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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620457/early-fruiting-in-synsepalum-dulcificum-schumach-thonn-daniell-juveniles-induced-by-water-and-inorganic-nutrient-management
#1
Dèdéou Apocalypse Tchokponhoué, Sognigbé N'Danikou, Iago Hale, Allen Van Deynze, Enoch Gbènato Achigan-Dako
Background. The miracle plant, Synsepalum dulcificum (Schumach. & Thonn.) Daniell is a native African orphan crop species that has recently received increased attention due to its promise as a sweetener and source of antioxidants in both the food and pharmaceutical industries. However, a major obstacle to the species' widespread utilization is its relatively slow growth rate and prolonged juvenile period. Method. In this study, we tested twelve treatments made up of various watering regimes and exogenous nutrient application (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, at varying dosages) on the relative survival, growth, and reproductive development of 15-months-old S...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616198/seed-dispersal-of-diospyros-virginiana-in-the-past-and-the-present-evidence-for-a-generalist-evolutionary-strategy
#2
Mimi Rebein, Charli N Davis, Helena Abad, Taylor Stone, Jillian Del Sol, Natalie Skinner, Matthew D Moran
Several North American trees are hypothesized to have lost their co-evolved seed disperser during the late-Pleistocene extinction and are therefore considered anachronistic. We tested this hypothesis for the American persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) by studying the effects of gut passage of proposed seed dispersers on seedling survival and growth, natural fruiting characteristics, and modern animal consumption patterns. We tested gut passage effects on persimmon seeds using three native living species, the raccoon (Procyon lotor), Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana), and coyote (Canis latrans), and two Pleistocene analogs; the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos)...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614366/de-novo-transcriptomic-analysis-and-development-of-est-ssrs-for-sorbus-pohuashanensis-hance-hedl
#3
Congcong Liu, Ying Dou, Xuelian Guan, Qiang Fu, Ze Zhang, Zenghui Hu, Jian Zheng, Yizeng Lu, Wei Li
Sorbus pohuashanensis is a native tree species of northern China that is used for a variety of ecological purposes. The species is often grown as an ornamental landscape tree because of its beautiful form, silver flowers in early summer, attractive pinnate leaves in summer, and red leaves and fruits in autumn. However, development and further utilization of the species are hindered by the lack of comprehensive genetic information, which impedes research into its genetics and molecular biology. Recent advances in de novo transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) technology have provided an effective means to obtain genomic information from non-model species...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610997/identification-of-multienzymatic-complexes-in-the-clonostachys-byssicola-secretomes-produced-in-response-to-different-lignocellulosic-carbon-sources
#4
Helder Andrey Rocha Gomes, Adelson Joel da Silva, Diana Paola Gómez-Mendoza, Agenor Castro Moreira Dos Santos Júnior, Nicholas de Mojana di Cologna, Rosane Mansan Almeida, Robert Neil Gerard Miller, Wagner Fontes, Marcelo Valle de Sousa, Carlos André Ornelas Ricart, Edivaldo Ximenes Ferreira Filho
Multienzymatic complexes with plant lignocellulose-degrading activities have recently been identified in filamentous fungi secretomes. Such complexes have potential biotechnological applications in the degradation of agro-industrial residues. Fungal species from the Clonostachys genus have been intensively investigated as biocontrol agents; however so far their use as producers of lignocellulose-degrading enzymes has not been extensively explored. Secretomes of Clonostachys byssicola following growth on different carbon sources (passion fruit peel, soybean hulls, cotton gin trash, banana stalk, sugarcane bagasse, orange peel, and a composition of soybean hulls: cotton gin trash:orange peel) were subjected to enzymatic assays...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609455/differential-iridoid-production-as-revealed-by-a-diversity-panel-of-84-cultivated-and-wild-blueberry-species
#5
Courtney P Leisner, Mohamed O Kamileen, Megan E Conway, Sarah E O'Connor, C Robin Buell
Cultivated blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum, Vaccinium angustifolium, Vaccinium darrowii, and Vaccinium virgatum) is an economically important fruit crop native to North America and a member of the Ericaceae family. Several species in the Ericaceae family including cranberry, lignonberry, bilberry, and neotropical blueberry species have been shown to produce iridoids, a class of pharmacologically important compounds present in over 15 plant families demonstrated to have a wide range of biological activities in humans including anti-cancer, anti-bacterial, and anti-inflammatory...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608474/association-between-ants-hymenoptera-formicidae-and-the-vine-mealybug-hemiptera-pseudococcidae-in-table-grape-vineyards-in-eastern-spain
#6
Aleixandre Beltrà, Cristina Navarro-Campos, Altea Calabuig, Luis Estopà, Felix L Wäckers, Apostolos Pekas, Antonia Soto
BACKGROUND: The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is a key pest of grapevine in the Mediterranean Basin. Some honeydew collecting ant species are known to increase mealybug populations in other grape-growing regions. However, there is scarce information on either the ant species present in Mediterranean vineyards or their impact on mealybugs. We conducted a study in four commercial vineyards in Eastern Spain in order to i) identify the ant species foraging on the vine canopies, ii) study the association among ant activity, vine mealybug abundance and fruit damage, and iii) test a novel method for ant management, distracting ants from guarding vine mealybugs by providing artificial sugars...
June 12, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578580/meroterpenoids-with-antitumor-activities-from-guava-psidium-guajava
#7
Xu-Jie Qin, Qian Yu, Huan Yan, Afsar Khan, Mi-Yan Feng, Pan-Pan Li, Xiao-Jiang Hao, Lin-Kun An, Hai-Yang Liu
Psidium guajava L., a species native to South America, has been widely cultivated in the tropical and subtropical areas of China for its popular fruits. The preliminary analysis by liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (LC-UV) indicated the presence of meroterpenoids in the fruits of P. guajava (guava). Subsequent fractionation of the petroleum ether extract resulted in the identification of two new meroterpenoids, psiguajavadials A (1) and B (2), together with 14 previously described meroterpenoids (3-16). Their structures were fully elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic techniques and theoretical calculations...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576373/high-relative-humidity-pre-harvest-reduces-post-harvest-proliferation-of-salmonella-in-tomatoes
#8
Brecht Devleesschauwer, Massimiliano Marvasi, Mihai C Giurcanu, George J Hochmuth, Niko Speybroeck, Arie H Havelaar, Max Teplitski
Outbreaks of human illness caused by enteric pathogens such as Salmonella are increasingly linked to the consumption of fruits and vegetables. Knowledge on the factors affecting Salmonella proliferation on fresh produce therefore becomes increasingly important to safeguard public health. Previous experiments showed a limited impact of pre-harvest production practices on Salmonella proliferation on tomatoes, but suggested a significant effect of harvest time. We explored the data from two previously published and one unpublished experiment using regression trees, which allowed overcoming the interpretational difficulties of classical statistical models with higher order interactions...
September 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576132/the-socioeconomic-context-of-the-use-of-euterpe-precatoria-mart-and-e-oleracea-mart-in-bolivia-and-peru
#9
Narel Paniagua-Zambrana, Rainer W Bussmann, Manuel J Macía
BACKGROUND: Traditional knowledge (TK) has enabled communities to adapt to changes in life conditions over centuries. However, this local context is being dramatically affected by recent changes through globalization and modernization of societies. In this paper we seek to identify socio-economic factors that are related to the knowledge and use of two palm species in mestizo and indigenous communities in the Amazonian of Peru and Bolivia. Both species are known in the region under the main vernacular name of Asaí, and are source of two highly commercialized resources: palm-hearts and fruits...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561940/reproductive-biology-of-ferocactus-recurvus-mill-borg-subsp-recurvus-cactaceae-in-the-tehuac%C3%A3-n-cuicatl%C3%A3-n-valley-mexico
#10
Esperanza Córdova-Acosta, Alejandro Zavala-Hurtado José, Jordan Golubov, Alejandro Casas
Mexico has one of the highest diversity of barrel cacti species worldwide; however, all of them are threatened and require conservation policies. Information on their reproductive biology is crucial, but few studies are still available. Ferocactus recurvus subsp. recurvus is a barrel cactus species, endemic to the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Valley. Our research aimed to characterize its floral and pollination biology. We hypothesized bee-pollination as suggested by its floral morphology and behaviour and self-incompatibility like most barrel cacti studied...
May 31, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559614/harvest-date-and-storage-effect-on-fruit-size-phenolic-content-and-antioxidant-capacity-of-wild-blueberries-of-nw-ontario-canada
#11
A U Mallik, J Hamilton
Blueberries are eaten fresh or after storing at room temperature, refrigerator or freezer but little is known about changes in food values of wild blueberries due to harvest dates and storage conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of harvest date and storage conditions of wild blueberries on berry quality and health related chemistry. We analyzed Vaccinium angustifolium, V. angustifolium var. nigrum, and V. myrtilloides native to NW Ontario, Canada harvested early and late in the season for total phenol (TP), anthocyanin contents (AC), and soluble solids to titratable acidity ratio storing at room temperature, refrigerator and freezer temperature...
May 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548677/destabilization-of-human-insulin-fibrils-by-peptides-of-fruit-bromelain-derived-from-ananas-comosus-pineapple
#12
Sromona Das, Debasish Bhattacharyya
Deposition of insulin aggregates in human body leads to dysfunctioning of several organs. Effectiveness of fruit bromelain from pineapple in prevention of insulin aggregate was investigated. Proteolyses of bromelain was done as par human digestive system and the pool of small peptides was separated from larger peptides and proteins. Under conditions of growth of insulin aggregates from its monomers, this pool of peptides restricted the reaction upto formation of oligomers of limited size. These peptides also destabilized preformed insulin aggregates to oligomers...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541359/potential-antiproliferative-activity-of-polyphenol-metabolites-against-human-breast-cancer-cells-and-their-urine-excretion-pattern-in-healthy-subjects-following-acute-intake-of-a-polyphenol-rich-juice-of-grumixama-eugenia-brasiliensis-lam
#13
L L Teixeira, G R Costa, F A Dörr, T P Ong, E Pinto, F M Lajolo, N M A Hassimotto
The bioavailability and metabolism of anthocyanins and ellagitannins following acute intake of grumixama fruit, native Brazilian cherry, by humans, and its in vitro antiproliferative activity against breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) were investigated. A single dose of grumixama juice was administered to healthy women (n = 10) and polyphenol metabolites were analyzed in urine and plasma samples collected over 24 h. The majority of the metabolites circulating and excreted in urine were phenolic acids and urolithin conjugates, the gut microbiota catabolites of both classes of polyphenols, respectively...
May 25, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498991/population-differentiation-in-common-walnut-juglans-regia-l-across-major-parts-of-its-native-range-insights-from-molecular-and-morphometric-data
#14
Wladimir Roor, Heino Konrad, Davletbek Mamadjanov, Thomas Geburek
Juglans regia is an economically highly important species for fruit and wood production in the warm temperate and subtropical zones of the Northern Hemisphere. Besides the natural influence of climatic and geomorphological barriers, its genetic structure has been strongly modified by humans and the population history is still unclear. For this reason, we investigated mainly natural walnut populations across the Eurasian continent on a molecular (44 populations, 581 trees) and morphometric level (23 populations, 1391 ripe nuts)...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492517/first-nations-approaches-to-childhood-obesity-healthy-lifestyles-in-canada-compared-with-alternatives-for-alaska-native-communities
#15
Peter A de Schweinitz, Janet M Wojcicki
Alaska Native and American Indian children have among the highest prevalence of obesity in the United States. Canadian Aboriginal populations including First Nations also have high rates of obesity but obesity rates among children are noticeably lower. We highlight some of the important differences between American and Canadian approaches to healthy lifestyles and Aboriginal/Native health, including diet and physical activity, which may in part explain the differences in obesity prevalence. Specifically, the Canadian government provides a food subsidy program to bring perishable fruits and vegetable to remote, rural Canadian areas and secondly supports the use of traditional foods and harvesting/gathering through a number of government supported programs...
May 11, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484903/mineral-composition-of-wild-and-cultivated-blueberries
#16
Paulina Dróżdż, Vaida Šėžienė, Krystyna Pyrzynska
The concentrations of 13 elements (Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were determined in several samples of native (wild) naturally growing and cultivated blueberry fruits. The total metal contents after mineralization were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Reliability of the procedure was checked by the analysis of the certified reference materials Mixed Polish Herbs (INGT-MPH-2) and Leaves of Poplar (NCS DC 73350). In the fruits collected in the forest (wild blueberries), higher contents of Ca, Na, and Mg as well as Mn and Zn were observed...
May 9, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484207/ecotypic-differentiation-and-phenotypic-plasticity-combine-to-enhance-the-invasiveness-of-the-most-widespread-daisy-in-chile-leontodon-saxatilis
#17
Irene Martín-Forés, Marta Avilés, Belén Acosta-Gallo, Martin F Breed, Alejandro Del Pozo, José M de Miguel, Laura Sánchez-Jardón, Isabel Castro, Carlos Ovalle, Miguel A Casado
Dispersal and reproductive traits of successful plant invaders are expected to undergo strong selection during biological invasions. Numerous Asteraceae are invasive and display dimorphic fruits within a single flower head, resulting in differential dispersal pathways - wind-dispersed fruits vs. non-dispersing fruits. We explored ecotypic differentiation and phenotypic plasticity of seed output and fruit dimorphisms in exotic Chilean and native Spanish populations of Leontodon saxatilis subsp. rothii. We collected flower heads from populations in Spain and Chile along a rainfall gradient...
May 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464893/anticancer-potential-of-thevetia-peruviana-fruit-methanolic-extract
#18
Alberto Ramos-Silva, Faviola Tavares-Carreón, Mario Figueroa, Susana De la Torre-Zavala, Argel Gastelum-Arellanez, Aída Rodríguez-García, Luis J Galán-Wong, Hamlet Avilés-Arnaut
BACKGROUND: Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) K. Schum or Cascabela peruviana (L.) Lippold (commonly known as ayoyote, codo de fraile, lucky nut, or yellow oleander), native to Mexico and Central America, is a medicinal plant used traditionally to cure diseases like ulcers, scabies, hemorrhoids and dissolve tumors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic, antiproliferative and apoptotic activity of methanolic extract of T. peruviana fruits on human cancer cell lines. METHODS: The cytotoxic activity of T...
May 2, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462032/the-emerging-contribution-of-social-wasps-to-grape-rot-disease-ecology
#19
Anne A Madden, Sean D Boyden, Jonathan-Andrew N Soriano, Tyler B Corey, Jonathan W Leff, Noah Fierer, Philip T Starks
Grape sour (bunch) rot is a polymicrobial disease of vineyards that causes millions of dollars in lost revenue per year due to decreased quality of grapes and resultant wine. The disease is associated with damaged berries infected with a community of acetic acid bacteria, yeasts, and filamentous fungi that results in rotting berries with high amounts of undesirable volatile acidity. Many insect species cause the initial grape berry damage that can lead to this disease, but most studies have focused on the role of fruit flies in facilitating symptoms and vectoring the microorganisms of this disease complex...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460910/organic-acids-in-kakadu-plum-terminalia-ferdinandiana-the-good-ellagic-the-bad-oxalic-and-the-uncertain-ascorbic
#20
David J Williams, David Edwards, Sharon Pun, Mridusmita Chaliha, Brian Burren, Ujang Tinggi, Yasmina Sultanbawa
The phenolic ellagic acid (EA) is receiving increasing attention for its nutritional and pharmacological potential as an antioxidant and antimicrobial agent. The Australian native Kakadu plum (Terminalia ferdinandiana) fruit is an abundant source of this phytochemical. The fruit also contains large amounts of vitamin C (mainly as ascorbic acid, AA) and possibly the undesirable oxalic acid (OA). Regular consumption of high oxalate foods poses a variety of health risks in humans including interference with calcium absorption and kidney stone formation...
November 2016: Food Research International
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