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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903149/obesity-and-breast-cancer-prognosis-evidence-challenges-and-opportunities
#1
Sao Jiralerspong, Pamela J Goodwin
Purpose To summarize the evidence of an association between obesity and breast cancer prognosis. Methods We reviewed the literature regarding overweight and obesity and breast cancer survival outcomes, overall and with regard to breast cancer subtypes, breast cancer therapies, biologic mechanisms, and possible interventions. We summarize our findings and provide clinical management recommendations. Results Obesity is associated with a 35% to 40% increased risk of breast cancer recurrence and death and therefore poorer survival outcomes...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889809/reversal-of-type-2-diabetes-in-youth-who-adhere-to-a-very-low-energy-diet-a-pilot-study
#2
Megan L Gow, Louise A Baur, Nathan A Johnson, Chris T Cowell, Sarah P Garnett
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of the study was to investigate whether a very-low-energy diet (VLED) is a feasible and acceptable treatment option for type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents, and whether adherence can lead to rapid weight loss, reversal of type 2 diabetes and reduced liver fat as seen in adult studies. METHODS: Eight participants with type 2 diabetes and obesity, aged 7-16 years, non-medicated (n = 1) or treated with metformin (n = 7) and in some cases insulin (n = 3), followed a VLED (<3360 kJ/day) for 8 weeks, then transitioned to a hypocaloric diet (∼6300 kJ/day) that they followed to 34 weeks...
November 26, 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882332/c-peptide-levels-predict-the-effectiveness-of-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitor-therapy
#3
Sevin Demir, Sule Temizkan, Mehmet Sargin
Background. Our aim was to define the conditions that affect therapeutic success when dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor is added to metformin monotherapy. Materials and Methods. We reviewed the medical records of 56 patients who had received DPP-4 inhibitor as an add-on to metformin monotherapy and evaluated their response in the first year of therapy. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), HbA1c, C-peptide, and weight of the patients were recorded at 3-month intervals during the first year of treatment. Results...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867884/comparison-clinical-and-metabolic-effects-of-metformin-and-pioglitazone-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#4
Karoon Shahebrahimi, Nasrin Jalilian, Nasrin Bazgir, Mansour Rezaei
INTRODUCTION: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders in women. PCOS comprises a broad spectrum of anomalies, including hyperandrogenism, chronic anovulation, obesity, and infertility. Insulin resistance and its compensatory hyperinsulinemia play a key role in the pathogenicity of PCOS. This study compares the effects of 2 types of insulin sensitizer drugs, metformin and pioglitazone, on clinical, metabolic, and endocrine characteristics of women with PCOS...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866938/ovulation-induction-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-current-options
#5
REVIEW
Richard S Legro
There are a variety of effective treatment options to induce ovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The most effective treatments are primarily reproductive and target the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis. Letrozole, an aromatase inhibitor, is headed toward replacing clomiphene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, as the first-choice option. Metabolic treatments likely work indirectly through the HPO axis. Many metabolic treatments have shown initial promise and later failed (troglitozone or d-chiro-inositol) or disappointed (metformin); further studies are needed of newer agents to treat type 2 diabetes...
September 21, 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854055/fixed-dose-combination-of-canagliflozin-and-metformin-for-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-an-overview
#6
REVIEW
Jaime A Davidson, Lance Sloan
: Metformin is recommended as a first-line therapy for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, many patients do not achieve glycemic goals with metformin monotherapy and require subsequent combination therapy with other antihyperglycemic agents (AHAs). For newly diagnosed patients with high blood glucose, initial combination therapy may be required to achieve glycemic control. The American Association for Clinical Endocrinologists algorithm for the treatment of T2DM recommends metformin plus a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor as the first oral combination in patients who present with HbA1c ≥7...
November 16, 2016: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823607/metformin-from-research-to-clinical-practice
#7
REVIEW
Meng H Tan, Hussain Alquraini, Kara Mizokami-Stout, Mark MacEachern
Metformin is the recommended first-line oral glucose-lowering drug initiated to control hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus. It acts in the liver, small intestines, and skeletal muscles with its major effect on decreasing hepatic gluconeogenesis. It is safe, inexpensive, and weight neutral and can be associated with weight loss. It can reduce microvascular complication risk and its use is associated with a lower cardiovascular mortality compared with sulfonylurea therapy. It is also used to delay the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus, in treating gestational diabetes, and in women with polycystic ovary syndrome...
December 2016: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817155/liver-triacylglycerol-content-and-gestational-diabetes-effects-of-moderate-energy-restriction
#8
Kenneth Hodson, Chiara Dalla Man, Fiona E Smith, Alison Barnes, Catherine McParlin, Claudio Cobelli, Stephen C Robson, Vera Araújo-Soares, Roy Taylor
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have raised liver triacylglycerol. Restriction of energy intake in type 2 diabetes can normalise glucose control and liver triacylglycerol concentration but it is not known whether similar benefits could be achieved in GDM. The aim of this work was to examine liver triacylglycerol accumulation in women with GDM and the effect of modest energy restriction. METHODS: Sixteen women with GDM followed a 4 week diet (5 MJ [1200 kcal]/day)...
November 5, 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808040/endobarrier-gastrointestinal-liner-delineation-of-underlying-mechanisms-and-clinical-effects
#9
Ulrich Rohde
Bariatric surgery (e.g. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB)) has proven the most effective way of achieving sustainable weight losses and remission of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Studies indicate that the effectiveness of RYGB is mediated by an altered gastrointestinal tract anatomy, which in particular favours release of the gut incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). The EndoBarrier gastrointestinal liner or duodenal-jejunal bypass sleeve (DJBS) is an endoscopic deployable minimally invasive and fully reversible technique designed to mimic the bypass component of the RYGB...
November 2016: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797930/effects-of-liraglutide-on-heart-rate-and-heart-rate-variability-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-crossover-study
#10
Preman Kumarathurai, Christian Anholm, Bjørn S Larsen, Rasmus Huan Olsen, Sten Madsbad, Ole Kristiansen, Olav W Nielsen, Steen B Haugaard, Ahmad Sajadieh
OBJECTIVE: Reduced heart rate variability (HRV) and increased heart rate (HR) have been associated with cardiovascular mortality. Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) increase HR, and studies have suggested that they may reduce HRV. We examined the effect of the GLP-1 RA liraglutide on HRV and diurnal variation of HR in overweight patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2D) and stable coronary artery disease (CAD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Liraglutide or placebo was administrated to a backbone therapy of metformin in this double-blind, placebo-controlled 12 + 12-week crossover study...
October 19, 2016: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796904/strategies-for-diabetes-management-using-newer-oral-combination-therapies-early-in-the-disease
#11
REVIEW
Joel Zonszein, Per-Henrik Groop
INTRODUCTION: The duration of uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) can adversely impact small and large vessels, eventually leading to microvascular and macrovascular complications. Failure of therapeutic lifestyle changes, monotherapy, and clinical inertia contribute to persistent hyperglycemia and disease progression. The aim was to review the complex pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes and how different oral agents can be used effectively as first-line therapy in combination with metformin, as well as in patients not achieving glycemic goals with metformin therapy...
December 2016: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796775/the-healthy-living-partnerships-to-prevent-diabetes-and-the-diabetes-prevention-program-a-comparison-of-year-1-and-2-intervention-results
#12
Mara Z Vitolins, Scott P Isom, Caroline S Blackwell, Donna Kernodle, Joyce M Sydell, Carolyn F Pedley, Jeffrey A Katula, L Douglas Case, David C Goff
A number of research studies have attempted to translate the behavioral lifestyle intervention delivered in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP). To compare the active interventions of two trials, Diabetes Prevention Program DPP and Healthy Living Partnerships to Prevent Diabetes (HELP PD), after 1 and 2 years of intervention. DPP included 3234 adults with prediabetes randomized to intensive lifestyle intervention, metformin, troglitazone, or placebo. The lifestyle intervention, professionally delivered to individuals in a clinical setting, focused on diet and increased physical activity...
October 28, 2016: Translational Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790932/the-role-of-variants-regulating-metformin-transport-and-action-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#13
Cindy T Pau, Kai I Cheang, Bhavi P Modi, Thushiga Kasippillai, Candace C Keefe, Maria Shulleeta, William S Evans, Lubna Pal, Jerome F Strauss, John E Nestler, Corrine K Welt
AIMS: Variants in genes encoding metformin transport proteins and the ATM gene are associated with metformin response. We hypothesized that these gene variants contribute to variable metformin treatment response in polycystic ovary syndrome. MATERIALS & METHODS: The discovery cohort (n = 38) was studied in an open-label study. Results were replicated in two additional cohorts (n = 26 and n = 131). Response was assessed after 3-6 months of treatment with metformin extended-release 1500-2000 mg/day...
October 28, 2016: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788311/metformin-as-a-possible-intervention-for-cardiometabolic-risks-in-pediatric-subjects-exposed-to-antipsychotic-drugs
#14
Chittaranjan Andrade
Children and adolescents who are exposed to antipsychotic medication are at increased risk of weight gain and metabolic dysregulation. Metformin, which has demonstrated efficacy for these adverse treatment outcomes in adult samples, has been examined in pediatric samples, as well. Case reports, 2 uncontrolled studies, and 2 (out of 3) randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that metformin (1,000-1,700 mg/d) treatment for up to 16 weeks is associated with statistically and clinically significant weight loss...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764050/a-pilot-study-of-randomized-head-to-head-of-metformin-versus-topiramate-in-obese-people-with-schizophrenia
#15
Po-Jui Peng, Pei-Shen Ho, Chia-Kuang Tsai, San-Yuan Huang, Chih-Sung Liang
OBJECTIVES: A number of research studies support the weight loss effects of metformin and topiramate for obese people with schizophrenia. However, only a few studies have addressed the sustainability of the body weight reduction after discontinuation of these drugs. Moreover, head-to-head studies are still lacking. The study aims to evaluate and compare the efficacy of metformin and topiramate in weight reduction and weight maintenance after discontinuation of these drugs in obese people with schizophrenia...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735028/improvement-of-serum-adiponectin-and-leptin-concentrations-effects-of-a-low-calorie-or-isocaloric-diet-combined-with-metformin-or-orlistat-a-prospective-randomized-open-label-trial
#16
A Kargulewicz, M Szulińska, M Kujawska-Łuczak, E Swora-Cwynar, K Musialik, M Grzymisławska, M Kręgielska-Narożna, P Bogdański
OBJECTIVE: We compared the effects of three weight loss interventions on serum concentrations of adiponectin and leptin in obese premenopausal women. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 114 obese Caucasian women were randomized into three groups receiving a low-calorie diet (LC; n = 39), an isocaloric diet with 500 mg of metformin twice a day (IM; n = 38), and an isocaloric diet with 120 mg of orlistat three times a day (IO; n = 37), for three months. Serum concentrations of adiponectin and leptin were evaluated, along with anthropometric and body composition parameters, at baseline and after the study...
September 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734321/blood-glucagon-levels-predict-the-hemoglobin-a1c-response-to-saxagliptin-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-inadequately-controlled-with-metformin
#17
Hao Liu, Yun Hu, Feng-Fei Li, Bing-Li Liu, Xiao-Fei Su, Jian-Hua Ma
BACKGROUND: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are widely used as second-option medications when metformin fails. Variance of the glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) response to DPP-4 inhibitions in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been observed, but the characteristics which predict the response to DPP-4 inhibitor therapy are unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of α- and β-cell functions which might predict the efficacy of saxagliptin and facilitate personalization of treatment...
October 12, 2016: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717194/associations-between-changes-in-glucagon-like-peptide-1-and-bodyweight-reduction-in-patients-receiving-acarbose-or-metformin-treatment
#18
Na Wang, Jin-Ping Zhang, Xiao-Yan Xing, Zhao-Jun Yang, Bo Zhang, Xin Wang, Wen-Ying Yang
BACKGROUND: The present post hoc analysis investigated whether changes in endogenous glucagon-like peptide-1 (∆GLP-1) levels are associated with weight loss in newly diagnosed diabetes patients. METHODS: In all, 784 subjects from the Metformin and AcaRbose in Chinese as initial Hypoglycemic treatment (MARCH) study were stratified according to ∆GLP-1. Changes in clinical and physiological parameters were evaluated across ∆GLP-1 subgroups (low, medium, and high) to assess correlations between ∆GLP-1 and weight loss in acarbose- versus metformin-treated groups...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696668/the-impact-of-endobarrier-gastrointestinal-liner-in-obese-patients-with-normal-glucose-tolerance-and-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#19
Ulrich Rohde, Cecilie A Federspiel, Peter Vilmann, Ebbe Langholz, Steffen U Friis, Martin Krakauer, Jens F Rehfeld, Jens J Holst, Tina Vilsbøll, Filip K Knop
AIMS: The duodenal-jejunal bypass sleeve ((DJBS) or EndoBarrier Gastrointestinal Liner) induces weight loss in obese subjects and may improve glucose homeostasis in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). To explore the underlying mechanisms, we evaluated postprandial physiology including glucose metabolism, gut hormone secretion, gallbladder emptying, appetite and food intake in patients undergoing DJBS treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 10 normal glucose-tolerant (NGT) obese subjects and 9 age-, body weight- and body mass index-matched metformin-treated T2D patients underwent a liquid mixed meal test and a subsequent ad libitum meal test before implantation with DJBS and 1 week (1w) and 26 weeks (26w) after implantation...
October 3, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692167/peptide-based-glp-1-glucagon-co-agonists-a-double-edged-sword-to-combat-diabesity
#20
Hitesh Soni
Diabesity is a new term for obesity-dependent diabetes, which is also associated with cardiovascular and other comorbidities with rising epidemic. Traditional treatments (sulfonylureas and thiazolidinediones) of diabetes are associated with weight gain, except metformin. Newer agents such as glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) and Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) are causing a modest weight reduction, whereas dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i) are weight neutral...
October 2016: Medical Hypotheses
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