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metformin and weight loss

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531772/diet-induced-weight-loss-and-markers-of-endothelial-dysfunction-and-inflammation-in-treated-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#1
K A Berk, T P Oudshoorn, A J M Verhoeven, M T Mulder, A J M Roks, W A Dik, R Timman, E J G Sijbrands
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Overweight and obesity increase cardiovascular mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). In a recent trial, however, diet-induced weight loss did not reduce the cardiovascular risk of patients with T2D, possibly due to the parallel intensive medical treatment. We investigated the effect of diet-induced weight loss on cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese patients with T2D, and whether this effect was influenced by the use of statins, ACE inhibitors, metformin and duration of T2D...
October 2016: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531113/retrospective-evaluation-of-metformin-and-or-metformin-plus-a-new-polysaccharide-complex-in-treating-severe-hyperinsulinism-and-insulin-resistance-in-obese-children-and-adolescents-with-metabolic-syndrome
#2
Stefano Stagi, Franco Ricci, Martina Bianconi, Maria Amina Sammarco, Giovanna Municchi, Sonia Toni, Lorenzo Lenzi, Alberto Verrotti, Maurizio de Martino
Background: Pharmacological treatment of obesity and glucose-insulin metabolism disorders in children may be more difficult than in adults. Thus, we evaluate the effects of metformin in comparison with metformin plus a polysaccharide complex (Policaptil Gel Retard(®), PGR) on body weight and metabolic parameters in obese children and adolescents with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Patients and methods: We retrospectively collected 129 children and adolescents (67 girls, 62 boys; median age 12.6 years) treated for a minimum of two years with metformin and low glycemic index (LGI) diet...
May 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507773/rapid-onset-clozapine-induced-loss-of-glycaemic-control-case-report
#3
Alejandro Porras-Segovia, Amir Krivoy, Mark Horowitz, George Thomas, Mark Bolstridge, Dragos Ion, Sukhwinder S Shergill
Clozapine has proved to be an effective antipsychotic for the treatment of refractory schizophrenia - characterised by the persistence of symptoms despite optimal treatment trials with at least two different antipsychotics at adequate dose and duration - but its use is hampered by adverse effects. The development of clozapine-induced diabetes is commonly considered to arise as part of a metabolic syndrome, associated with weight gain, and thus evolves slowly. We present the case of an individual with refractory schizophrenia and metformin-controlled diabetes who developed rapid-onset insulin-dependent hyperglycaemia immediately after starting clozapine...
May 2017: BJPsych Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505155/oxidative-stress-and-expression-of-insulin-signaling-proteins-in-the-brain-of-diabetic-rats-role-of-nigella-sativa-oil-and-antidiabetic-drugs
#4
Mahmoud Balbaa, Shaymaa A Abdulmalek, Sofia Khalil
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Insulin resistance of the brain is a specific form of type2-diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the active insulin-signaling pathway plays a neuroprotective role against damaging conditions and Alzheimer's progression. The present study identifies the mediated emerging effects of the Nigella sativa oil (NSO) on the memory enhancing process, its anti-oxidative, acetylcholinestrase (AChE) inhibition, anti-brain insulin resistance and anti-amyloidogenic activities. In addition, the possible role of some anti-diabetic drugs in the neuro-protection processes and their effect in combination with NSO and/or the insulin receptor inhibitor IOMe-AG538 were investigated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497664/insulin-sensitizers-in-adolescents-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#5
Trang N LE, Edmond P Wickham Iii, John E Nestler
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common disorder of androgen excess in women of reproductive age. The diagnosis of PCOS can be more challenging in adolescents than in adult women given significant overlap between normal puberty and the signs of PCOS, including acne, menstrual irregularity, and polycystic ovarian morphology. Optimal treatments for adult women with PCOS vary depending on patient risk factors and reproductive goals, but mainly include hormonal contraception and insulin sensitizers...
May 11, 2017: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485557/when-the-treatment-becomes-the-problem
#6
Vivek-Thomas J Sankoorikal, Janet Ricks
A 47-year-old white male with a 5-year history of type 2 diabetes mellitus presented to clinic with uncontrolled hyperglycemia, weight loss, and body aches that impeded his ability to work and sleep. He had initially controlled his diabetes successfully with weight loss and exercise. However, in the previous 6 months he had noticed unintentional weight loss. He was evaluated at another clinic where he was prescribed sitagliptin/metformin (Janumet) for his uncontrolled hyperglycemia. After 6 weeks his blood glucose had not significantly improved, and an endocrinologist prescribed insulin glargine (Lantus) and insulin aspart (NovoLog)...
July 2016: Journal of the Mississippi State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464031/18f-fdg-uptake-in-the-colon-is-modulated-by-metformin-but-not-associated-with-core-body-temperature-and-energy-expenditure
#7
Lonneke Bahler, Frits Holleman, Man-Wai Chan, Jan Booij, Joost B Hoekstra, Hein J Verberne
PURPOSE: Physiological colonic 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) uptake is a frequent finding on 18F-FDG positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET-CT). Interestingly, metformin, a glucose lowering drug associated with moderate weight loss, is also associated with an increased colonic 18F-FDG uptake. Consequently, increased colonic glucose use might partly explain the weight losing effect of metformin when this results in an increased energy expenditure and/or core body temperature...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449193/impact-of-metformin-on-patients-with-advanced-head-and-neck-cancer-undergoing-concurrent-chemoradiotherapy
#8
Pei-Hung Chang, Kun-Yun Yeh, Cheng-Hsu Wang, Eric Yen-Chao Chen, Shih-Wei Yang, Wen-Chi Chou, Jason Chia-Hsun Hsieh
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of metformin on toxicities and survival in patients with head and neck cancer undergoing concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed and compared the clinical characteristics, treatment tolerance, toxicities, and survival of 252 patients with stages III, IVA, and IVB head and neck cancer undergoing concurrent CRT with and without metformin treatment between 2007 and 2010...
April 27, 2017: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417083/effects-of-turmeric-curcuminoids-and-metformin-against-central-sensitivity-to-pain-in-mice
#9
Suruchi Verma, Deepak Mundkinajeddu, Amit Agarwal, Shyam Sunder Chatterjee, Vikas Kumar
The reported experimental study was conducted to compare the effects of repeated daily oral doses of curcuminoids (CLE) with metformin as potential antidepressants and analgesics. Effects of a single and ten daily oral doses of CLE (5, 20, 80 mg/kg/day) and of 50 mg/kg/day metformin (MET) were compared in mice hot plate test (HPT) for analgesics. On the 11th treatment day, all animals were subjected to foot shock stress triggered hyperthermia test, and on the 12th treatment day to tail suspension test (TST) for antidepressants...
April 2017: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376802/understanding-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-screening-practices-among-primary-care-physicians-a-qualitative-chart-stimulated-recall-study
#10
Dina Hafez, Daniel B Nelson, Evan G Martin, Alicia J Cohen, Rebecca Northway, Jeffrey T Kullgren
BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis and treatment of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) can prevent future health problems, yet many individuals with these conditions are undiagnosed. This could be due, in part, to primary care physicians' (PCP) screening practices, about which little is known. The objectives of this study were to identify factors that influence PCPs' decisions to screen patients for T2DM and to characterize their interpretation and communication of screening test results to patients...
April 4, 2017: BMC Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344112/efficacy-and-safety-of-once-weekly-semaglutide-versus-once-daily-insulin-glargine-as-add-on-to-metformin-with-or-without-sulfonylureas-in-insulin-naive-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-sustain-4-a-randomised-open-label-parallel-group-multicentre-multinational
#11
Vanita R Aroda, Stephen C Bain, Bertrand Cariou, Milivoj Piletič, Ludger Rose, Mads Axelsen, Everton Rowe, J Hans DeVries
BACKGROUND: Several pharmacological treatment options are available for type 2 diabetes; however, many patients do not achieve optimum glycaemic control and therefore new therapies are necessary. We assessed the efficacy and safety of semaglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue in clinical development, compared with insulin glargine in patients with type 2 diabetes who were inadequately controlled with metformin (with or without sulfonylureas). METHODS: We did a randomised, open-label, non-inferiority, parallel-group, multicentre, multinational, phase 3a trial (SUSTAIN 4) at 196 sites in 14 countries...
May 2017: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332871/sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-and-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibition-promise-of-a-dynamic-duo
#12
Ildiko Lingvay
OBJECTIVE: This article reviews evidence supporting sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor combination therapy for management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: We conducted a non-systematic review of the literature focusing on single-pill or fixed-dose combinations of SGLT2 inhibitors and DPP-4 inhibitors available in the United States. RESULTS: SGLT2 inhibitors and DPP-4 inhibitors have complementary mechanisms of action that address several of the underlying pathophysiological abnormalities present in T2DM without overlapping toxicities...
March 23, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332301/a-randomized-trial-comparing-gliclazide-liraglutide-and-metformin-effects-on-diabetes-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#13
Wenhuan Feng, Caixia Gao, Yan Bi, Min Wu, Ping Li, Shanmei Shen, Wei Chen, Tingting Yin, Dalong Zhu
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of gliclazide, liraglutide, and metformin in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: Eighty-seven subjects were randomized to receive liraglutide, metformin, or gliclazide for 24 weeks. Primary outcomes included hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels, intrahepatic fat (IHF) content, and liver function. RESULTS: HbA1c levels and IHF content reduced after treatment in the three groups...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332144/efficacy-and-safety-of-ideglira-in-participants-with-type-2-diabetes-in-india-uncontrolled-on-oral-antidiabetic-drugs-and-basal-insulin-data-from-the-dual-clinical-trial-program
#14
Kamlesh Khunti, Viswanathan Mohan, Sunil M Jain, Trine Welløv Boesgaard, Kamilla Begtrup, Bipin Sethi
INTRODUCTION: The efficacy and safety of insulin degludec/liraglutide (IDegLira) has been evaluated in the Dual Action of Liraglutide and Insulin Degludec in Type 2 Diabetes (DUAL) phase 3 clinical trial program. In this post hoc analysis, we compared the efficacy and safety of IDegLira in the Indian subpopulation with the results from the global trial population of DUAL trials. The analysis includes participants uncontrolled on oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) in DUAL I and DUAL IV and participants uncontrolled on basal insulin and OADs in DUAL II...
March 22, 2017: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324049/piloting-a-remission-strategy-in-type-2-diabetes-results-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Natalia McInnes, Ada Smith, Rose Otto, Jeffrey Vandermey, Zubin Punthakee, Diana Sherifali, Kumar Balasubramanian, Stephanie Hall, Hertzel C Gerstein
Context: Medical strategies targeting remission of type 2 diabetes have not been systematically studied. Objective: This trial assessed the feasibility, safety, and potential to induce remission of a short-term intensive metabolic strategy. Design: A randomized, parallel, open-label pilot trial with 83 participants followed for 52 weeks. Setting: Ambulatory care. Participants: Patients with type 2 diabetes of up to 3 years in duration...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276778/glp-1-receptor-agonists-in-the-treatment-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#16
REVIEW
Elizabeth Mary Lamos, Rana Malek, Stephen N Davis
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) affects many women of child-bearing age and is characterized by hyperandrogenism, ovulatory and metabolic dysfunction. A primary treatment goal is weight reduction. The weight loss effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA), previously demonstrated in diabetic and obese non-diabetic patients, offer a unique opportunity to expand the medical options available to PCOS patients. Areas covered: Available clinical trials of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist therapy in PCOS were reviewed...
April 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274140/dulaglutide-for-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes
#17
André J Scheen
Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) are injectable agents used for the treatment of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes. The interest for this pharmacological class is rising with the development of once weekly compounds and the demonstration of a potential reduction in cardiorenal outcomes. Areas covered: The paper describes the main pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic characteristics of dulaglutide, a new once-weekly GLP-1 RA. Dulaglutide was extensively investigated in the phase-3 AWARD program, which demonstrated its safety and efficacy when compared to placebo or active glucose-lowering agents in patients treated with diet alone, metformin or sulfonylurea monotherapy, oral dual therapies and basal insulin...
April 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270711/provider-decisions-and-patient-outcomes-after-premature-metformin-discontinuation
#18
Jessica N Bradley, Krystal L Edwards, Jennifer T Gunter, Rick A Weideman, Kevin C Kelly
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of alternative antihyperglycemic therapy after discontinuation of metformin due to documented declining renal function. This retrospective, single-site study evaluated patients who had metformin discontinued between 1 January 1999 and 30 September 2013. Medical records were evaluated for documented adverse events, subsequent glycemic control, and costs associated with the alternative therapy. Patients served as their own controls. A total of 179 patients met study entry criteria, and their peak A1C was significantly higher within the year after metformin discontinuation (P <0...
February 2017: Diabetes Spectrum: a Publication of the American Diabetes Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237635/prevent-dm-comparative-effectiveness-trial-of-lifestyle-intervention-and-metformin
#19
Matthew J O'Brien, Alberly Perez, Adam B Scanlan, Victor A Alos, Robert C Whitaker, Gary D Foster, Ronald T Ackermann, Jody D Ciolino, Carol Homko
INTRODUCTION: Although the Diabetes Prevention Program and other clinical trials demonstrated the efficacy of intensive lifestyle interventions (ILI) and metformin to prevent type 2 diabetes, no studies have tested their comparative effects in pragmatic settings. This study was designed to compare the real-world effectiveness of ILI, metformin, and standard care among Hispanic women (Latinas) with prediabetes. STUDY DESIGN: RCT. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Ninety-two Latinas, who had a mean hemoglobin A1c of 5...
June 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224463/liraglutide-versus-lixisenatide-long-term-cost-effectiveness-of-glp-1-receptor-agonist-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-in-spain
#20
Pedro Mezquita-Raya, Antonio Ramírez de Arellano, Nana Kragh, Gabriela Vega-Hernandez, Johannes Pöhlmann, William J Valentine, Barnaby Hunt
INTRODUCTION: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are used successfully in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes as they are associated with low hypoglycemia rates, weight loss and improved glycemic control. This study compared, in the Spanish setting, the cost-effectiveness of liraglutide 1.8 mg versus lixisenatide 20 μg, both GLP-1 receptor agonists, for patients with type 2 diabetes who had not achieved glycemic control targets on metformin monotherapy. METHODS: The IMS CORE Diabetes Model was used to project clinical outcomes and costs, expressed in 2015 Euros, over patient lifetimes...
April 2017: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
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