and can lead to accelerated osteoarthritis, which might ultimately result in a total knee replacement. PURPOSE: To compare meniscus repair, meniscectomy, and nonoperative treatment approaches among middle-aged patients in terms of osteoarthritis development, total knee replacement rates (clinical effectiveness), and cost-effectiveness. STUDY DESIGN: Meta-analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Ying Cheng, Bifeng Gao, Yuhao Jin, Na Xu, Taipin Guo
BACKGROUND: The common cold (CC) is the most common syndromes of infection in human beings, but there is currently no special treatment. For this reason, acupuncture is used to relieve the symptoms of the CC. Acupuncture is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) therapy that has been used for over 2000 years to treat various diseases. However, few studies have provided evidence for the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for the CC. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture on CC periods and its symptoms...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Giulia Rastrelli, Mario Maggi, Giovanni Corona
The frequency of late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) ranges between 2 and 15%. Up to 85% of LOH is due to a functional impairment of the hypothalamus-pituitary-testicular axis, mostly secondary to metabolic conditions. Areas covered: This paper provides a comprehensive review of all the available medications for treating LOH, including antiestrogens, gonadotropins and testosterone therapy (TTh). In addition, the evidence on clinical outcomes of these treatments is provided by meta-analyzing the results from the available randomized clinical trials...
March 5, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Rachel L Zelkowitz, David A Cole
Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and disordered eating (DE) are highly comorbid and may be regarded as belonging to a spectrum of self-harm behaviors. We investigated self-criticism as a transdiagnostic correlate of these behaviors, in keeping with etiological theories of both NSSI and DE. We reviewed the literature and meta-analyzed the relation of self-criticism to both NSSI (15 studies; 17 effect sizes) and DE (24 studies; 29 effect sizes). Results showed equivalent, moderate-to-large effects for the relation of self-criticism to NSSI (r = ...
March 5, 2018: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Mats Nagel, Kyoko Watanabe, Sven Stringer, Danielle Posthuma, Sophie van der Sluis
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of psychological traits are generally conducted on (dichotomized) sums of items or symptoms (e.g., case-control status), and not on the individual items or symptoms themselves. We conduct large-scale GWAS on 12 neuroticism items and observe notable and replicable variation in genetic signal between items. Within samples, genetic correlations among the items range between 0.38 and 0.91 (mean rg  = .63), indicating genetic heterogeneity in the full item set. Meta-analyzing the two samples, we identify 255 genome-wide significant independent genomic regions, of which 138 are item-specific...
March 2, 2018: Nature Communications
Adrien Rigal, Romain Colle, Khalil El Asmar, Céline Elie-Lefebvre, Bruno Falissard, Laurent Becquemont, Céline Verstuyft, Emmanuelle Corruble
Patients with mental disorders have a higher coronary morbidity and mortality as compared to the general population. However, it remains unclear whether their coronary risk scores are higher than those of the general population. We reviewed studies and meta-analyze case-control studies about coronary risk scores in individuals with symptoms or diagnoses of mental disorders. Search was performed in Pubmed and clinical trial registration databases. Four case-control studies were identified, comprising 963 individuals with symptoms or diagnoses of mental disorders and 1681 controls...
February 19, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Frank J Wolters, Reffat A Segufa, Sirwan K L Darweesh, Daniel Bos, Mohammad Arfan Ikram, Behnam Sabayan, Albert Hofman, Sanaz Sedaghat
INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular risk factors are closely linked with dementia risk, but whether heart disease predisposes to dementia is uncertain. METHODS: We systematically reviewed the literature and meta-analyzed risk estimates from longitudinal studies reporting the association of coronary heart disease (CHD) or heart failure (HF) with risk of dementia. RESULTS: We identified 16 studies (1,309,483 individuals) regarding CHD, and seven studies (1,958,702 individuals) about HF...
March 2, 2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
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