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metformin and weight loss

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105986/canagliflozin-dapagliflozin-and-empagliflozin-monotherapy-for-treating-type-2-diabetes-systematic-review-and-economic-evaluation
#1
Rhona Johnston, Olalekan Uthman, Ewen Cummins, Christine Clar, Pamela Royle, Jill Colquitt, Bee Kang Tan, Andrew Clegg, Saran Shantikumar, Rachel Court, J Paul O'Hare, David McGrane, Tim Holt, Norman Waugh
BACKGROUND: Most people with type 2 diabetes are overweight, so initial treatment is aimed at reducing weight and increasing physical activity. Even modest weight loss can improve control of blood glucose. If drug treatment is necessary, the drug of first choice is metformin. However, some people cannot tolerate metformin, which causes diarrhoea in about 10%, and it cannot be used in people with renal impairment. This review appraises three of the newest class of drugs for monotherapy when metformin cannot be used, the sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors...
January 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093996/challenges-related-to-glycemic-control-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-patients
#2
Masoumeh Kheirandish, Hamidreza Mahboobi, Maryam Yazdanparast, Mohammad Amjad Kamal
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease with long-term complications. Glycemic control is an important part in management of DM. The first line in treatment of type 2 DM (T2DM) is diet and life style change. Metformin is the first choice of medication in T2DM patients. Sulfonylureas have high risk of hypoglycemia. Glinides are associated with lower risk of hypoglycemia in comparison to sulfonylureas. Also α-glucosidase inhibitors decrease the polysacarides digestion in small intestine and less effective in comparison to metformin and sulfonylureas in lowering hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c)...
January 15, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071011/the-effects-of-a-low-calorie-diet-or-an-isocaloric-diet-combined-with-metformin-on-sex-hormones-in-obese-women-of-child-bearing-age
#3
Ewelina Swora-Cwynar, Magdalena Kujawska-Łuczak, Joanna Suliburska, Julita Reguła, Angelika Kargulewicz, Matylda Kręgielska-Narożna, Emilia Marcinkowska, Alina Kanikowska, Marzena Bielas, Marian Grzymisławski, Paweł Bogdański
BACKGROUND: The influence of weight loss treatment on sex hormones profile has been studied mainly in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), but in obese premenopausal women without PCOS it still remains unclear. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of two approaches to obesity treatment on the serum level of sex hormones in obese women of child-bearing age without PCOS. METHODS: 77 obese Caucasian women (aged 31.2 ±8.3 years) were randomized into two groups: 39 women received a low-calorie diet (LC) and 38 received an isocaloric diet plus metformin (IM), for 12 weeks...
April 2016: Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Technologia Alimentaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056429/weight-change-after-initiation-of-oral-hypoglycemic-monotherapy-for-diabetes-predicts-5-year-mortality-an-observational-study
#4
Beverly M Kocarnik, Kathryn P Moore, Nicholas L Smith, Edward J Boyko
PURPOSE: To investigate whether weight change in the first year after initiating an oral hypoglycemic agent (OHA) for type 2 diabetes treatment is associated with mortality in a national cohort. PROCEDURES: We prospectively followed Veterans Health Administration patients with type 2 diabetes initiating treatment with an OHA and not receiving any other diabetes pharmacotherapy for at least one year. Information on OHAs, weight, co-morbidities, other medications, demographics, and laboratory measurements was obtained from electronic medical records...
December 5, 2016: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924082/duodenal-endoluminal-barrier-sleeve-alters-gut-microbiota-of-zdf-rats
#5
T Kim, C L Holleman, T Ptacek, C D Morrow, K M Habegger
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The combination of energy dense diets and reduced energy expenditure in modern society has escalated the prevalence of obesity and obesity-related comorbidities. Among these disease states, type-2 diabetics (T2D) are disproportionately associated with obesity, suggesting a shared etiology. In conjunction with defects in hormonal and inflammatory states, obesity and T2D are also characterized by dysbiosis. METHODS: We have recently described the beneficial effects of duodenal nutrient exclusion, as induced by the duodenal endoluminal sleeve (DES); including body weight loss, prevented fat mass accumulation, and improved glucose tolerance in the ZDF rat, a rodent model of obesity and type-2 diabetes (T2D)...
January 3, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903149/obesity-and-breast-cancer-prognosis-evidence-challenges-and-opportunities
#6
Sao Jiralerspong, Pamela J Goodwin
Purpose To summarize the evidence of an association between obesity and breast cancer prognosis. Methods We reviewed the literature regarding overweight and obesity and breast cancer survival outcomes, overall and with regard to breast cancer subtypes, breast cancer therapies, biologic mechanisms, and possible interventions. We summarize our findings and provide clinical management recommendations. Results Obesity is associated with a 35% to 40% increased risk of breast cancer recurrence and death and therefore poorer survival outcomes...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889809/reversal-of-type-2-diabetes-in-youth-who-adhere-to-a-very-low-energy-diet-a-pilot-study
#7
Megan L Gow, Louise A Baur, Nathan A Johnson, Chris T Cowell, Sarah P Garnett
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of the study was to investigate whether a very-low-energy diet (VLED) is a feasible and acceptable treatment option for type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents, and whether adherence can lead to rapid weight loss, reversal of type 2 diabetes and reduced liver fat as seen in adult studies. METHODS: Eight participants with type 2 diabetes and obesity, aged 7-16 years, non-medicated (n = 1) or treated with metformin (n = 7) and in some cases insulin (n = 3), followed a VLED (<3360 kJ/day) for 8 weeks, then transitioned to a hypocaloric diet (∼6300 kJ/day) that they followed to 34 weeks...
November 26, 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882332/c-peptide-levels-predict-the-effectiveness-of-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitor-therapy
#8
Sevin Demir, Sule Temizkan, Mehmet Sargin
Background. Our aim was to define the conditions that affect therapeutic success when dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor is added to metformin monotherapy. Materials and Methods. We reviewed the medical records of 56 patients who had received DPP-4 inhibitor as an add-on to metformin monotherapy and evaluated their response in the first year of therapy. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), HbA1c, C-peptide, and weight of the patients were recorded at 3-month intervals during the first year of treatment. Results...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867884/comparison-clinical-and-metabolic-effects-of-metformin-and-pioglitazone-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#9
Karoon Shahebrahimi, Nasrin Jalilian, Nasrin Bazgir, Mansour Rezaei
INTRODUCTION: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders in women. PCOS comprises a broad spectrum of anomalies, including hyperandrogenism, chronic anovulation, obesity, and infertility. Insulin resistance and its compensatory hyperinsulinemia play a key role in the pathogenicity of PCOS. This study compares the effects of 2 types of insulin sensitizer drugs, metformin and pioglitazone, on clinical, metabolic, and endocrine characteristics of women with PCOS...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866938/ovulation-induction-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-current-options
#10
REVIEW
Richard S Legro
There are a variety of effective treatment options to induce ovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The most effective treatments are primarily reproductive and target the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis. Letrozole, an aromatase inhibitor, is headed toward replacing clomiphene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, as the first-choice option. Metabolic treatments likely work indirectly through the HPO axis. Many metabolic treatments have shown initial promise and later failed (troglitozone or d-chiro-inositol) or disappointed (metformin); further studies are needed of newer agents to treat type 2 diabetes...
November 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854055/fixed-dose-combination-of-canagliflozin-and-metformin-for-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-an-overview
#11
REVIEW
Jaime A Davidson, Lance Sloan
: Metformin is recommended as a first-line therapy for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, many patients do not achieve glycemic goals with metformin monotherapy and require subsequent combination therapy with other antihyperglycemic agents (AHAs). For newly diagnosed patients with high blood glucose, initial combination therapy may be required to achieve glycemic control. The American Association for Clinical Endocrinologists algorithm for the treatment of T2DM recommends metformin plus a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor as the first oral combination in patients who present with HbA1c ≥7...
January 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823607/metformin-from-research-to-clinical-practice
#12
REVIEW
Meng H Tan, Hussain Alquraini, Kara Mizokami-Stout, Mark MacEachern
Metformin is the recommended first-line oral glucose-lowering drug initiated to control hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus. It acts in the liver, small intestines, and skeletal muscles with its major effect on decreasing hepatic gluconeogenesis. It is safe, inexpensive, and weight neutral and can be associated with weight loss. It can reduce microvascular complication risk and its use is associated with a lower cardiovascular mortality compared with sulfonylurea therapy. It is also used to delay the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus, in treating gestational diabetes, and in women with polycystic ovary syndrome...
December 2016: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817155/liver-triacylglycerol-content-and-gestational-diabetes-effects-of-moderate-energy-restriction
#13
Kenneth Hodson, Chiara Dalla Man, Fiona E Smith, Alison Barnes, Catherine McParlin, Claudio Cobelli, Stephen C Robson, Vera Araújo-Soares, Roy Taylor
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have raised liver triacylglycerol. Restriction of energy intake in type 2 diabetes can normalise glucose control and liver triacylglycerol concentration but it is not known whether similar benefits could be achieved in GDM. The aim of this work was to examine liver triacylglycerol accumulation in women with GDM and the effect of modest energy restriction. METHODS: Sixteen women with GDM followed a 4 week diet (5 MJ [1200 kcal]/day)...
February 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808040/endobarrier-gastrointestinal-liner-delineation-of-underlying-mechanisms-and-clinical-effects
#14
Ulrich Rohde
Bariatric surgery (e.g. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB)) has proven the most effective way of achieving sustainable weight losses and remission of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Studies indicate that the effectiveness of RYGB is mediated by an altered gastrointestinal tract anatomy, which in particular favours release of the gut incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). The EndoBarrier gastrointestinal liner or duodenal-jejunal bypass sleeve (DJBS) is an endoscopic deployable minimally invasive and fully reversible technique designed to mimic the bypass component of the RYGB...
November 2016: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797930/effects-of-liraglutide-on-heart-rate-and-heart-rate-variability-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-crossover-study
#15
Preman Kumarathurai, Christian Anholm, Bjørn S Larsen, Rasmus Huan Olsen, Sten Madsbad, Ole Kristiansen, Olav W Nielsen, Steen B Haugaard, Ahmad Sajadieh
OBJECTIVE: Reduced heart rate variability (HRV) and increased heart rate (HR) have been associated with cardiovascular mortality. Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) increase HR, and studies have suggested that they may reduce HRV. We examined the effect of the GLP-1 RA liraglutide on HRV and diurnal variation of HR in overweight patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2D) and stable coronary artery disease (CAD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Liraglutide or placebo was administrated to a backbone therapy of metformin in this double-blind, placebo-controlled 12 + 12-week crossover study...
January 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796904/strategies-for-diabetes-management-using-newer-oral-combination-therapies-early-in-the-disease
#16
REVIEW
Joel Zonszein, Per-Henrik Groop
INTRODUCTION: The duration of uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) can adversely impact small and large vessels, eventually leading to microvascular and macrovascular complications. Failure of therapeutic lifestyle changes, monotherapy, and clinical inertia contribute to persistent hyperglycemia and disease progression. The aim was to review the complex pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes and how different oral agents can be used effectively as first-line therapy in combination with metformin, as well as in patients not achieving glycemic goals with metformin therapy...
December 2016: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796775/the-healthy-living-partnerships-to-prevent-diabetes-and-the-diabetes-prevention-program-a-comparison-of-year-1-and-2-intervention-results
#17
Mara Z Vitolins, Scott P Isom, Caroline S Blackwell, Donna Kernodle, Joyce M Sydell, Carolyn F Pedley, Jeffrey A Katula, L Douglas Case, David C Goff
A number of research studies have attempted to translate the behavioral lifestyle intervention delivered in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP). To compare the active interventions of two trials, Diabetes Prevention Program DPP and Healthy Living Partnerships to Prevent Diabetes (HELP PD), after 1 and 2 years of intervention. DPP included 3234 adults with prediabetes randomized to intensive lifestyle intervention, metformin, troglitazone, or placebo. The lifestyle intervention, professionally delivered to individuals in a clinical setting, focused on diet and increased physical activity...
October 28, 2016: Translational Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790932/the-role-of-variants-regulating-metformin-transport-and-action-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#18
Cindy T Pau, Kai I Cheang, Bhavi P Modi, Thushiga Kasippillai, Candace C Keefe, Maria Shulleeta, William S Evans, Lubna Pal, Jerome F Strauss, John E Nestler, Corrine K Welt
AIMS: Variants in genes encoding metformin transport proteins and the ATM gene are associated with metformin response. We hypothesized that these gene variants contribute to variable metformin treatment response in polycystic ovary syndrome. MATERIALS & METHODS: The discovery cohort (n = 38) was studied in an open-label study. Results were replicated in two additional cohorts (n = 26 and n = 131). Response was assessed after 3-6 months of treatment with metformin extended-release 1500-2000 mg/day...
October 28, 2016: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788311/metformin-as-a-possible-intervention-for-cardiometabolic-risks-in-pediatric-subjects-exposed-to-antipsychotic-drugs
#19
Chittaranjan Andrade
Children and adolescents who are exposed to antipsychotic medication are at increased risk of weight gain and metabolic dysregulation. Metformin, which has demonstrated efficacy for these adverse treatment outcomes in adult samples, has been examined in pediatric samples, as well. Case reports, 2 uncontrolled studies, and 2 (out of 3) randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that metformin (1,000-1,700 mg/d) treatment for up to 16 weeks is associated with statistically and clinically significant weight loss...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764050/a-pilot-study-of-randomized-head-to-head-of-metformin-versus-topiramate-in-obese-people-with-schizophrenia
#20
Po-Jui Peng, Pei-Shen Ho, Chia-Kuang Tsai, San-Yuan Huang, Chih-Sung Liang
OBJECTIVES: A number of research studies support the weight loss effects of metformin and topiramate for obese people with schizophrenia. However, only a few studies have addressed the sustainability of the body weight reduction after discontinuation of these drugs. Moreover, head-to-head studies are still lacking. The study aims to evaluate and compare the efficacy of metformin and topiramate in weight reduction and weight maintenance after discontinuation of these drugs in obese people with schizophrenia...
November 2016: Clinical Neuropharmacology
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