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Native fruitS

Josy Goldoni Lazarini, Janaina de Cássia Orlandi Sardi, Marcelo Franchin, Bruno Dias Nani, Irlan Almeida Freires, Juliana Infante, Jonas Augusto Rizzato Paschoal, Severino Matias de Alencar, Pedro Luiz Rosalen
The anti-inflammatory and antibiofilm activities as well as toxicity and chemical profile of Eugenia brasiliensis pulp extract (EBE), were evaluated. EBE chemical profile and phenolic content were determined by LC-MS/MS. EBE was tested for its in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory activity, including TNF-α release, NF-кB activation, neutrophil migration and paw edema. The MIC/MBC and antibiofilm activities were tested against methicillin sensitive and resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomona aeruginosa, Streptococcus mutans, and Lactobacillus acidophilus...
March 15, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Amanda S Gallinat, Luca Russo, Eli K Melaas, Charles G Willis, Richard B Primack
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Patterns of fruiting phenology in temperate ecosystems are poorly understood, despite the ecological importance of fruiting for animal nutrition and seed dispersal. Herbarium specimens represent an under-utilized resource for investigating geographical and climatic factors affecting fruiting times within species, patterns in fruiting times among species, and differences between native and non-native invasive species. METHODS: We examined over 15,000 herbarium specimens, collected and housed across New England, and found 3159 specimens with ripe fruits, collected from 1849-2013...
January 2018: American Journal of Botany
Matthew B G J Brown, Chrissen E C Gemmill, Steven Miller, Priscilla M Wehi
Insects are important but overlooked components of forest ecosystems in New Zealand. For many insect species, information on foraging patterns and trophic relationships is lacking. We examined diet composition and selectivity in a large-bodied insect, the Auckland tree wētā Hemideina thoracica , in three habitat zones in a lowland New Zealand forest. We asked whether H. thoracica selectively forage from available plant food sources, and whether these choices were lipid-rich compared to nonpreferred available plants...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
David J Páez, Olivier Restif, Peggy Eby, Raina K Plowright
Bats provide important ecosystem services such as pollination of native forests; they are also a source of zoonotic pathogens for humans and domestic animals. Human-induced changes to native habitats may have created more opportunities for bats to reside in urban settings, thus decreasing pollination services to native forests and increasing opportunities for zoonotic transmission. In Australia, fruit bats ( Pteropus spp. flying foxes) are increasingly inhabiting urban areas where they feed on anthropogenic food sources with nutritional characteristics and phenology that differ from native habitats...
May 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Waleska Vera, Jan Bergmann
The grape weevil, Naupactus xanthographus Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a polyphagous insect native to southern South America that causes considerable damage in grape and other fruit species. In this study, the morphology and ultrastructure of the antennae and the antennal sensilla of N. xanthographus were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The antennae consist of a scape, a pedicel, a funicle, and a zone called the "club," which are all formed by a total of 12 antennomers...
March 12, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Bianca Braz Mattos, Caroline Montebianco, Elisson Romanel, Tatiane da Franca Silva, Renato Barroso Bernabé, Fernanda Simas-Tosin, Lauro M Souza, Guilherme L Sassaki, Maite F S Vaslin, Eliana Barreto-Bergter
Cladosporium herbarum is a plant pathogen associated with passion fruit scab and mild diseases in pea and soybean. In this study, a peptidogalactomannan (pGM) of C. herbarum mycelium was isolated and structurally characterized, and its role in plant-fungus interactions was evaluated. C. herbarum pGM is composed of carbohydrates (76%) and contains mannose, galactose and glucose as its main monosaccharides (molar ratio, 52:36:12). Methylation and13 C-nuclear magnetic resonance (13 C-NMR) spectroscopy analysis have shown the presence of a main chain containing (1 → 6)-linked α-D-Manp residues, and β-D-Galf residues are present as (1 → 5)-interlinked side chains...
March 2, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Alison J Peel, Kate S Baker, David T S Hayman, Christopher C Broder, Andrew A Cunningham, Anthony R Fooks, Romain Garnier, James L N Wood, Olivier Restif
Spatiotemporally-localised prediction of virus emergence from wildlife requires focused studies on the ecology and immunology of reservoir hosts in their native habitat. Reliable predictions from mathematical models remain difficult in most systems due to a dearth of appropriate empirical data. Our goal was to study the circulation and immune dynamics of zoonotic viruses in bat populations and investigate the effects of maternally-derived and acquired immunity on viral persistence. Using rare age-specific serological data from wild-caught Eidolon helvum fruit bats as a case study, we estimated viral transmission parameters for a stochastic infection model...
March 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
G Sansone, Y Lambrese, V Calvente, G Fernández, D Benuzzi, M Sanz Ferramola
The aim of the present work was to evaluate the ability of the native yeast Rhodosporidium fluviale to control Botrytis cinerea on apple fruit and to study the possible mechanisms of action with the goal of improving the control of gray mold. For this, the influence of application time of the yeast was studied simulating preventive and curative effects. Also, the effect of nonviable cells of the yeast in the biocontrol was assessed. According to the results obtained, the following mechanisms of action of Rhodosporidium fluviale could be proposed: 1-competition for space, 2- direct interaction between antagonist and pathogen, 3- induction of β-1,3-glucanase in apple tissue, 4- Probable production of glucanase in the apple wounds and 5- antifungal action of cellular components, probably chitin, present in the wall of yeast cells that could be the explanation for the activity of nonviable cells...
March 1, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Greg S Bezanson, Timothy C Ells, Lihua Fan, Charles F Forney, Denyse I LeBlanc
Recent bacterial illnesses and outbreaks associated with the consumption of fresh and fresh-cut fruit and vegetables emphasize the need to supply produce that is microbiologically safe while retaining its quality and nutrient value. We assessed the capacity of aerated steam to reduce initial levels and control the posttreatment proliferation of a 4-strain mixture of Listeria innocua, a surrogate for L. monocytogenes, and microflora native to the rind of whole cantaloupes. Studies were conducted at the pilot-scale level by passing deliberately contaminated melons through a prototype stainless-steel, continuous-feed heating device...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Casper H A van Leeuwen
Many alien plants use animal vectors for dispersal of their diaspores (zoochory). If alien plants interact with native disperser animals, this can interfere with animal-mediated dispersal of native diaspores. Interference by alien species is known for frugivorous animals dispersing fruits of terrestrial plants by ingestion, transport and egestion (endozoochory). However, less attention has been paid to possible interference of alien plants with dispersal of diaspores via external attachment (ectozoochory, epizoochory or exozoochory), interference in aquatic ecosystems, or positive effects of alien plants on dispersal of native plants...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Lisa G Neven, Sunil Kumar, Wee L Yee, Tewodros Wakie
The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a primary pest of stone fruits that cause significant economic damage. Larvae, which enter the host plant through shoot tips, damage shoots, and ripe fruits. Native to Asia, this pest now occurs in many fruit-growing countries, including the United States and Canada. Though the pest was previously reported from many states within the United States, its current distribution and the environmental variables that influence its distribution are not properly identified...
February 17, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Hiroko Abe, Mika Ishioka, Yasuko Fujita, Aya Umeno, Mayu Yasunaga, Akihiko Sato, Shigehiko Ohnishi, Shingo Suzuki, Noriko Ishida, Mototada Shichiri, Yasukazu Yoshida, Yoshihiro Nakajima
Ulcerative colitis is a well-known inflammatory bowel disease. Although there are drugs that are effective against this disease, the prevention and attenuation of ulcerative colitis by food rich in functional ingredients without side effects is desired because some drugs have side effects. In this study, we investigated the effects of yuzu (Citrus junos Tanaka), a citrus fruit native to northeast Asia, on a mouse dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model. Mice given drinking water containing DSS showed significant weight loss, colon shortening, diarrhea, and visible fecal blood...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Oleo Science
Mary Odum, Jeff M Housman, Ronald D Williams
OBJECTIVES: In this study, we examined the role of socio-demographic (race/ethnicity, sex, grade, nativity, literacy, body mass index) and individual-level (normative beliefs, knowledge, perceived barriers, food preference, self-efficacy) factors on US adolescent fruit and vegetable consumption. METHODS: We conducted hierarchical multiple regression analysis to determine the influence of factors on adolescent fruit and vegetable consumption in a nationally represen- tative sample of 795 adolescents from the National Cancer Institute's 2014 Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating (FLASHE) study...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Health Behavior
Wei Du, Joeri A Jongbloets, Coco van Boxtel, Hugo Pineda Hernández, David Lips, Brett G Oliver, Klaas J Hellingwerf, Filipe Branco Dos Santos
Background: Microbial bioengineering has the potential to become a key contributor to the future development of human society by providing sustainable, novel, and cost-effective production pipelines. However, the sustained productivity of genetically engineered strains is often a challenge, as spontaneous non-producing mutants tend to grow faster and take over the population. Novel strategies to prevent this issue of strain instability are urgently needed. Results: In this study, we propose a novel strategy applicable to all microbial production systems for which a genome-scale metabolic model is available that aligns the production of native metabolites to the formation of biomass...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Verena B Oliveira, Raquel L B Araújo, Thomas Eidenberger, Maria G L Brandão
Brazil has the greatest vegetal biodiversity in the world, but products derived from native species are not optimally utilized. Oxalis cordata and Xylopia aromatica are two underutilized species whose leaves and fruits, respectively, have been used as food in the 19th century. In this study, we used chemical and in vitro assays to evaluate the potential of these species as functional foods. The inhibitory activity on pancreatic lipase and DPP-IV were evaluated using the crude extracts and fractions ethyl acetate, butanol and water of these two species...
March 2018: Food Research International
J M M Lopes, N N Lage, J F C Guerra, M Silva, L F Bonomo, A H S Paulino, A L R S Regis, M L Pedrosa, M E Silva
PURPOSE: The ability of foods to aid in the prevention of chronic metabolic diseases, has recently become an area of increased interest. In addition, there is growing interest in exploring the benefits of consuming underutilized fruits as alternatives to commercially available fruits. Eugenia uvalha Cambess (uvaia) is a native fruit of Brazil with great market and phytotherapy potential. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of uvaia juice (UJ) on the levels of protein carbonyls (PCO) and antioxidant enzymes in the livers of rats fed a high-fat diet...
March 2018: Food Research International
Samanta Thomas-Valdés, Cristina Theoduloz, Felipe Jiménez-Aspee, Alberto Burgos-Edwards, Guillermo Schmeda-Hirschmann
The Chilean white strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis spp. chiloensis f. chiloensis) is a semi-domesticated strawberry with high polyphenol content and antioxidant activity occurring in southern Chile. The aim of this work was to compare the composition and bioactivity of the polyphenol-enriched fruit extract (PEE) before and after simulated gastrointestinal digestion (GID). Results show a decrease by >50% in the total phenolic (TP) content at the end of the GID, compared to the non-digested PEE. A reduction in the antioxidant capacity of the PEEs was observed after GID by means of DPPH, FRAP, TEAC and anion superoxide assays...
March 2018: Food Research International
Vitor C Chaves, Laurita Boff, Márcia Vizzotto, Eunice Calvete, Flávio H Reginatto, Cláudia M O Simões
BACKGROUND: Phytochemical profiles of two Brazilian native fruits, pitanga (red and purple) and araçá (yellow and red), as well as strawberry cultivars Albion, Aromas, and Camarosa, blackberry cultivar Tupy, and blueberry cultivar Bluegen cultivated in Brazil were characterized for total phenolic content and total anthocyanin content by liquid chromatography coupled to a photodiode array and a quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry detector. Radical scavenging, antiherpes, and cytotoxic activities of these berries extracts were also evaluated...
February 11, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Christian Fausto Moraes Dos Santos, Julianna Morcelli Oliveros
One of the major challenges the European colonizers faced in sixteenth-century Portuguese America was adaptation to their new environment, especially nutritional obstacles. Obtaining the human body's daily calorie requirements may have been one of the more strenuous tasks in colonial dynamics. Their diets were composed of what was available; in this context, native fruits took on an important role, especially when consumed in the form of compotes and preserves. Our goal is to highlight the importance of colonial sweets, identify how they were consumed, and show the relationship between this activity and the medical discourse which was present in sixteenth-century Europe...
October 2017: História, Ciências, Saúde—Manguinhos
Iramaia Angélica Neri-Numa, Renata A Soriano Sancho, Ana Paula Aparecida Pereira, Glaucia Maria Pastore
Brazilian berries present great nutritional, functional and economic characteristics comparable to temperate berries. They constitute an important innovation domain for the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, due to their positive health effects and market potential. The main objective of this review was to describe the physicochemical, nutritional and biological aspects of six Brazilian small native wild fruits from the Arecaceae (açaí, buriti and pupunha), Mirtaceae (camu-camu and jaboticaba) and Malpighiaceae (murici) families, highlighting their antioxidant, anti-lipidaemic, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, and antigenotoxic potential among others...
January 2018: Food Research International
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