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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498991/population-differentiation-in-common-walnut-juglans-regia-l-across-major-parts-of-its-native-range-insights-from-molecular-and-morphometric-data
#1
Wladimir Roor, Heino Konrad, Davletbek Mamadjanov, Thomas Geburek
Juglans regia is an economically highly important species for fruit and wood production in the warm temperate and subtropical zones of the Northern Hemisphere. Besides the natural influence of climatic and geomorphological barriers, its genetic structure has been strongly modified by humans and the population history is still unclear. For this reason, we investigated mainly natural walnut populations across the Eurasian continent on a molecular (44 populations, 581 trees) and morphometric level (23 populations, 1391 ripe nuts)...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492517/first-nations-approaches-to-childhood-obesity-healthy-lifestyles-in-canada-compared-with-alternatives-for-alaska-native-communities
#2
Peter A de Schweinitz, Janet M Wojcicki
Alaska Native and American Indian children have among the highest prevalence of obesity in the United States. Canadian Aboriginal populations including First Nations also have high rates of obesity but obesity rates among children are noticeably lower. We highlight some of the important differences between American and Canadian approaches to healthy lifestyles and Aboriginal/Native health, including diet and physical activity, which may in part explain the differences in obesity prevalence. Specifically, the Canadian government provides a food subsidy program to bring perishable fruits and vegetable to remote, rural Canadian areas and secondly supports the use of traditional foods and harvesting/gathering through a number of government supported programs...
May 11, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484903/mineral-composition-of-wild-and-cultivated-blueberries
#3
Paulina Dróżdż, Vaida Šėžienė, Krystyna Pyrzynska
The concentrations of 13 elements (Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were determined in several samples of native (wild) naturally growing and cultivated blueberry fruits. The total metal contents after mineralization were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Reliability of the procedure was checked by the analysis of the certified reference materials Mixed Polish Herbs (INGT-MPH-2) and Leaves of Poplar (NCS DC 73350). In the fruits collected in the forest (wild blueberries), higher contents of Ca, Na, and Mg as well as Mn and Zn were observed...
May 9, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484207/ecotypic-differentiation-and-phenotypic-plasticity-combine-to-enhance-the-invasiveness-of-the-most-widespread-daisy-in-chile-leontodon-saxatilis
#4
Irene Martín-Forés, Marta Avilés, Belén Acosta-Gallo, Martin F Breed, Alejandro Del Pozo, José M de Miguel, Laura Sánchez-Jardón, Isabel Castro, Carlos Ovalle, Miguel A Casado
Dispersal and reproductive traits of successful plant invaders are expected to undergo strong selection during biological invasions. Numerous Asteraceae are invasive and display dimorphic fruits within a single flower head, resulting in differential dispersal pathways - wind-dispersed fruits vs. non-dispersing fruits. We explored ecotypic differentiation and phenotypic plasticity of seed output and fruit dimorphisms in exotic Chilean and native Spanish populations of Leontodon saxatilis subsp. rothii. We collected flower heads from populations in Spain and Chile along a rainfall gradient...
May 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464893/anticancer-potential-of-thevetia-peruviana-fruit-methanolic-extract
#5
Alberto Ramos-Silva, Faviola Tavares-Carreón, Mario Figueroa, Susana De la Torre-Zavala, Argel Gastelum-Arellanez, Aída Rodríguez-García, Luis J Galán-Wong, Hamlet Avilés-Arnaut
BACKGROUND: Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) K. Schum or Cascabela peruviana (L.) Lippold (commonly known as ayoyote, codo de fraile, lucky nut, or yellow oleander), native to Mexico and Central America, is a medicinal plant used traditionally to cure diseases like ulcers, scabies, hemorrhoids and dissolve tumors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic, antiproliferative and apoptotic activity of methanolic extract of T. peruviana fruits on human cancer cell lines. METHODS: The cytotoxic activity of T...
May 2, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462032/the-emerging-contribution-of-social-wasps-to-grape-rot-disease-ecology
#6
Anne A Madden, Sean D Boyden, Jonathan-Andrew N Soriano, Tyler B Corey, Jonathan W Leff, Noah Fierer, Philip T Starks
Grape sour (bunch) rot is a polymicrobial disease of vineyards that causes millions of dollars in lost revenue per year due to decreased quality of grapes and resultant wine. The disease is associated with damaged berries infected with a community of acetic acid bacteria, yeasts, and filamentous fungi that results in rotting berries with high amounts of undesirable volatile acidity. Many insect species cause the initial grape berry damage that can lead to this disease, but most studies have focused on the role of fruit flies in facilitating symptoms and vectoring the microorganisms of this disease complex...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460910/organic-acids-in-kakadu-plum-terminalia-ferdinandiana-the-good-ellagic-the-bad-oxalic-and-the-uncertain-ascorbic
#7
David J Williams, David Edwards, Sharon Pun, Mridusmita Chaliha, Brian Burren, Ujang Tinggi, Yasmina Sultanbawa
The phenolic ellagic acid (EA) is receiving increasing attention for its nutritional and pharmacological potential as an antioxidant and antimicrobial agent. The Australian native Kakadu plum (Terminalia ferdinandiana) fruit is an abundant source of this phytochemical. The fruit also contains large amounts of vitamin C (mainly as ascorbic acid, AA) and possibly the undesirable oxalic acid (OA). Regular consumption of high oxalate foods poses a variety of health risks in humans including interference with calcium absorption and kidney stone formation...
November 2016: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458680/genetic-diversity-population-structure-and-linkage-disequilibrium-of-a-core-collection-of-ziziphus-jujuba-assessed-with-genome-wide-snps-developed-by-genotyping-by-sequencing-and-ssr-markers
#8
Wu Chen, Lu Hou, Zhiyong Zhang, Xiaoming Pang, Yingyue Li
Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill) is an economically important fruit species native to China with high nutritious and medicinal value. Genotyping-by-sequencing was used to detect and genotype single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a core collection of 150 Chinese jujube accessions and further to characterize their genetic diversity, population structure, and linkage disequilibrium (LD). A total of 4,680 high-quality SNPs were identified, of which 38 sets of tri-allelic SNPs were detected. The average polymorphism information content (PIC) values based on bi-allelic SNPs and tri-allelic SNPs were 0...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445514/the-complexity-underlying-invasiveness-precludes-the-identification-of-invasive-traits-a-comparative-study-of-invasive-and-non-invasive-heterocarpic-atriplex-congeners
#9
Jana Doudová, Jan Douda, Bohumil Mandák
Heterocarpy enables species to effectively spread under unfavourable conditions by producing two or more types of fruit differing in ecological characteristics. Although it is frequent in annuals occupying disturbed habitats that are vulnerable to invasion, there is still a lack of congeneric studies addressing the importance of heterocarpy for species invasion success. We compared two pairs of heterocarpic Atriplex species, each of them comprising one invasive and one non-invasive non-native congener. In two common garden experiments, we (i) simulated the influence of different levels of nutrients and population density on plants grown from different types of fruits and examined several traits that are generally positively associated with invasion success, and (ii) grew plants in a replacement series experiment to evaluate resource partitioning between them and to compare their competitive ability...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444565/technological-applications-of-organo-montmorillonites-in-the-removal-of-pyrimethanil-from-water-adsorption-desorption-and-flocculation-studies
#10
Federico M Flores, Tomas Undabeytia, Esmeralda Morillo, Rosa M Torres Sánchez
Pyrimethanil (2-aniline-4, 6-dimethylpyrimidine, PRM) is used in fruit packing plants to control fungal infections and diseases. The effluents greatly polluted with this fungicide, as a point source contamination, need to be technologically treated for their regeneration before they reach water bodies. This work evaluates the use of organo-montmorillonites, synthetized in our laboratory, for their application in adsorption and coagulation/flocculation processes for the removal of PRM from water. The adsorption-desorption performance of PRM in a raw montmorillonite (Mt) and several organo-montmorillonites (organo-Mt) obtained by different amounts and types of exchanged surfactants (octadecyltrimethylammonium (ODTMA) and didodecyldimethylammonium (DDAB) bromides and benzyltrimethylammonium chloride (BTMA)) was studied...
April 25, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437594/a-mesoamerican-origin-of-cherimoya-annona-cherimola-mill-implications-for-the-conservation-of-plant-genetic-resources
#11
N Larranaga, F J Albertazzi, G Fontecha, M Palmieri, H Rainer, M van Zonneveld, J I Hormaza
Knowledge on the structure and distribution of genetic diversity is a key aspect in order to plan and execute an efficient conservation and utilization of the genetic resources of any crop as well as for determining historical demographic inferences. In this work, a large data set of 1765 accessions of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill, Annonaceae), an underutilized fruit tree crop native to the neotropics and used as a food source by pre-Columbian cultures, was collected from 6 different countries across the American continent and amplified with 9 highly informative microsatellite markers...
April 24, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431195/feeding-behavior-and-activity-budget-of-the-southern-yellow-cheeked-crested-gibbons-nomascus-gabriellae-in-a-lowland-tropical-forest
#12
Thanh H Bach, Jin Chen, Minh D Hoang, Kingsly C Beng, Van T Nguyen
The southern yellow-cheeked crested gibbon (Nomascus gabriellae), an endangered species native to Vietnam and Cambodia, lives exclusively in undisturbed tropical forests and depends primarily on ripe fruit for food. Although this species is highly threatened, its ecology and conservation status remain relatively unknown. In order to understand how this heavily frugivorous primate adapts to the seasonal fluctuation of fruit resources in the forest, we collected feeding behavior and ranging activity data on one group of southern yellow-cheeked crested gibbons in Cat Tien National Park, Vietnam, over 1-year period...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429609/chemical-evaluation-of-the-rhynchophorus-ferrugineus-larvae-fed-on-different-substrates-as-human-food-source
#13
Annarita Cito, Santi Longo, Giuseppe Mazza, Elena Dreassi, Valeria Francardi
We investigated the chemical composition of the weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus larvae, traditionally used as human food in Asia and known worldwide as one of the most significant pest for palm trees. Total fat content and fatty acid composition were analyzed using standard methodologies in (1) weevil larvae reared on apple fruit slices and wild specimens collected from attacked (2) Phoenix canariensis and (3) Syagrus romanzoffiana palm trees. Total fat content was extremely high in all the specimens (ranged between 57...
January 1, 2017: Food Science and Technology International, Ciencia y Tecnología de Los Alimentos Internacional
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421311/long-term-soil-alteration-in-historical-charcoal-hearths-affects-tuber-melanosporum-mycorrhizal-development-and-environmental-conditions-for-fruiting
#14
Sergi Garcia-Barreda, Sara Molina-Grau, Ricardo Forcadell, Sergio Sánchez, Santiago Reyna
Abandoned charcoal hearths constitute a very particular habitat for spontaneous fruiting of Tuber melanosporum, leading some harvesters to hypothesise that the fungus could benefit from the alterations that these soils underwent. However, ecological mechanisms involved in this relation are not fully elucidated yet. As a first step to understand it, the influence of long-term soil alteration on the symbiotic stage of T. melanosporum and on selected soil properties considered key to fruiting was assessed by conducting a greenhouse bioassay and a field observational study...
April 18, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418429/chemical-constituents-radical-scavenging-activity-and-enzyme-inhibitory-capacity-of-fruits-from-cotoneaster-pannosus-franch
#15
Francisco Les, Víctor López, Giovanni Caprioli, Romilde Iannarelli, Dennis Fiorini, Marzia Innocenti, Maria Bellumori, Filippo Maggi
Cotoneaster pannosus (Rosaceae) is a semievergreen shrub, producing globose dark red pomes, native to China and widely used as an ornamental plant all over the world. Despite its extensive cultivation, little information is available on the chemical composition and biological activities of its fruits. In this work, the analysis of the chemical composition of C. pannosus fruits, in terms of phenolic components, carotenoids and ascorbic acid by HPLC/DAD, HPLC/ESI-MS and MS/MS as well as in terms of macro- and micro-nutrients was performed...
May 24, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412858/profile-of-lipophilic-antioxidants-in-the-by-products-recovered-from-six-cultivars-of-sour-cherry-prunus-cerasus-l
#16
Vitalijs Radenkovs, Daina Feldmane
The content of tocochromanols and carotenoids in kernels recovered from fruit pits of six sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) cultivars was studied. The highest concentration was noted for γ-T (23.50-52.76 mg/100 g dry weight basis (dw)). Considerably, lower amounts compared to γ-T were detected for α-T, δ-T and α-T3 (5.74-13.33, 2.74-4.54 and 0.30-1.16 mg/100 g dw, respectively). The β-T and γ-T3 were quantified only in minor levels. The total amount of tocochromanols was in the range 41.69-63.48 mg/100 g dw...
April 17, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409237/prevalence-of-sucretolerant-bacteria-in-common-soils-and-their-isolation-and-characterization
#17
Casper Fredsgaard, Donald B Moore, Fei Chen, Benton C Clark, Mark A Schneegurt
Sucretolerant microbes grow in the presence of sugar concentrations high enough to substantially lower water activities. Natural habitats high in sugars are mainly limited to dried fruit, floral nectar, honey, sugarcane, and associated soils. Organisms that tolerate extremes of solute concentration, high enough to lower water activities, might not be expected in common oligoosmotic soils. We report on the isolation of sucretolerant bacteria from common soils using media supplemented with 50% sucrose (a w 0...
April 13, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389547/engineering-of-bacteriophages-y2-dpol1-c-and-y2-luxab-for-efficient-control-and-rapid-detection-of-the-fire-blight-pathogen-erwinia-amylovora
#18
Yannick Born, Lars Fieseler, Valentin Thöny, Nadja Leimer, Brion Duffy, Martin J Loessner
Erwinia amylovora is the causative agent of fire blight, a devastating plant disease affecting members of the Rosaceae Alternatives to antibiotics for control of fire blight symptoms and outbreaks are highly desirable, due to increasing drug-resistance and tight regulatory restrictions. Moreover, the available diagnostic methods either lack sensitivity, speed, or are unable to discriminate between live and dead bacteria. Owing to their extreme biological specificity, bacteriophages are promising alternatives for both aims...
April 7, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387783/the-eastern-part-of-the-fertile-crescent-concealed-an-unexpected-route-of-olive-olea-europaea-l-differentiation
#19
Soraya Mousavi, Roberto Mariotti, Francesca Bagnoli, Lorenzo Costantini, Nicolò G M Cultrera, Kazem Arzani, Saverio Pandolfi, Giovanni Giuseppe Vendramin, Bahareh Torkzaban, Mehdi Hosseini-Mazinani, Luciana Baldoni
Background and Aims: Olive is considered a native plant of the eastern side of the Mediterranean basin, from where it should have spread westward along the Mediterranean shores, while little is known about its diffusion in the eastern direction. Methods: Genetic diversity levels and population genetic structure of a wide set of olive ecotypes and varieties collected from several provinces of Iran, representing a high percentage of the entire olive resources present in the area, was screened with 49 chloroplast and ten nuclear simple sequence repeat markers, and coupled with archaeo-botanical and historical data on Mediterranean olive varieties...
April 5, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386252/caenorhabditis-elegans-as-a-model-for-microbiome-research
#20
Fan Zhang, Maureen Berg, Katja Dierking, Marie-Anne Félix, Michael Shapira, Buck S Samuel, Hinrich Schulenburg
The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is used as a central model system across biological disciplines. Surprisingly, almost all research with this worm is performed in the absence of its native microbiome, possibly affecting generality of the obtained results. In fact, the C. elegans microbiome had been unknown until recently. This review brings together results from the first three studies on C. elegans microbiomes, all published in 2016. Meta-analysis of the data demonstrates a considerable conservation in the composition of the microbial communities, despite the distinct geographical sample origins, study approaches, labs involved and perturbations during worm processing...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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