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metformin and weight loss

Dan Siskind, Nadia Friend, Anthony Russell, John J McGrath, Carmen Lim, Sue Patterson, Dylan Flaws, Terry Stedman, Vikas Moudgil, Savio Sardinha, Shuichi Suetani, Steve Kisely, Karl Winckel, Andrea Baker
INTRODUCTION: Clozapine, while effective in treatment refractory schizophrenia, is associated with significant weight gain, heart disease and increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Although there is evidence for weight loss with metformin for people with obesity who are already taking clozapine, there have been no published trials that have investigated the effect of metformin in attenuating weight gain at the time of clozapine initiation. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A 24-week double-blind placebo-controlled trial of concomitant prescription of metformin at clozapine commencement...
March 2, 2018: BMJ Open
Liana K Billings, Ankur Doshi, Didier Gouet, Alejandra Oviedo, Helena W Rodbard, Nikolaos Tentolouris, Randi Grøn, Natalie Halladin, Esteban Jodar
OBJECTIVE: In patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes on basal insulin, prandial insulin may be initiated. We assessed the efficacy and safety of initiating insulin degludec/liraglutide fixed-ratio combination (IDegLira) versus basal-bolus insulin. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A phase 3b trial examined patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes on insulin glargine (IGlar U100) 20-50 units/day and metformin, randomized to IDegLira or IGlar U100 and insulin aspart four or fewer times per day...
February 26, 2018: Diabetes Care
Tao Tao, Peihong Wu, Yuying Wang, Wei Liu
BACKGROUND: Impaired insulin activity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome might differ from that seen in type 2 diabetes mellitus without polycystic ovary syndrome. This study was designed to compare the effects of treatment with metformin, saxagliptin, and their combination in newly diagnosed women with type 2 diabetes mellitus and polycystic ovary syndrome in China. METHODS: A total of 75 newly diagnosed patients from Shanghai, China with type 2 diabetes mellitus and polycystic ovary syndrome were included in this randomized, parallel, open-label study...
February 27, 2018: BMC Endocrine Disorders
John Lally, Aonghus O' Loughlin, Brendon Stubbs, Allys Guerandel, Donal O'Shea, Fiona Gaughran
The increased prevalence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in severe mental illness (SMI) contributes to increased cardiovascular morbidity and reduced life expectancy for people with SMI. Areas covered: In the present clinical review, we summarize the efficacy, safety and tolerability of selected diabetic pharmacotherapy options in SMI and discuss the quality and strength of evidence. Expert commentary: General principles for treating T2DM in SMI involve identifying treatments which promote weight loss and which have low or no risk of hypoglycemia...
February 26, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
B M Mishriky, R J Tanenberg, K A Sewell, D M Cummings
AIMS: Our aim was to compare Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) to Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i) as add-on therapy to metformin. METHODS: We searched for randomized trials comparing SGLT-2i to DPP-4i as add-on therapy to metformin in Type 2 diabetes.We pooled trials reporting outcomes between 12 and 26 weeks together while trials reporting results ≥52 weeks were pooled together. The primary outcomes were the change in haemoglobin A1c (A1c) at ≤26 and ≥52 weeks...
February 7, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolism
Paulino Barragán-Iglesias, Víctor Hugo Oidor-Chan, Emanuel Loeza-Alcocer, Jorge Baruch Pineda-Farias, Isabel Velazquez-Lagunas, Ana Belen Salinas-Abarca, Enrique Hong, Alicia Sánchez-Mendoza, Rodolfo Delgado-Lezama, Theodore J Price, Vinicio Granados-Soto
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the participation of satellite glial cells (SGC), microglia and astrocytes in a model of streptozotocin-induced diabetes initiated in neonatal rats (nSTZ) and to determine the pharmacological profile for pain relief. METHODS: nSTZ was used to induce experimental diabetes. Von Frey filaments were used to assess tactile allodynia. Drugs were given by systemic administration. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were used to determine protein expression and cellular localization...
September 14, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
W Timothy Garvey, Luc Van Gaal, Lawrence A Leiter, Ujjwala Vijapurkar, James List, Robert Cuddihy, Jimmy Ren, Michael J Davies
OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes and obesity are pro-inflammatory states associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Canagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor, demonstrated superiority in lowering HbA1c versus glimepiride with less hypoglycemia and greater weight reduction via loss of fat mass in a 52-week trial of type 2 diabetes patients. This post hoc, exploratory analysis assessed the effects of canagliflozin versus glimepiride on select adipokines, inflammatory biomarkers, and chemokines...
February 13, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Caoimhe McGarvey, Catherine Franconi, David Prentice, Michael Bynevelt
A case of metformin encephalopathy is presented in a patient on haemodialysis for end-stage diabetic renal failure. The patient presented with frequent falls and clinical signs of Parkinsonism, on a background of recent anorexia and significant weight loss. Magnetic resonance imaging showed bilateral, symmetrical abnormalities centred on the lentiform nuclei. Metformin was withheld and signs and symptoms quickly resolved. We hypothesise that metformin may cause thiamine deficiency in patients with end-stage renal failure resulting in a specific metabolic encephalopathy...
February 2018: Internal Medicine Journal
Cheryl Neslusan, Anna Teschemaker, Michael Willis, Pierre Johansen, Lien Vo
INTRODUCTION: Agents that inhibit sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2), including canagliflozin and dapagliflozin, are approved in the United States for the treatment of adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). SGLT2 inhibition lowers blood glucose by increasing urinary glucose excretion, which leads to a mild osmotic diuresis and a net loss of calories that are associated with reductions in body weight and blood pressure. This analysis evaluated the cost-effectiveness of canagliflozin 300 mg versus dapagliflozin 10 mg in patients with T2DM inadequately controlled with metformin in the United States...
February 6, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
Richard E Pratley, Vanita R Aroda, Ildiko Lingvay, Jörg Lüdemann, Camilla Andreassen, Andrea Navarria, Adie Viljoen
BACKGROUND: Despite common mechanisms of actions, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists differ in structure, pharmacokinetic profile, and clinical effects. This head-to-head trial compared semaglutide with dulaglutide in patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes. METHODS: This was an open-label, parallel-group, phase 3b trial done at 194 hospitals, clinical institutions or private practices in 16 countries. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older and had type 2 diabetes with HbA1c 7·0-10·5% (53·0-91·0 mmol/mol) on metformin monotherapy...
January 31, 2018: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
Elizabeth P Mills, K Paige D Brown, Jennifer D Smith, Phillip W Vang, Katie Trotta
Objective: To review current literature for the efficacy and safety of treatment for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Data sources: A PubMed literature search from January 1990 to June 2017 was conducted using the search terms nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, diabetes mellitus, type 2, therapy, treatment, treat, therapeutics, nonalcoholic fatty liver, nonalcoholic hepatosteatosis, NASH, NAFLD, metformin, and statin...
January 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism
Selvihan Beysel, Ilknur Ozturk Unsal, Muhammed Kizilgul, Mustafa Caliskan, Bekir Ucan, Erman Cakal
BACKGROUND: This retrospective study investigated the effect of adding metformin to pharmacologic insulin dosing in type 1 diabetics on insulin therapy 1 year after treatment compared with patients on insulin therapy alone. METHODS: Twenty-nine adults with type 1 diabetes who had metformin added to their insulin therapy for 12 months were compared with 29 adults with type 1 diabetes who remained on insulin-alone therapy. RESULTS: Fifty-eight patients with C peptide negative-type 1 diabetics (26 females, mean age: 29...
January 16, 2018: BMC Endocrine Disorders
Angelo Avogaro, Elías Delgado, Ildiko Lingvay
The newer oral therapies for type 2 diabetes mellitus, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors and sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, have advantages over older agents. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors are weight neutral and have few adverse effects. Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors have additional benefits: weight loss, blood pressure reduction, cardiovascular risk reduction, and renoprotective effects. Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors have increased risk of urogenital infections and possible risk of "euglycaemic" diabetic ketoacidosis...
January 10, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Serge A Jabbour, Juan P Frías, Cristian Guja, Elise Hardy, Azazuddin Ahmed, Peter Öhman
This post hoc analysis assessed the effects on cardiovascular risk factors of body weight, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and triglycerides after 28 weeks' treatment with exenatide once weekly plus dapagliflozin, as compared with exenatide once weekly or dapagliflozin, in patient subpopulations from the DURATION-8 trial of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) inadequately controlled with metformin alone. Subgroups of patients were stratified according to their baseline body weight, SBP and triglyceride levels...
January 5, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Flaviane de Fatima Silva, Milene Ortiz-Silva, Winny Beatriz de Souza Galia, Priscila Cassolla, Francemilson Goulart da Silva, Maria Fernanda Rodrigues Graciano, Angelo Carpinelli, Helenir Medri de Souza
Metformin (MET) is widely used in the correction of insulin (INS) resistance and metabolic abnormalities in type 2 diabetes. However, its effect on INS resistance and metabolic disorders associated with cancer cachexia is not established. We investigated the MET effects, isolated or associated with INS, on INS resistance and metabolic changes induced by Walker-256 tumor in rats with advanced cachexia. MET (500, oral) and MET + INS (NPH, 1.0, sc) were administered during 12 days, starting on the day of tumor cell inoculation...
January 5, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Yingying Gao, Chenchen Gu, Kai Wang, Haiying Wang, Kefeng Ruan, Zhaohui Xu, Yi Feng
Fructus Arctii (great burdock achene) is the dried ripe fruit of Arctium lappa L. (family Asteraceae) and is included in the Chinese pharmacopoeia. It has been reported that the clinical use of Fructus Arctii resulted in a satisfactory hypoglycemic effect in diabetic patients. This study aimed to investigate antidiabetic activity and mechanism of total lignans from Fructus Arctii (TLFA) in KKAy mice, a spontaneous Type 2 diabetic rodent model that exhibits marked obesity. In this study, KKAy mice were gavaged once daily with solvents (0...
December 13, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Metin Guclu, Sinem Kiyici, Zulfiye Gul, Sinan Cavun
AIM: In the present study, we investigated the long-term effects of exenatide treatment on serum fasting ghrelin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Type 2 diabetic patients, who were using metformin with and without the other antihyperglycemic drugs on a stable dose for at least 3 months, were enrolled in the study. BMI>35 kg/m2 and HbA1c>7.0% were the additional inclusion criteria. Oral antihyperglycemic drugs, other than metformin, were stopped, and metformin treatment was continued at 2000 mg per day...
January 2018: Endocrine Connections
Rudolf Chlup, Sarah Runzis, Javier Castaneda, Scott W Lee, Xuan Nguyen, Ohad Cohen
BACKGROUND: This prospective single-center study recruited insulin-resistant continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) therapy-naive patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) using insulin analog-based multiple daily injections (MDI) therapy and metformin. METHODS: A total of 23 individuals with T2D (70% male), aged a mean ± standard deviation 57.2 ± 8.03 years, with body mass index of 36.2 ± 7.02 kg/m2 , diabetes duration of 13.3 ± 4.64 years, and HbA1c of 10...
February 2018: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
Fang Huang, Clara Nilholm, Bodil Roth, Caroline Linninge, Peter Höglund, Margareta Nyman, Bodil Ohlsson
The Okinawan-based Nordic (O-BN) diet improves anthropometry and metabolism in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. The aim of this study was to study mechanisms behind improvements by examining Enterobacteriaceae abundance, microbial diversity, and concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). A secondary aim was exploring if metformin treatment affects microbiota or SCFAs. Thirty T2DM patients received the O-BN diet for 12 weeks. Faecal and blood samples were collected at baseline, 12 and 28 weeks...
December 4, 2017: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
Oscar A Viteri, Mary Alice Sallman, Pauline M Berens, Pamela D Berens, Farah H Amro, Maria S Hutchinson, Susan M Ramin, Sean C Blackwell, Jerrie S Refuerzo, Judith A Smith
Objective: Pregnancy is associated with an increase in total cholesterol, high density lipoproteins (HDL), and low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Postpartum, HDL and LDL decrease over the first 12 weeks postpartum. Oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) is a marker of oxidative stress-related inflammation, which is associated with obesity and also with development of cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular protection and weight loss are benefits from metformin, especially in women with diabetes. The objective of this study was to compare changes in lipid profiles and biomarkers for obesity during the initial 6 weeks postpartum between women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) treated with metformin versus placebo...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
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