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Smooth muscle cell motility

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339861/constitutive-luteinizing-hormone-receptor-signaling-causes-sexual-dysfunction-and-leydig-cell-adenomas-in-male-mice1
#1
Lan Hai, Deepak S Hiremath, Marilène Paquet, Prema Narayan
The luteinizing hormone receptor (LHCGR) is necessary for fertility and genetic mutations cause defects in reproductive development and function. Activating mutations in LHCGR cause familial male limited precocious puberty (FMPP). We have previously characterized a mouse model (KiLHRD582G) for FMPP that exhibits the same phenotype of precocious puberty, Leydig cell hyperplasia and elevated testosterone as boys with the disorder. We observed that KiLHRD582G male mice became infertile by 6 months of age although sperm count and motility were normal...
February 17, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315973/stem-cell-factor-kit-signal-insufficiency-contributes-to-hypoxia-induced-intestinal-motility-dysfunctions-in-neonatal-mice
#2
Hong Ren, Juan Han, Zhifang Li, Zhiyong Xiong
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal (GI) motility disorders represent a group of problems that more constantly encountered in preterm infants. However, whether hypoxia exposure contributes to the GI dysfunctions is still unclear. METHODS: Newborn mice were exposed to hypoxia (10%) from P1 to P7. Intestinal motilities were examined by a strain gauge transducer. The proliferation of ICCs was detected by using immunostaining for BrdU, Ki67, Kit, Ano1, and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R+)...
March 18, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303478/effects-of-synbiotic2000%C3%A2-forte-on-the-intestinal-motility-and-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-in-tbi-mouse-model
#3
Limei Zhang, Jing Zeng, Yuanyuan Ma, Min Tan, Min Zhou, Huan Fang, Stig Bengmark, Jingci Zhu
The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Synbiotic2000™ Forte on the intestinal motility and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) in traumatic brain injury (TBI) mouse model. Kunming mice were randomly divided into sham operation group (S group), enteral nutrition group with TBI (E group), and Synbiotic2000™ Forte group with TBI (P group). The contractile activity of the intestinal smooth muscle, densities and ultrastructure of the ICC, kit protein concentration, weight, and defecation of mice were monitored and analyzed...
March 16, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292896/loss-of-lmod1-impairs-smooth-muscle-cytocontractility-and-causes-megacystis-microcolon-intestinal-hypoperistalsis-syndrome-in-humans-and-mice
#4
Danny Halim, Michael P Wilson, Daniel Oliver, Erwin Brosens, Joke B G M Verheij, Yu Han, Vivek Nanda, Qing Lyu, Michael Doukas, Hans Stoop, Rutger W W Brouwer, Wilfred F J van IJcken, Orazio J Slivano, Alan J Burns, Christine K Christie, Karen L de Mesy Bentley, Alice S Brooks, Dick Tibboel, Suowen Xu, Zheng Gen Jin, Tono Djuwantono, Wei Yan, Maria M Alves, Robert M W Hofstra, Joseph M Miano
Megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS) is a congenital visceral myopathy characterized by severe dilation of the urinary bladder and defective intestinal motility. The genetic basis of MMIHS has been ascribed to spontaneous and autosomal dominant mutations in actin gamma 2 (ACTG2), a smooth muscle contractile gene. However, evidence suggesting a recessive origin of the disease also exists. Using combined homozygosity mapping and whole exome sequencing, a genetically isolated family was found to carry a premature termination codon in Leiomodin1 (LMOD1), a gene preferentially expressed in vascular and visceral smooth muscle cells...
March 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282410/biomathematical-pattern-of-emg-signal-propagation-in-smooth-muscle-of-the-non-pregnant-porcine-uterus
#5
Malgorzata Domino, Bartosz Pawlinski, Zdzislaw Gajewski
Uterine contractions are generated by myometrial smooth muscle cells (SMCs) that comprise most of the myometrial layer of the uterine wall. Aberrant uterine motility (i.e., hypo- or hyper-contractility or asynchronous contractions) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of infertility due to the failure of implantation, endometriosis and abnormal estrous cycles. The mechanism whereby the non-pregnant uterus initiates spontaneous contractions remains poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to employ linear synchronization measures for analyzing the pattern of EMG signal propagation (direction and speed) in smooth muscles of the non-pregnant porcine uterus in vivo using telemetry recording system...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270043/roles-of-atp-sensitive-potassium-channel-in-modulating-gastric-tone-and-accommodation-in-dogs
#6
Shiying Li, Yong Lei, Jiande Dz Chen
OBJECTIVE: The ATP sensitive potassium (KATP) channel plays an important role in the regulation of resting membrane potential and membrane excitability. The role of the KATP channel in modulating gastric motility is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the role and mechanism of the KATP channel in modulating gastric tone and accommodation in dogs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Gastric volume under a constant pressure reflecting gastric tone was measured using a barostat device in dogs equipped with a gastric cannula...
May 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232185/pcsk9-regulates-the-chemokine-receptor-ccr2-on-monocytes
#7
Jana Grune, Heike Meyborg, Taisiya Bezhaeva, Kai Kappert, Philipp Hillmeister, Ulrich Kintscher, Burkert Pieske, Philipp Stawowy
Monocyte migration is a key element in atherosclerosis. LDL-C facilitates monocyte migration via induction of CCR2. PCSK9 regulates cell surface expression of the LDL-R and is expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The present study was done to investigate the regulation of PCSK9 in VSMCs and its impact on monocyte function. METHODS AND RESULTS: PCSK9 mRNA and protein levels were upregulated in VSMCs by the TLR-4 ligand LPS, whereas TGF-β or angiotensin II had no effect. Induction of PCSK9 was selectively inhibited by TLR-4 blockade and further downstream by the SAPK/JNK-inhibitor SP600125, whereas inhibitors of ERK1/2, p38 or PI3-kinase pathways had no effect...
April 1, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188197/teaching-a-changing-paradigm-in-physiology-a-historical-perspective-on-gut-interstitial-cells
#8
REVIEW
Bernard T Drumm, Salah A Baker
The study and teaching of gastrointestinal (GI) physiology necessitates an understanding of the cellular basis of contractile and electrical coupling behaviors in the muscle layers that comprise the gut wall. Our knowledge of the cellular origin of GI motility has drastically changed over the last 100 yr. While the pacing and coordination of GI contraction was once thought to be solely attributable to smooth muscle cells, it is now widely accepted that the motility patterns observed in the GI tract exist as a result of a multicellular system, consisting of not only smooth muscle cells but also enteric neurons and distinct populations of specialized interstitial cells that all work in concert to ensure proper GI functions...
March 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174275/rhoa-knockout-fibroblasts-lose-tumor-inhibitory-capacity-in-vitro-and-promote-tumor-growth-in-vivo
#9
Twana Alkasalias, Andrey Alexeyenko, Katharina Hennig, Frida Danielsson, Robert Jan Lebbink, Matthew Fielden, S Pauliina Turunen, Kaisa Lehti, Vladimir Kashuba, Harsha S Madapura, Benedek Bozoky, Emma Lundberg, Martial Balland, Hayrettin Guvén, George Klein, Annica K B Gad, Tatiana Pavlova
Fibroblasts are a main player in the tumor-inhibitory microenvironment. Upon tumor initiation and progression, fibroblasts can lose their tumor-inhibitory capacity and promote tumor growth. The molecular mechanisms that underlie this switch have not been defined completely. Previously, we identified four proteins overexpressed in cancer-associated fibroblasts and linked to Rho GTPase signaling. Here, we show that knocking out the Ras homolog family member A (RhoA) gene in normal fibroblasts decreased their tumor-inhibitory capacity, as judged by neighbor suppression in vitro and accompanied by promotion of tumor growth in vivo...
February 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159817/tissue-transglutaminase-modulates-vascular-stiffness-and-function-through-crosslinking-dependent-and-crosslinking-independent-functions
#10
Jochen Steppan, Yehudit Bergman, Kayla Viegas, Dinani Armstrong, Siqi Tan, Huilei Wang, Sean Melucci, Daijiro Hori, Sung Yong Park, Sebastian F Barreto, Abraham Isak, Sandeep Jandu, Nicholas Flavahan, Mark Butlin, Steven S An, Alberto Avolio, Dan E Berkowitz, Marc K Halushka, Lakshmi Santhanam
BACKGROUND: The structural elements of the vascular wall, namely, extracellular matrix and smooth muscle cells (SMCs), contribute to the overall stiffness of the vessel. In this study, we examined the crosslinking-dependent and crosslinking-independent roles of tissue transglutaminase (TG2) in vascular function and stiffness. METHODS AND RESULTS: SMCs were isolated from the aortae of TG2-/- and wild-type (WT) mice. Cell adhesion was examined by using electrical cell-substrate impedance sensing and PicoGreen assay...
February 3, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137975/establishing-and-maintaining-primary-cell-cultures-derived-from-the-ctenophore-mnemiopsis-leidyi
#11
Lauren E Vandepas, Kaitlyn J Warren, Chris T Amemiya, William E Browne
We have developed an efficient method for the preparation and maintenance of primary cell cultures isolated from adult Mnemiopsis leidyi, a lobate ctenophore. Our primary cell cultures are derived from tissue explants or enzymatically-dissociated cells, and maintained in a complex undefined ctenophore mesogleal serum. These methods can be used to isolate, maintain, and visually monitor ctenophore cells to assess proliferation, cellular morphology, and cell differentiation in future studies. Exemplar cell types that can be easily isolated from primary cultures include proliferative ectodermal and endodermal cells, motile amebocyte-like cells, and giant smooth muscle cells that exhibit inducible contractile properties...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115057/optogenetic-demonstration-of-functional-innervation-of-mouse-colon-by-neurons-derived-from-transplanted-neural-cells
#12
Lincon A Stamp, Rachel M Gwynne, Jaime P P Foong, Alan E Lomax, Marlene M Hao, David I Kaplan, Christopher A Reid, Steven Petrou, Andrew M Allen, Joel C Bornstein, Heather M Young
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Cell therapy offers the potential to treat gastrointestinal motility disorders caused by diseased or absent enteric neurons. We examined whether neurons generated from transplanted enteric neural cells provide a functional innervation of bowel smooth muscle in mice. METHODS: Enteric neural cells expressing the light-sensitive ion channel, channelrhodopsin, were isolated from the fetal or postnatal mouse bowel and transplanted into the distal colon of 3-4 week old wild-type recipient mice...
January 20, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062917/the-enteric-nervous-system-and-the-musculature-of-the-colon-are-altered-in-patients-with-spina-bifida-and-spinal-cord-injury
#13
Marjanne den Braber-Ymker, Martin Lammens, Michel J A M van Putten, Iris D Nagtegaal
Neurogenic bowel dysfunction occurs in a large percentage of adult patients with spina bifida (SB) and spinal cord injury (SCI), significantly affecting their quality of life. Although bowel motility is autonomously regulated by the enteric nervous system (ENS), disruption of the modulation of the ENS by extrinsic innervation as present in many patients with SB and SCI might lead to motility disorders. In order to gain insight in the pathophysiology, we studied histological changes of the neuromuscular structures in the colon of SB and SCI patients...
February 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062501/p2y12-promotes-migration-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-through-cofilin-dephosphorylation-during-atherogenesis
#14
Xuan Niu, Shu-Lan Pi, Suraj Baral, Yuan-Peng Xia, Quan-Wei He, Ya-Nan Li, Hui-Juan Jin, Man Li, Meng-Die Wang, Ling Mao, Bo Hu
OBJECTIVE: P2Y12 is a well-recognized receptor expressed on platelets and the target of thienopyridine-type antiplatelet drugs. However, recent evidence suggests that P2Y12 expressed in vessel wall plays a role in atherogenesis, but the mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, we examined the molecular mechanisms of how vessel wall P2Y12 mediates vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) migration and promotes the progression of atherosclerosis. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Using a high-fat diet-fed ApoE knockout mice model, we found that the expression of P2Y12 in VSMCs increased in a time-dependent manner and had a linear relationship with the plaque area...
January 5, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043906/heterotrimeric-g-stimulatory-protein-alpha-subunit-is-required-for-intestinal-smooth-muscle-contraction-in-mice
#15
Xiaoteng Qin, Shangming Liu, Qiulun Lu, Meng Zhang, Xiuxin Jiang, Sanyuan Hu, Jingxin Li, Cheng Zhang, Jiangang Gao, Min-Sheng Zhu, Yun Zhang, Wencheng Zhang
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The alpha subunit of the heterotrimeric G stimulatory protein (Gsa), encoded by the guanine nucleotide binding protein, alpha stimulating gene (Gnas, in mice), is expressed ubiquitously and mediates receptor-stimulated production of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and activation of the protein kinase A signaling pathway. We investigated the roles of Gsa in vivo in smooth muscle cells of mice. METHODS: We performed studies of mice with Cre recombinase-mediated disruption of Gnas in smooth muscle cells (Gsa(SMKO) and SM22-CreER(T2), induced in adult mice by tamoxifen)...
December 30, 2016: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018918/role-of-bkca-in-stretch-induced-relaxation-of-colonic-smooth-muscle
#16
Jie Ren, Fang Xin, Ping Liu, Hai-Yan Zhao, Si-Tao Zhang, Peng Han, Hai-Xia Huang, Wei Wang
Stretch-induced relaxation has not been clearly identified in gastrointestinal tract. The present study is to explore the role of large conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (BKCa) in stretch-induced relaxation of colon. The expression and currents of BKCa were detected and the basal muscle tone and contraction amplitude of colonic smooth muscle strips were measured. The expression of BKCa in colon is higher than other GI segments (P < 0.05). The density of BKCa currents was very high in colonic smooth muscle cells (SMCs)...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018095/gastrointestinal-neuromuscular-apparatus-an-underestimated-target-of-gut-microbiota
#17
EDITORIAL
Michele Pier Luca Guarino, Michele Cicala, Lorenza Putignani, Carola Severi
Over the last few years, the importance of the resident intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of several gastro-intestinal diseases has been largely investigated. Growing evidence suggest that microbiota can influence gastro-intestinal motility. The current working hypothesis is that dysbiosis-driven mucosal alterations induce the production of several inflammatory/immune mediators which affect gut neuro-muscular functions. Besides these indirect mucosal-mediated effects, the present review highlights that recent evidence suggests that microbiota can directly affect enteric nerves and smooth muscle cells functions through its metabolic products or bacterial molecular components translocated from the intestinal lumen...
December 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003530/the-stentable-in-vitro-artery-an-instrumented-platform-for-endovascular-device-development-and-optimization
#18
Elizabeth E Antoine, François P Cornat, Abdul I Barakat
Although vascular disease is a leading cause of mortality, in vitro tools for controlled, quantitative studies of vascular biological processes in an environment that reflects physiological complexity remain limited. We developed a novel in vitro artery that exhibits a number of unique features distinguishing it from tissue-engineered or organ-on-a-chip constructs, most notably that it allows deployment of endovascular devices including stents, quantitative real-time tracking of cellular responses and detailed measurement of flow velocity and lumenal shear stress using particle image velocimetry...
December 2016: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992856/induction-of-fibroblast-senescence-generates-a-non-fibrogenic-myofibroblast-phenotype-that-differentially-impacts-on-cancer-prognosis
#19
Massimiliano Mellone, Christopher J Hanley, Steve Thirdborough, Toby Mellows, Edwin Garcia, Jeongmin Woo, Joanne Tod, Steve Frampton, Veronika Jenei, Karwan A Moutasim, Tasnuva D Kabir, Peter A Brennan, Giulia Venturi, Kirsty Ford, Nicolas Herranz, Kue Peng Lim, James Clarke, Daniel W Lambert, Stephen S Prime, Timothy J Underwood, Pandurangan Vijayanand, Kevin W Eliceiri, Christopher Woelk, Emma V King, Jesus Gil, Christian H Ottensmeier, Gareth J Thomas
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) remain a poorly characterized, heterogeneous cell population. Here we characterized two previously described tumor-promoting CAF sub-types, smooth muscle actin (SMA)-positive myofibroblasts and senescent fibroblasts, identifying a novel link between the two. Analysis of CAF cultured ex vivo, showed that senescent CAF are predominantly SMA-positive; this was confirmed by immunochemistry in head & neck (HNSCC) and esophageal (EAC) cancers. In vitro, we found that fibroblasts induced to senesce develop molecular, ultrastructural and contractile features typical of myofibroblasts and this is dependent on canonical TGF-β signaling...
December 15, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991922/phosphoglycerate-mutase-1-promotes-cancer-cell-migration-independent-of-its-metabolic-activity
#20
D Zhang, N Jin, W Sun, X Li, B Liu, Z Xie, J Qu, J Xu, X Yang, Y Su, S Tang, H Han, D Chen, J Ding, M Tan, M Huang, M Geng
Phosphoglycerate mutase 1 (PGAM1) is a glycolytic enzyme that coordinates glycolysis and biosynthesis to promote cancer growth via its metabolic activity. Here, we report the discovery of a non-metabolic function of PGAM1 in promoting cancer metastasis. A proteomic study identified α-smooth muscle actin (ACTA2) as a PGAM1-associated protein. PGAM1 modulated actin filaments assembly, cell motility and cancer cell migration via directly interacting with ACTA2, which was independent of its metabolic activity...
December 19, 2016: Oncogene
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