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Smooth muscle cell motility

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881401/alterations-of-colonic-function-in-the-winnie-mouse-model-of-spontaneous-chronic-colitis
#1
Ainsley M Robinson, Ahmed A Rahman, Simona Elisa Carbone, Sarron Randall-Demllo, Rhiannon Filippone, Joel Charles Bornstein, Rajaraman Eri, Kulmira Nurgali
The Winnie mouse, carrying a missense mutation in Muc2, is a model for chronic intestinal inflammation demonstrating symptoms closely resembling inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Alterations to the immune environment, morphological structure and innervation of Winnie mouse colon have been identified; however analyses of intestinal transit and colonic functions have not been conducted. In this study, we investigated in vivo intestinal transit in radiographic studies and in vitro motility of the isolated colon in organ bath experiments...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875260/the-presence-and-role-of-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-in-the-proximal-intestine-of-shorthorn-sculpin-myoxocephalus-scorpius
#2
Jeroen Brijs, Grant W Hennig, Anna-Maria Kellermann, Michael Axelsson, Catharina Olsson
Rhythmic contractions of the mammalian gastrointestinal tract can occur in the absence of neuronal or hormonal stimulation due to the generation of spontaneous electrical activity by interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) that are electrically coupled to smooth muscle cells. The myogenically-driven component of gastrointestinal motility patterns in fish likely also involves ICC, however, little is known of their presence, distribution and function in any fish species. In the present study, we combined immunohistochemistry and in vivo recordings of intestinal motility to investigate the involvement of ICC in the motility of the proximal intestine in adult shorthorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius)...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854297/prelamin-a-accumulation-attenuates-rac1-activity-and-increases-the-intrinsic-migrational-persistence-of-aged-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#3
Lauren J Porter, Mark R Holt, Daniel Soong, Catherine M Shanahan, Derek T Warren
Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) motility is essential during both physiological and pathological vessel remodeling. Although ageing has emerged as a major risk factor in the development of cardiovascular disease, our understanding of the impact of ageing on VSMC motility remains limited. Prelamin A accumulation is known to drive VSMC ageing and we show that presenescent VSMCs, that have accumulated prelamin A, display increased focal adhesion dynamics, augmented migrational velocity/persistence and attenuated Rac1 activity...
November 15, 2016: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825967/a-novel-splice-variant-of-supervillin-sv5-promotes-carcinoma-cell-proliferation-and-cell-migration
#4
Xueran Chen, Haoran Yang, Shangrong Zhang, Zhen Wang, Fang Ye, Chaozhao Liang, Hongzhi Wang, Zhiyou Fang
Supervillin is an actin-associated protein that regulates actin dynamics by interacting with Myosin II, F-actin, and Cortactin to promote cell contractility and cell motility. Two splicing variants of human Supervillin (SV1 and SV4) have been reported in non-muscle cells; SV1 lacks 3 exons present in the larger isoform SV4. SV2, also called archvillin, is present in striated muscle; SV3, also called smooth muscle archvillin or SmAV, was cloned from smooth muscle. In the present study, we identify a novel splicing variant of Supervillin (SV5)...
November 5, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796881/telocytes-new-players-in-gallstone-disease
#5
Artur Pasternak, Krzysztof Gil, Andrzej Matyja
Cholesterol gallstone disease is highly prevalent in Western countries, particularly in women and some specific ethnic groups. The mechanisms behind the formation of gallstones are not clearly understood, but gallbladder dysmotility seems to be a key factor that triggers the precipitation of cholesterol microcrystals from supersaturated lithogenic bile.Given that newly described interstitial cells, telocytes, are present in the gallbladder and they are located in close vicinity of smooth muscle cell and neural fibers possibly interfering with gallbladder motility or contractility, authors are trying to summarize the current knowledge on the role of telocytes with respect to disturbed gallbladder function in gallstone disease...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778026/-physiological-and-pathophysiological-meanings-of-gastrointestinal-smooth-muscle-motor-unit-sip-syncytium
#6
Ni-Na Song, Wen-Xie Xu
Gastrointestinal smooth muscle layer contains two kinds of interstitial cells with special differentiation, i.e., interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor α-positive (PDGFRα(+)) cells. The ICC and PDGFRα(+) cells contact with smooth muscle cells (SMCs) by gap junctions and regulate contractive function of the SMCs. Therefore, these three kinds of cells constitute a functional syncytium, i.e., the SMC, ICC and PDGFRα(+) cells syncytium (SIP syncytium). Various neurotransmitters, humoral factors, endogenous bioactive molecules, as well as drugs regulate gastrointestinal motility through the SIP syncytium...
October 25, 2016: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756919/problems-with-extracellular-recording-of-electrical-activity-in-gastrointestinal-muscle
#7
REVIEW
Kenton M Sanders, Sean M Ward, Grant W Hennig
Motility patterns of the gastrointestinal tract are important for efficient processing of nutrients and waste. Peristalsis and segmentation are based on rhythmic electrical slow waves that generate the phasic contractions fundamental to gastrointestinal motility. Slow waves are generated and propagated actively by interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), and these events conduct to smooth muscle cells to elicit excitation-contraction coupling. Extracellular electrical recording has been utilized to characterize slow-wave generation and propagation and abnormalities that might be responsible for gastrointestinal motility disorders...
October 19, 2016: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733037/deletion-of-calponin-2-in-mouse-fibroblasts-increases-myosin-ii-dependent-cell-traction-force
#8
M Moazzem Hossain, Guangyi Zhao, Moon-Sook Woo, James H-C Wang, Jian-Ping Jin
Cell traction force (CTF) plays a critical role in controlling cell shape, enabling cell motility, and maintaining cellular homeostasis in many biological processes such as angiogenesis, development, wound healing, and cancer metastasis. Calponin is an actin filament-associated cytoskeletal protein in smooth muscles and multiple types of non-muscle cells. An established biochemical function of calponin is the inhibition of myosin ATPase in smooth muscle cells. Vertebrates have three calponin isoforms. Among them, calponin 2 is expressed in epithelial cells, endothelial cells, macrophages, myoblasts and fibroblasts, and plays a role in regulating cytoskeleton activities such as cell adhesion, migration and cytokinesis...
October 13, 2016: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703389/ineffective-esophageal-motility-and-the-vagus-current-challenges-and-future-prospects
#9
Ji-Hong Chen
Ineffective esophageal motility (IEM) is characterized by low to very low amplitude propulsive contractions in the distal esophagus, hence primarily affecting the smooth muscle part of the esophagus. IEM is often found in patients with dysphagia or heartburn and is commonly associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease. IEM is assumed to be associated with ineffective bolus transport; however, this can be verified using impedance measurements or evaluation of a barium coated marshmallow swallow. Furthermore, water swallows may not assess accurately the motor capabilities of the esophagus, since contraction amplitude is strongly determined by the size and consistency of the bolus...
2016: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699916/design-of-peptidase-resistant-peptide-inhibitors-of-myosin-light-chain-kinase
#10
Asker Y Khapchaev, Olga A Kazakova, Mikhail V Samsonov, Maria V Sidorova, Valery N Bushuev, Elena L Vilitkevich, Andrey A Az'muko, Alexander S Molokoedov, Zhanna D Bespalova, Vladimir P Shirinsky
Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) is a key regulator of various forms of cell motility including smooth muscle contraction, cell migration, cytokinesis, receptor capping, secretion, etc. Inhibition of MLCK activity in endothelial and epithelial monolayers using cell-permeant peptide Arg-Lys-Lys-Tyr-Lys-Tyr-Arg-Arg-Lys (PIK, Peptide Inhibitor of Kinase) allows protecting the barrier capacity, suggesting a potential medical use of PIK. However, low stability of L-PIK in a biological milieu prompts for development of more stable L-PIK analogues for use as experimental tools in basic and drug-oriented biomedical research...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683605/novel-signaling-pathways-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-2015-grover-conference-series
#11
REVIEW
Keytam S Awad, James D West, Vinicio de Jesus Perez, Margaret MacLean
The proliferative endothelial and smooth muscle cell phenotype, inflammation, and pulmonary vascular remodeling are prominent features of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Mutations in bone morphogenetic protein type 2 receptor (BMPR2) have been identified as the most common genetic cause of PAH and females with BMPR2 mutations are 2.5 times as likely to develop heritable forms of PAH than males. Higher levels of estrogen have also been observed in males with PAH, implicating sex hormones in PAH pathogenesis...
September 2016: Pulmonary Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665774/hydrogen-sulfide-donor-nahs-induces-death-of-alveolar-epithelial-l2-cells-that-is-associated-with-cellular-shrinkage-transgelin-expression-and-myosin-phosphorylation
#12
Yusuke Fujii, Takeshi Funakoshi, Kana Unuma, Kanako Noritake, Toshihiko Aki, Koichi Uemura
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a highly toxic gaseous molecule that causes death to humans exposed to high concentrations. H2S is absorbed into the body through the alveolar epithelium and other tissues. The aim of this study is to evaluate the molecular mechanism underling acute lung injury caused by the inhalation of high concentrations of H2S. Rat lung epithelium-derived L2 cells were exposed to a H2S donor, NaHS, at concentrations of 2-4 mM for 1-6 hr. NaHS caused shrinkage and death of the cells without caspase activation...
2016: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634833/perivascular-macrophages-limit-permeability
#13
Huanhuan He, Julia J Mack, Esra Güç, Carmen M Warren, Mario Leonardo Squadrito, Witold W Kilarski, Caroline Baer, Ryan D Freshman, Austin I McDonald, Safiyyah Ziyad, Melody A Swartz, Michele De Palma, M Luisa Iruela-Arispe
OBJECTIVE: Perivascular cells, including pericytes, macrophages, smooth muscle cells, and other specialized cell types, like podocytes, participate in various aspects of vascular function. However, aside from the well-established roles of smooth muscle cells and pericytes, the contributions of other vascular-associated cells are poorly understood. Our goal was to ascertain the function of perivascular macrophages in adult tissues under nonpathological conditions. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We combined confocal microscopy, in vivo cell depletion, and in vitro assays to investigate the contribution of perivascular macrophages to vascular function...
November 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619727/supernatants-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome-mucosal-biopsies-impair-human-colonic-smooth-muscle-contractility
#14
M P Guarino, G Barbara, A Cicenia, A Altomare, M R Barbaro, S Cocca, A Scirocco, C Cremon, S Emerenziani, V Stanghellini, M Cicala, C Severi
BACKGROUND: Changes in intestinal motility are likely to contribute to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) pathophysiology. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of IBS mucosal supernatants on human colonic muscle contractility. METHODS: Supernatants were obtained from biopsies of 18 IBS patients-nine with constipation (IBS-C) and nine with diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D)-and nine asymptomatic subjects, used as controls. Colonic circular smooth muscle strips or isolated cells (SMC) were exposed to control or IBS supernatants...
September 12, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586650/up-regulation-of-l-type-calcium-channels-in-colonic-inhibitory-motorneurons-of-p-q-type-calcium-channel-deficient-mice
#15
Eileen Rodriguez-Tapia, Alberto Perez-Medina, Xiaochun Bian, James J Galligan
Enteric inhibitory motorneurons use nitric oxide (NO) and a purine neurotransmitter to relax gastrointestinal smooth muscle. Enteric P/Q type Ca(2+) channels contribute to excitatory neuromuscular transmission; their contribution to inhibitory transmission is less clear. We used the colon from tottering mice (tg/tg, loss of function mutation in the α1A pore-forming subunit of P/Q-type Ca(2+) channels) to test the hypothesis that P/Q-type Ca(2+) channels contribute to inhibitory neuromuscular transmission and colonic propulsive motility...
September 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579780/high-mobility-group-box-1-mediates-interferon-%C3%AE-induced-phenotypic-modulation-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#16
Kun Wang, Wei Li, Qihong Yu, Bing Guo, Bin Yang, Chen Zhang, Min Li, Jinjin Li, Shaobo Hu, Qichang Zheng, Zifang Song
The phenotypic modulation of VSMCs is a key cellular event driving neointimal formation and vascular remodeling. As a multifaceted cytokine of cell-mediated immunity, IFN-γ has been shown to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of vascular proliferative diseases. Although the important function of IFN-γ on regulating VSMC activation is well established, the molecular mechanisms by which elicits VSMC responses are poorly defined. Recent studies have identified HMGB1 as a principal effector to mediate IFN-γ-dependent biological functions in multiple cell types...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27528071/cast-tube-assay-a-3-d-in-vitro-assay-for-visualization-and-quantification-of-horizontal-chemotaxis-and-cellular-invasion
#17
Breffeni Constantine Whitehead, Deon Bezuidenhout, Cindy Chokoza, Neil Hamer Davies, Kyle Peter Goetsch
Directed cell motility, as controlled by soluble factors, is crucial for many biological processes, including development, cancer progression, and wound healing. The use of directed cell motility also shows promise for applications in regenerative medicine such as therapeutic angiogenesis. Unfortunately, current in vitro 3-D migration and invasion models limit our understanding and application of these processes. Here, we present a novel and cost-effective 3-D chemotaxis assay for assessing the invasive response of cells to a chemoattractant extracellular matrix (ECM)...
2016: BioTechniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27528058/integrative-control-of-gastrointestinal-motility-by-nitric-oxide
#18
Dieter Groneberg, Barbara Voussen, Andreas Friebe
In the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, nitric oxide (NO) has been shown over the last 25 years to exert a prominent function as inhibitory neurotransmitter. Apart from the regulation of secretion and resorption, NO from nitrergic neurons has been demonstrated to be crucial for GI smooth muscle relaxation and motility. In fact, several human diseases such as achalasia, gastroparesis, slow transit constipation or Hirschsprung's disease may involve dysfunctional nitrergic signaling. Most of NO's effects as neurotransmitter are mediated by NO-sensitive guanylyl cyclase (NO-GC) and further transduced by cGMP-dependent mechanisms...
August 12, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27522265/the-p2y2-receptor-mediates-uptake-of-matrix-retained-and-aggregated-low-density-lipoprotein-in-primary-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#19
Tixieanna Dissmore, Cheikh I Seye, Denis M Medeiros, Gary A Weisman, Barry Bardford, Laman Mamedova
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The internalization of aggregated low-density lipoproteins (agLDL) mediated by low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein (LRP1) may involve the actin cytoskeleton in ways that differ from the endocytosis of soluble LDL by the LDL receptor (LDLR). This study aims to define novel mechanisms of agLDL uptake through modulation of the actin cytoskeleton, to identify molecular targets involved in foam cell formation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The critical observation that formed the basis for these studies is that under pathophysiological conditions, nucleotide release from blood-derived and vascular cells activates SMC P2Y2 receptors (P2Y2Rs) leading to rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton and cell motility...
September 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27507104/bioengineering-the-gut-future-prospects-of-regenerative-medicine
#20
REVIEW
Khalil N Bitar, Elie Zakhem
Functions of the gastrointestinal tract include motility, digestion and absorption of nutrients. These functions are mediated by several specialized cell types including smooth muscle cells, neurons, interstitial cells and epithelial cells. In gastrointestinal diseases, some of the cells become degenerated or fail to accomplish their normal functions. Surgical resection of the diseased segments of the gastrointestinal tract is considered the gold-standard treatment in many cases, but patients might have surgical complications and quality of life can remain low...
September 2016: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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