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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910524/spatially-resolved-thomson-scattering-measurements-of-the-transition-from-the-collective-to-the-non-collective-regime-in-a-laser-produced-plasma
#1
D B Schaeffer, C G Constantin, A S Bondarenko, E T Everson, C Niemann
We present optical Thomson scattering results that image for the first time in a single measurement the spatial transition from collective to non-collective scattering. Data were taken in the Phoenix laser laboratory at the University of California, Los Angeles. The Raptor laser was used to ablate a carbon plasma, which was diagnosed with the frequency-doubled Phoenix laser serving as a Thomson scattering probe. Scattered light was collected from the laser plasma up to 10 cm from the target surface and up to 10 us after ablation, and imaged with high spatial and spectral resolutions...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793279/how-to-measure-separations-and-angles-between-intramolecular-fluorescent-markers
#2
K I Mortensen, J Sung, J A Spudich, H Flyvbjerg
Structure and function of an individual biomolecule can be explored with minimum two fluorescent markers of different colors. Since the light of such markers can be spectrally separated and imaged simultaneously, the markers can be colocalized. Here, we describe the method used for such two-color colocalization microscopy. Then we extend it to fluorescent markers with fixed orientations and in intramolecular proximity. Our benchmarking of this extension produced two extra results: (a) we established short double-labeled DNA molecules as probes of 3D orientation of anything to which one can attach them firmly; (b) we established how to map with super-resolution between color-separated channels, which should be useful for all dual-color colocalization measurements with either fixed or freely rotating fluorescent molecules...
2016: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786507/mechanisms-of-midsession-reversal-accuracy-memory-for-preceding-events-and-timing
#3
Aaron P Smith, Joshua S Beckmann, Thomas R Zentall
The midsession reversal task involves a simultaneous discrimination between 2 stimuli (S1 and S2) in which, for the first half of each session, choice of S1 is reinforced and, for the last half, choice of S2 is reinforced. On this task, pigeons appear to time the occurrence of the reversal rather than using feedback from previous trials, resulting in increased numbers of errors. In the present experiments, we tested the hypothesis that pigeons make so many errors because they fail to remember the last response made and/or the consequence of making that response both of which are needed ideally as cues to respond on the next trial...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753827/sy-02-3-resolving-ethical-problems-in-hypertension-treatment-trials
#4
Iwao Kuwajima
Since a concept of Evidence-based Medicine appeared in medical field in 1991, modern medical treatment have been remarkably changed.However, delusive belief of EBM without criticism has brought negative aspect, such as utilization of EBM by companies as a tool of promotion of drug or medical device.Although most of clinical trials were financially supported by drug companies. result of clinical trial does not always ended in favor of test drug or device. When negative results appeared, various way were taken by industry such as usage of SPIN, emphasizing secondary endpoint...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739465/experimental-demonstration-of-a-quantum-shutter-closing-two-slits-simultaneously
#5
Ryo Okamoto, Shigeki Takeuchi
The interference between two paths of a single photon at a double slit is widely considered to be the most paradoxical result of quantum theory. Here is a new interesting question to the phenomenon: can a single shutter simultaneously close two slits by effectively being in a superposition of different locations? Aharonov and Vaidman have shown that it is indeed possible to construct a quantum shutter that can close two slits and reflect a probe photon perfectly when its initial and final states are appropriately selected...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676261/robotic-assisted-cannulation-of-occluded-retinal-veins
#6
Marc D de Smet, Thijs C M Meenink, Tom Janssens, Valerie Vanheukelom, Gerrit J L Naus, Maarten J Beelen, Caroline Meers, Bart Jonckx, Jean-Marie Stassen
PURPOSE: To develop a methodology for cannulating porcine retinal venules using a robotic assistive arm after inducing a retinal vein occlusion using the photosensitizer rose bengal. METHODOLOGY: Retinal vein occlusions proximal to the first vascular branch point were induced following intravenous injection of rose bengal by exposure to 532nm laser light delivered by slit-lamp or endolaser probe. Retinal veins were cannulated by positioning a glass catheter tip using a robotically controlled micromanipulator above venules with an outer diameter of 80μm or more and performing a preset piercing maneuver, controlled robotically...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27661592/compact-fiber-optic-dual-detection-confocal-displacement-sensor
#7
Dong-Ryoung Lee, Suin Jang, Min Woo Lee, Hongki Yoo
We propose a dual-detection confocal displacement sensor (DDCDS) with a compact fiber-based optical probe. This all-fiber-optic sensor probe is simple and robust, since it only requires simple alignment of a gradient refractive index lens and a double-clad fiber (DCF). The DDCDS is composed of two point detectors, one coupled to a single mode fiber and the other coupled to a multimode fiber, which are used to measure the light intensity from a core and an inner clad of a DCF, respectively. The ratio of the axial response curves, measured by the two detectors, can be used to obtain a linear relationship between the axial position of the object plane and the ratio of the intensity signals...
September 20, 2016: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642880/sy-02-3-resolving-ethical-problems-in-hypertension-treatment-trials
#8
Iwao Kuwajima
Since a concept of Evidence-based Medicine appeared in medical field in 1991, modern medical treatment have been remarkably changed.However, delusive belief of EBM without criticism has brought negative aspect, such as utilization of EBM by companies as a tool of promotion of drug or medical device.Although most of clinical trials were financially supported by drug companies. result of clinical trial does not always ended in favor of test drug or device. When negative results appeared, various way were taken by industry such as usage of SPIN, emphasizing secondary endpoint...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630059/oncogenic-mutations-differentially-affect-bax-monomer-dimer-and-oligomeric-pore-formation-in-the-membrane
#9
Mingzhen Zhang, Jie Zheng, Ruth Nussinov, Buyong Ma
Dysfunction of Bax, a pro-apoptotic regulator of cellular metabolism is implicated in neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. We have constructed the first atomistic models of the Bax oligomeric pore consisting with experimental residue-residue distances. The models are stable, capturing well double electron-electron resonance (DEER) spectroscopy measurements and provide structural details in line with the DEER data. Comparison with the latest experimental results revealed that our models agree well with both Bax and Bak pores, pointed to a converged structural arrangement for Bax and Bak pore formation...
September 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27465315/organometallic-complex-formed-by-an-unconventional-radical-s-adenosylmethionine-enzyme
#10
Min Dong, Masaki Horitani, Boris Dzikovski, Maria-Eirini Pandelia, Carsten Krebs, Jack H Freed, Brian M Hoffman, Hening Lin
Pyrococcus horikoshii Dph2 (PhDph2) is an unusual radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) enzyme involved in the first step of diphthamide biosynthesis. It catalyzes the reaction by cleaving SAM to generate a 3-amino-3-carboxypropyl (ACP) radical. To probe the reaction mechanism, we synthesized a SAM analogue (SAMCA), in which the ACP group of SAM is replaced with a 3-carboxyallyl group. SAMCA is cleaved by PhDph2, yielding a paramagnetic (S = 1/2) species, which is assigned to a complex formed between the reaction product, α-sulfinyl-3-butenoic acid, and the [4Fe-4S] cluster...
August 10, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27442229/triplex-forming-peptide-nucleic-acid-probe-having-thiazole-orange-as-a-base-surrogate-for-fluorescence-sensing-of-double-stranded-rna
#11
Takaya Sato, Yusuke Sato, Seiichi Nishizawa
We have developed a new fluorescent sensing probe for double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) by integrating thiazole orange (TO) as a base surrogate into triplex-forming PNA. Our probe forms the thermally stable triplex with the target dsRNA at acidic pH; and the triplex formation is accompanied by the remarkable light-up response of the TO unit. The binding of our probe to the target dsRNA proceeds very rapidly, allowing real-time monitoring of the triplex formation. Importantly, we found the TO base surrogate in our probe functions as a universal base for the base pair opposite the TO unit in the triplex formation...
August 3, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27428976/theoretical-and-experimental-study-on-wide-range-optical-fiber-turbine-flow-sensor
#12
Yuhuan Du, Yingqing Guo
In this paper, a novel fiber turbine flow sensor was proposed and demonstrated for liquid measurement with optical fiber, using light intensity modulation to measure the turbine rotational speed for converting to flow rate. The double-circle-coaxial (DCC) fiber probe was introduced in frequency measurement for the first time. Through the divided ratio of two rings light intensity, the interference in light signals acquisition can be eliminated. To predict the characteristics between the output frequency and flow in the nonlinear range, the turbine flow sensor model was built...
2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27371449/what-is-the-best-moment-to-apply-phototherapy-when-associated-to-a-strength-training-program-a-randomized-double-blinded-placebo-controlled-trial-phototherapy-in-association-to-strength-training
#13
Adriane Aver Vanin, Eduardo Foschini Miranda, Caroline Santos Monteiro Machado, Paulo Roberto Vicente de Paiva, Gianna Móes Albuquerque-Pontes, Heliodora Leão Casalechi, Paulo de Tarso Camillo de Carvalho, Ernesto Cesar Pinto Leal-Junior
The effects of phototherapy (or photobiomodulation therapy) with low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and/or light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on human performance improvement have been widely studied. Few studies have examined its effect on muscular training and no studies have explored the necessary moment of phototherapy irradiations (i.e., before and/or after training sessions). The aim of this study was to determine the optimal moment to apply phototherapy irradiation when used in association with strength training...
November 2016: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27318214/bright-light-intervention-induces-a-dose-dependent-increase-in-striatal-response-to-risk-in-healthy-volunteers
#14
Julian Macoveanu, Patrick M Fisher, Martin K Madsen, Brenda Mc Mahon, Gitte M Knudsen, Hartwig R Siebner
Bright-light interventions have successfully been used to reduce depression symptoms in patients with seasonal affective disorder, a depressive disorder most frequently occurring during seasons with reduced daylight availability. Yet, little is known about how light exposure impacts human brain function, for instance on risk taking, a process affected in depressive disorders. Here we examined the modulatory effects of bright-light exposure on brain activity during a risk-taking task. Thirty-two healthy male volunteers living in the greater Copenhagen area received 3weeks of bright-light intervention during the winter season...
June 15, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27209728/-fluorescence-properties-and-the-detection-of-benzaldehyde-of-lanthanide-complex-with-2-sufoterephthalalic-acid
#15
Jia-jia Li, Rui Li, Xue Ma, Ting-ting Fan, Yi-qing Lin, Yu-ting Song, Jing-qi Han, Xia Li
A new lanthanide coordination polymer, [Eu(2-stp) (2,2'-bipy) (H₂O)] · H₂O (2-stp = 2-sufoterephthalalic acid, 2, 2'-bipy=2,2'-bipyridine) was obtained by hydrothermal method. The crystal structure was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The complex has a one-dimensional parallel double-chain structure. Eu³⁺ is a nine-coordinated by six O atoms from three 2-sufoterephthalalic acids, one water molecule and two N atoms from 2,2'-bipyridine. The fluorescence properties of the complex were studied...
February 2016: Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi, Guang Pu
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27171097/a-high-performance-fluorescence-immunoassay-based-on-the-relaxation-of-quenching-exemplified-by-detection-of-cardiac-troponin-i
#16
Seung-Wan Kim, Il-Hoon Cho, Ji-Na Park, Sung-Min Seo, Se-Hwan Paek
The intramolecular fluorescence self-quenching phenomenon is a major drawback in developing high-performance fluorometric biosensors which use common fluorophores as signal generators. We propose two strategies involving liberation of the fluorescent molecules by means of enzymatic fragmentation of protein or dehybridization of double-stranded DNA. In the former, bovine serum albumin (BSA) was coupled with the fluorescent BODIPY dye (Red BSA), and then immobilized on a solid surface. When the insolubilized Red BSA was treated with proteinase K (10 units/mL) for 30 min, the fluorescent signal was significantly increased (3...
2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27095534/determination-of-accurate-electron-chiral-asymmetries-in-fenchone-and-camphor-in-the-vuv-range-sensitivity-to-isomerism-and-enantiomeric-purity
#17
Laurent Nahon, Lipsa Nag, Gustavo A Garcia, Iuliia Myrgorodska, Uwe Meierhenrich, Samuel Beaulieu, Vincent Wanie, Valérie Blanchet, Romain Géneaux, Ivan Powis
Photoelectron circular dichroism (PECD) manifests itself as an intense forward/backward asymmetry in the angular distribution of photoelectrons produced from randomly-oriented enantiomers by photoionization with circularly-polarized light (CPL). As a sensitive probe of both photoionization dynamics and of the chiral molecular potential, PECD attracts much interest especially with the recent performance of related experiments with visible and VUV laser sources. Here we report, by use of quasi-perfect CPL VUV synchrotron radiation and using a double imaging photoelectron/photoion coincidence (i(2)PEPICO) spectrometer, new and very accurate values of the corresponding asymmetries on showcase chiral isomers: camphor and fenchone...
May 14, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27043567/optical-riblet-sensor-beam-parameter-requirements-for-the-probing-laser-source
#18
Juliane Tschentscher, Sven Hochheim, Hauke Brüning, Kai Brune, Kay-Michael Voit, Mirco Imlau
Beam parameters of a probing laser source in an optical riblet sensor are studied by considering the high demands on a sensors' precision and reliability for the determination of deviations of the geometrical shape of a riblet. Mandatory requirements, such as minimum intensity and light polarization, are obtained by means of detailed inspection of the optical response of the riblet using ray and wave optics; the impact of wavelength is studied. Novel measures for analyzing the riblet shape without the necessity of a measurement with a reference sample are derived; reference values for an ideal riblet structure obtained with the optical riblet sensor are given...
2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27033305/probing-s-state-advancements-and-recombination-pathways-in-photosystem-ii-with-a-global-fit-program-for-flash-induced-oxygen-evolution-pattern
#19
Long Vo Pham, Johannes Messinger
The oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) in photosystem II catalyzes the oxidation of water to molecular oxygen. Four decades ago, measurements of flash-induced oxygen evolution have shown that the OEC steps through oxidation states S(0), S(1), S(2), S(3) and S(4) before O(2) is released and the S(0) state is reformed. The light-induced transitions between these states involve misses and double hits. While it is widely accepted that the miss parameter is S state dependent and may be further modulated by the oxidation state of the acceptor side, the traditional way of analyzing each flash-induced oxygen evolution pattern (FIOP) individually did not allow using enough free parameters to thoroughly test this proposal...
June 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26995154/sonographic-findings-in-gouty-arthritis-diagnostic-value-and%C3%A2-association-with-disease-duration
#20
Ahmed M Elsaman, Eman M S Muhammad, Frank Pessler
The objective of this work was to evaluate the sonographic features of gouty arthritis and correlate findings with disease duration. The study was conducted on 100 patients in ambulatory care aged ≥40 y. Inclusion criteria included mono- or oligo-arthritis with effusion of the knee or the first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint and no known history of gout. A complete medical history was obtained with emphasis on the known risk factors or causes of gouty arthritis. A 12-MHz Medison linear probe was used for ultrasonography (US)...
June 2016: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
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