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Smooth muscle cell motility

Adam Rich
Zebrafish larvae are transparent and the entire gastrointestinal (GI) tract is easily visualized. Application of a new image analysis technique is reported in this issue of Neurogastroenterology and Motility (Neurogastroenterol Motil., 2018, volume 30, e13351). The technique quantifies movement in images collected in a timed sequence, and characterizes smooth muscle contractions based on contraction distance and frequency. The technique also reports the contraction amplitude, or the distance moved. This technique, and current spatiotemporal mapping techniques, are essential tools enabling characterization of GI motility patterns in intact physiological settings...
September 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Minglei Lu, Pei Wang, Sijie Zhou, Bryce Flickinger, Deepak Malhotra, Yan Ge, Marc Tatar, Lance Dworkin, Zhangsuo Liu, Rujun Gong
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Ecdysteroids are steroidal insect molting hormones that also exist in herbs. Ecdysteroid-containing adaptogens have been popularly used to improve well-being and by bodybuilders for muscle growth. However, the use of ecdysone in mammals is also associated with kidney growth and enlargement, indications of disturbed kidney homeostasis. The underlying pathogenic mechanism remains to be clarified. METHODS: Virtual screening tools were employed to identify compounds that are homologous to ecdysone and to predict putative ecdysone-interacting proteins...
September 18, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Diana Gallego, Carolina Malagelada, Anna Accarino, Alessandra Gori, Juan Ramón Malagelada, Fernando Azpiroz, Roberto De Giorgio, Marcel Jimenez
BACKGROUND: Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) and enteric dysmotility (ED) are severe intestinal motility disorders usually associated with underlying neuromuscular abnormalities. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the in vitro neuromuscular function of patients with severe intestinal motility disorders. METHODS: Full-thickness intestinal biopsies (16 jejunum and 3 ileum) obtained from patients with CIPO (n = 10) and ED (n = 9) were studied using muscle bath and microelectrode techniques...
September 3, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Andre Felipe Fajardo, Curtis Sobchak, Yulia Shifrin, Jingyi Pan, Tanja Gonska, Jaques Belik
BACKGROUND: When compared with infant formula, human milk enhances gastric emptying in preterm infants. Hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) is present in large quantities in human milk that has an antimicrobial role for the mother and infant. In vitro adult rat studies suggest that H2 O2 facilitates gastric motor contraction. Hypothesizing that H2 O2 enhances gastric motility, we investigated its effects on the newborn rat stomach tissue. METHODS: Rat newborn and adult gastric fundic segments, or their smooth muscle cells, were used to evaluate the muscle response to H2 O2 exposure...
August 24, 2018: Pediatric Research
Qincai Tang, Haixia Ren, Lin Yan, Xiaojing Quan, Hong Xia, Hesheng Luo
Diallyl trisulfide (DATS) is an active organosulfide component of allicin and has several beneficial effects, including antimicrobial, antioxidant, cardioprotective and anticancer effects. Few studies have shown the modulatory effect of DATS on L-type calcium channels in rat colonic smooth muscle cells and colonic motility. To investigate the modulatory effect of DATS on L-type calcium channels in rat colonic smooth muscle and colonic contraction, L-type calcium channel currents were recorded, and colonic contractility in longitudinal and circular smooth muscle strips was measured...
July 2018: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Ziba Roveimiab, Francis Lin, Judy Anderson
Cell migration is an essential process in which cells move from one location to another with different modes, including mesenchymal, amoeboid or collective movements. Migration occurs during development and in the maintenance of multicellular organisms for purposes of wound healing, tissue regeneration, and immune and pathophysiological responses. Cells in all three types of muscle: cardiac, smooth, and skeletal, are subject to and undergo migration, both general and adapted for tissue-specific needs. Cardiac cell migration is mediated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) through expression of VEGF receptors; it is not clear how cardiac cells migrate into a region of damage after infarction...
August 3, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
Min-Shao Tsai, Ming-Tsai Chiang, Dong-Lin Tsai, Chih-Wen Yang, Hsien-San Hou, Yi-Ru Li, Po-Chiao Chang, Heng-Huei Lin, Huan-Yuan Chen, Ing-Shouh Hwang, Pei-Kuen Wei, Chiao-Po Hsu, Kuo-I Lin, Fu-Tong Liu, Lee-Young Chau
Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration play a key role in the development of intimal hyperplasia and atherosclerosis. Galectin-1 (Gal-1) is a redox-sensitive β-galactoside-binding lectin expressed in VSMCs with intracellular and extracellular localizations. Here we show that VSMCs deficient in Gal-1 (Gal-1-KO) exhibited greater motility than wild type (WT) cells. Likewise, Gal-1-KO-VSMC migration was inhibited by a redox-insensitive but activity-preserved Gal-1 (CSGal-1) in a glycan-dependent manner...
July 31, 2018: Scientific Reports
F Carbone, J Tack
Sildenafil induces relaxation of smooth muscle cells by blocking PDE5. Dyspepsia is one of sildenafil's most frequently reported adverse events, suggesting its effect on gastric motility. Our aim was to study the effect of sildenafil on gastric accommodation (GA) and gastric emptying (GE) in healthy volunteers (HVs). Methods: Sildenafil (50 mg) or placebo was randomly administered to 16 blinded HVs. After a manometry probe and an infusion catheter were positioned in the proximal stomach, the intragastric pressure (IGP) was measured before and during nutrient drink infusion (ND, 60 ml/min)...
July 2018: United European Gastroenterology Journal
Jingjing Lu, Feng Xu, Yingna Zhang, Hong Lu, Jiewen Zhang
Background: Mishandling of intracellular chloride (Cl- ) concentration ([Cl- ]i ) in cerebrovascular smooth muscle cells is implicated in several pathological processes, including hyperplasia and remodeling. We investigated the effects of ClC-2-mediated Cl- efflux on the proliferation of human brain vascular smooth muscle cells (HBVSMCs) induced by angiotensin II (AngII). Methods: Cell proliferation and motility were determined using the CCK-8, bromodeoxyuridine staining, wound healing and invasion assays...
2018: Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters
Jialie Luo, Aihua Qian, Landon K Oetjen, Weihua Yu, Pu Yang, Jing Feng, Zili Xie, Shenbin Liu, Shijin Yin, Dari Dryn, Jizhong Cheng, Terrence E Riehl, Alexander V Zholos, William F Stenson, Brian S Kim, Hongzhen Hu
Intestinal macrophages are critical for gastrointestinal (GI) homeostasis, but our understanding of their role in regulating intestinal motility is incomplete. Here, we report that CX3C chemokine receptor 1-expressing muscularis macrophages (MMs) were required to maintain normal GI motility. MMs expressed the transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) channel, which senses thermal, mechanical, and chemical cues. Selective pharmacologic inhibition of TRPV4 or conditional deletion of TRPV4 from macrophages decreased intestinal motility and was sufficient to reverse the GI hypermotility that is associated with chemotherapy treatment...
July 17, 2018: Immunity
Ji Eun Kim, Mi Rim Lee, Jin Ju Park, Jun Young Choi, Bo Ram Song, Hong Joo Son, Young Whan Choi, Kyung Mi Kim, Jin Tae Hong, Dae Youn Hwang
CONTEXT: Quercetin (QCT) has been known as a potential therapeutic strategy for gastrointestinal diseases because it contributes to the stabilization of mast cells, the prevention of histamine release and modulation of CaCC chloride channel. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the laxative effect and action mechanism of QCT in Lop-induced constipation model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Constipation of SD rats was induced by subcutaneous injection of loperamide (Lop) (4 mg/kg weight) in 0...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
Bradley B Barth, Xiling Shen
The success of neuromodulation therapies, particularly in the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves, has been greatly aided by computational, biophysical models. However, treating gastrointestinal disorders with electrical stimulation has been much less explored, partly because the mode of action of such treatments is unclear, and selection of stimulation parameters is often empirical. Progress in gut neuromodulation is limited by the comparative lack of biophysical models capable of simulating neuromodulation of gastrointestinal function...
August 15, 2018: Brain Research
You-Min Lin, Yu Fu, Shrilakshmi Hegde, Yanbo Tang, Ravi Radhakrishnan, Xuan-Zheng Shi
Motility dysfunction is present not only during bowel obstruction (BO), but after obstruction is resolved. Previous studies found that lumen distension associated mechano-transcription of COX-2 and production of PGE2 in gut smooth muscle cells (SMC) account for motility dysfunction during obstruction. We hypothesized that PGE2 may exert autocrine effect in SMC to induce microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1), which contributes to motility dysfunction after obstruction is resolved. Partial colon obstruction was induced in rats with an obstruction band, which was released 7 days later...
June 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Vera Elfgen, Andrea Mietens, Marco Mewe, Thorben Hau, Ralf Middendorff
During their transit through the epididymis, spermatozoa mature and acquire motility and fertilizing capacity. The smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of the epididymal duct are thought to be responsible for the adequate transport of spermatozoa. Thus, precise regulation of SMC function also represents a prerequisite for sperm maturation thereby contributing to male fertility. In this review we would like to highlight various aspects of epididymal SMC function and discuss several angles with respect to regulation of contraction and relaxation...
June 11, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Giorgia Galiazzo, Fiorella Giancola, Agnese Stanzani, Federico Fracassi, Chiara Bernardini, Monica Forni, Marco Pietra, Roberto Chiocchetti
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is composed of cannabinoid receptors, their endogenous ligands, and the enzymes involved in endocannabinoid turnover. Modulating the activity of the ECS may influence a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes. A growing body of evidence indicates that activation of cannabinoid receptors by endogenous, plant-derived, or synthetic cannabinoids may exert beneficial effects on gastrointestinal inflammation and visceral pain. The present ex vivo study aimed to investigate immunohistochemically the distribution of cannabinoid receptors CB1, CB2, G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55), and peroxisome proliferation activation receptor alpha (PPARα) in the canine gastrointestinal tract...
June 7, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Yanzhen Zhang, Chunfeng Wang, Lianfeng Zhang
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to investigate the effect and underlying mechanism of thyrotrophin releasing hormone (TRH) on colonic contractile disorders induced by chronic water avoidance stress (WAS). METHODS: Male SD rats were exposed to daily 1-h WAS or sham WAS for 10 consecutive days. The presence of TRH in the serum and colonic mucosa were determined using enzyme immunoassay kits. Immunohistochemistry and western blotting were performed to detect the expression of TRH receptor 1 (TRH-R1)...
August 2018: Neuropeptides
Min Yang, Zhiqin Fan, Fei Wang, Zhi-Hua Tian, Bo Ma, Bin Dong, Zhongwu Li, Ming Zhang, Wei Zhao
The persistent proliferation of hypoxia-induced vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in the arterial wall underlie the development of atherosclerosis. However, the mechanism that regulates the behavior of VSMCs, which involve in actin aggregation, and impedes their migration is still elusive. Here, we report that bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) leads to enrichment of CD44 and F-actin stress fiber and secretion of matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2) during hypoxia in vitro and following artificial hypoxia-induced atherosclerosis exacerbation in vivo...
July 15, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Bhavani S Kowtharapu, Ruby Kala Prakasam, Radovan Murín, Dirk Koczan, Thomas Stahnke, Andreas Wree, Anselm G M Jünemann, Oliver Stachs
In the cornea, healing of the wounded avascular surface is an intricate process comprising the involvement of epithelial, stromal and neuronal cell interactions. These interactions result to the release of various growth factors that play prominent roles during corneal wound healing response. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are unique multi-functional potent growth factors of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily. Treatment of corneal epithelial cells with substance P and nerve growth factor resulted to an increase in the expression of BMP7 mRNA...
May 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Wenwu Zhang, Bhupal P Bhetwal, Susan J Gunst
KEY POINTS: The mechanisms by which Rho kinase (ROCK) regulates airway smooth muscle contraction were determined in tracheal smooth muscle tissues. ROCK may mediate smooth muscle contraction by inhibiting myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) phosphatase. ROCK can also regulate F-actin dynamics during cell migration, and actin polymerization is critical for airway smooth muscle contraction. Our results show that ROCK does not regulate airway smooth muscle contraction by inhibiting myosin RLC phosphatase or by stimulating myosin RLC phosphorylation...
August 2018: Journal of Physiology
Qianqian Wang, Ke Wang, R Sergio Solorzano-Vargas, Po-Yu Lin, Christopher M Walthers, Anne-Laure Thomas, Martín G Martín, James C Y Dunn
Although critical for studies of gut motility and intestinal regeneration, the in vitro culture of intestinal muscularis with peristaltic function remains a significant challenge. Periodic contractions of intestinal muscularis result from the coordinated activity of smooth muscle cells (SMC), the enteric nervous system (ENS), and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC). Reproducing this activity requires the preservation of all these cells in one system. Here we report the first serum-free culture methodology that consistently maintains spontaneous and periodic contractions of murine and human intestinal muscularis cells for months...
2018: PloS One
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