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Alberto Gómez-Carballa, Jacobo Pardo-Seco, Federico Martinón-Torres, Antonio Salas
Infertility has a complex multifactorial etiology and a high prevalence worldwide. Several studies have pointed to variation in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule as a factor responsible for the different disease phenotypes related to infertility. We analyzed 53 mitogenomes of infertile males from Galicia (northwest Spain), and these haplotypes were meta-analyzed phylogenetically with 43 previously reported from Portugal. Taking advantage of the large amount of information available, we additionally carried out association tests between patient mtDNA single-nucleotide polymorphisms (mtSNPs) and haplogroups against Iberian matched controls retrieved from The 1000 Genomes Project and the literature...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Human Genetics
Simone Perna, Attilio Giacosa, Gianluca Bonitta, Chiara Bologna, Antonio Isu, Davide Guido, Mariangela Rondanelli
Hazelnuts are rich in monounsaturated fatty acids and antioxidant bioactive substances: their consumption has been associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease events. A systematic review and a meta-analysis was performed to combine the results from several trials and to estimate the pooled (overall) effect of hazelnuts on blood lipids and body weight outcomes. Specifically, a Bayesian random effect meta-analysis of mean differences of Δ-changes from baseline across treatment (MDΔ) (i.e., hazelnut-enriched diet vs...
November 25, 2016: Nutrients
Alice Courties, Jérémie Sellam
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most frequent joint disorder and one of the leading cause of disability. During a long time, it was considered as the consequence of aging and mechanical stress on cartilage. Recent advances in the knowledge of OA have highlighted that it is a whole joint disease with early modifications of synovium and subchondral bone but also that it is associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome through systemic mechanisms. In the past year, type 2 diabetes has been described in two meta-analyzes as an independent risk factor for OA...
November 5, 2016: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Amirhossein Sahebkar, Claudio Ferri, Paolo Giorgini, Simona Bo, Petr Nachtigal, Davide Grassi
Punica granatum L. (Pomegranate) has been claimed to provide several health benefits. Pomegranate juice is a polyphenol-rich fruit juice with high antioxidant capacity. Several studies suggested that pomegranate juice can exert antiatherogenic, antioxidant, antihypertensive, and anti-inflammatory effects. Nevertheless, the potential cardioprotective benefits of pomegranate juice deserve further clinical investigation. To systematically review and meta-analyze available evidence from randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effects of pomegranate juice consumption and blood pressure (BP)...
November 23, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Wei Zhu, Yan Wu, Yi-Fang Meng, Qian Xing, Jian-Jun Tao, Jiong Lu
The association between fish consumption and risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is still unclear. The aim of the current meta-analysis and systematic review was to quantitatively evaluate findings from observational studies on fish consumption and the risk of AMD. Relevant studies were identified by searching electronic databases (Medline and EMBASE) and reviewing the reference lists of relevant articles up to August, 2016. Prospective cohort studies that reported relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the link between fish consumption and risk of AMD were included...
November 22, 2016: Nutrients
Sadegh Azimzadeh Jamalkandi, Sayed-Hamidreza Mozhgani, Hamid Gholami Pourbadie, Mehdi Mirzaie, Farshid Noorbakhsh, Behrouz Vaziri, Alireza Gholami, Naser Ansari-Pour, Mohieddin Jafari
The prototypical neurotropic virus, rabies, is a member of the Rhabdoviridae family that causes lethal encephalomyelitis. Although there have been a plethora of studies investigating the etiological mechanism of the rabies virus and many precautionary methods have been implemented to avert the disease outbreak over the last century, the disease has surprisingly no definite remedy at its late stages. The psychological symptoms and the underlying etiology, as well as the rare survival rate from rabies encephalitis, has still remained a mystery...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Judit Tenk, Péter Mátrai, Péter Hegyi, Ildikó Rostás, András Garami, Imre Szabó, Margit Solymár, Erika Pétervári, József Czimmer, Katalin Márta, Alexandra Mikó, Nóra Füredi, Andrea Párniczky, Csaba Zsiborás, Márta Balaskó
BACKGROUND: Obesity is one of the major public health challenges worldwide. It involves numerous endocrine disorders as etiological factors or as complications. Previous studies strongly suggested the involvement of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity in obesity, however, to date, no consistent trend in obesity-associated alterations of the HPA axis has been identified. Aging has been demonstrated to aggravate obesity and to induce abnormalities of the HPA axis. Thus, the question arises whether obesity is correlated with peripheral indicators of HPA function in adult populations...
2016: PloS One
Giovanni Ostuzzi, Irene Bighelli, Ryuhei So, Toshi A Furukawa, Corrado Barbui
Recently, many authors highlighted the potential advantages of a broader prescription of long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs) based on various assumptions, including favorable pharmacokinetic features. In this systematic review, data from randomized controlled trials comparing LAIs versus the oral formulation of the same antipsychotic were meta-analyzed in order to ascertain whether the route of administration may be associated with a different efficacy and tolerability profile. Of 21 included studies, 18 contributed to the meta-analysis, providing data for risperidone, olanzapine, aripiprazole, zuclopenthixol, fluphenazine and haloperidol...
November 17, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Ke Chen, Yinya Gong, Qi Zhang, Yanping Shen, Taoqi Zhou
Recent studies have paid much attention on the safety of bevacizumab as adjuvant chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer. The aim of this meta-analysis was to study the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab in combination with irinotecan, bolus followed by infusional 5-fluorouracil, and leucovorin (FOLFIRI) and, irinotecan, bolus fluorouracil, leucovorin (IFL) for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC).An electronic search of related trials was conducted from PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library databases...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Lauren E Mokry, Stephanie Ross, John A Morris, Despoina Manousaki, Vincenzo Forgetta, J Brent Richards
OBJECTIVE: To test whether genetically decreased vitamin D levels are associated with Alzheimer disease (AD) using mendelian randomization (MR), a method that minimizes bias due to confounding or reverse causation. METHODS: We selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are strongly associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels (p < 5 × 10(-8)) from the Study of Underlying Genetic Determinants of Vitamin D and Highly Related Traits (SUNLIGHT) Consortium (N = 33,996) to act as instrumental variables for the MR study...
November 16, 2016: Neurology
Alexis Hure, Christopher Oldmeadow, John Attia
In this issue of the Journal, Isanaka et al. (Am J Epidemiol 2016;000(00):000-000) set out to update an incidence correction factor used for estimating numbers of cases of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in children aged 6-59 months. The total number of current SAM cases (prevalent cases) increases by the number of new (incident) cases and decreases as a result of recovery or death. Prevalence estimates are obtained from cross-sectional surveys. Calculation of incidence typically requires longitudinal data, which evidently are rarely collected for SAM, and so a correction factor is applied instead...
November 17, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
Tessel E Galesloot, Niek Verweij, Michela Traglia, Caterina Barbieri, Freerk van Dijk, Anneke J Geurts-Moespot, Domenico Girelli, Lambertus A L M Kiemeney, Fred C G J Sweep, Morris A Swertz, Peter van der Meer, Clara Camaschella, Daniela Toniolo, Sita H Vermeulen, Pim van der Harst, Dorine W Swinkels
Serum hepcidin concentration is regulated by iron status, inflammation, erythropoiesis and numerous other factors, but underlying processes are incompletely understood. We studied the association of common and rare single nucleotide variants (SNVs) with serum hepcidin in one Italian study and two large Dutch population-based studies. We genotyped common SNVs with genome-wide association study (GWAS) arrays and subsequently performed imputation using the 1000 Genomes reference panel. Cohort-specific GWAS were performed for log-transformed serum hepcidin, adjusted for age and gender, and results were combined in a fixed-effects meta-analysis (total N 6,096)...
2016: PloS One
Wusiman Aibibula, Joseph Cox, Anne-Marie Hamelin, Taylor McLinden, Marina B Klein, Paul Brassard
Although an increasing number of HIV infected people are accessing antiretroviral treatment, many do not achieve complete HIV viral suppression and remain at risk for AIDS and capable of HIV transmission. Food insecurity has been identified as a potential risk factor for poor virologic response, but the association between these factors has been inconsistently documented in the literature. We systematically searched five electronic databases and bibliographies of relevant studies through April 2015 and retrieved 11 studies that met our inclusion criteria, of which nine studies were conducted in North America and the remaining two studies were in Brazil and Uganda respectively...
November 11, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
Hossein Ghaderi-Zefrehi, Mohammad Gholami-Fesharaki, Heidar Sharafi, Farzin Sadeghi, Seyed Moayed Alavian
CONTEXT: The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is classified into seven genotypes and more than 100 subtypes. The treatment regimen, duration and efficacy of HCV therapy may vary according to the HCV genotype. Therefore, the HCV genotype should be determined prior to antiviral therapy. The objective of the current study was to review systematically all studies reporting the distribution of HCV genotypes in the countries that make up the Middle East. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Articles were identified by searching electronic databases, including Scopus, PubMed and Google scholar, with timeline limits (articles published between 1995 and 2016)...
September 2016: Hepatitis Monthly
Sina Nikayin, Anahita Rabiee, Mohamed D Hashem, Minxuan Huang, O Joseph Bienvenu, Alison E Turnbull, Dale M Needham
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the epidemiology of and postintensive care unit (ICU) interventions for anxiety symptoms after critical illness. METHODS: We searched five databases (1970-2015) to identify studies assessing anxiety symptoms in adult ICU survivors. Data from studies using the most common assessment instrument were meta-analyzed. RESULTS: We identified 27 studies (2880 patients) among 27,334 citations. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety (HADS-A) subscale was the most common instrument (81% of studies)...
November 2016: General Hospital Psychiatry
X Shi, X Xie, Y Jia, S Li
The roles of genetic polymorphisms in the pathogenesis of recurrent miscarriage (RM) have been intensively studied. However, the results of these studies were inconsistent, especially when conducted in different populations. Therefore, we performed the current study to systematically review the broad spectrum of genetic polymorphisms that were suspected to be involved in RM, and discussed potential genetic biomarkers of RM. Eligible articles were identified in PubMed, Medline, Embase and CNKI. Odd ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to describe the strength of association, and a probability value (p value) of 0...
October 28, 2016: Clinical Genetics
Marta Ferrero, Pablo Garaizar, Miguel A Vadillo
Enthusiasm for research on the brain and its application in education is growing among teachers. However, a lack of sufficient knowledge, poor communication between educators and scientists, and the effective marketing of dubious educational products has led to the proliferation of numerous 'neuromyths.' As a first step toward designing effective interventions to correct these misconceptions, previous studies have explored the prevalence of neuromyths in different countries. In the present study we extend this applied research by gathering data from a new sample of Spanish teachers and by meta-analyzing all the evidence available so far...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Hongjia Li, Wen Li, Shanshan Liu, Shaoqi Zong, Weibing Wang, Jianlin Ren, Qi Li, Fenggang Hou, Qi Shi
BACKGROUND: Increasing studies showed that abnormal changes in single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of DNMTs (DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B) were associated with occurrence or decrease of various tumors. However, the associations between DNMTs variations and gastric cancer (GC) risk were still conflicting. We aimed to assess the effect of DNMTs polymorphisms on the susceptibility to GC. METHODS: Firstly, we did a meta-analysis for 7 SNPs (rs16999593, rs2228611, rs8101866 in DNMT1, rs1550117, rs13420827 in DNMT3A, rs1569686, rs2424913 in DNMT3B)...
October 19, 2016: EBioMedicine
Seong-Hi Park, Young-Shin Lee
This study aimed to evaluate the predictive validity of the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) as a screening tool for fall risks among those with varied levels of balance. A total of 21 studies reporting predictive validity of the BBS of fall risk were meta-analyzed. With regard to the overall predictive validity of the BBS, the pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.72 and 0.73, respectively; the accuracy curve area was 0.84. The findings showed statistical heterogeneity among studies. Among the sub-groups, the age group of those younger than 65 years, those with neuromuscular disease, those with 2+ falls, and those with a cutoff point of 45 to 49 showed better sensitivity with statistically less heterogeneity...
October 26, 2016: Western Journal of Nursing Research
Hugo J A Adams, Thomas C Kwee
PURPOSE: To systematically review and meta-analyze the proportion of false-positive lesions at interim and end-of-treatment (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in lymphoma using biopsy as reference standard. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medline was searched for original studies. Methodological quality of included studies was evaluated, and results were meta-analytically summarized using random effects (in case of interstudy heterogeneity [I(2)≤50%]) or fixed effects (in case of no interstudy heterogeneity [I(2)>50%])...
November 2016: European Journal of Radiology
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