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Smooth muscle cell motility

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430647/the-cells-and-conductance-mediating-cholinergic-neurotransmission-in-the-murine-proximal-stomach
#1
Tae Sik Sung, Sung Jin Hwang, Sang Don Koh, Yulia Bayguinov, Lauen E Peri, Peter J Blair, Timothy I Webb, David M Pardo, Jason R Rock, Kenton M Sanders, Sean M Ward
Enteric motor neurotransmission is essential for normal gastrointestinal (GI) motility. Controversy exists regarding the cells and ionic conductance(s) that mediate post-junctional neuroeffector responses to motor neurotransmitters. Isolated intramuscular ICC (ICC-IM) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) from murine fundus muscles were used to determine the conductances activated by carbachol (CCh) in each cell-type. The calcium-activated chloride conductance (CaCC), Ano1 is expressed by ICC-IM but not resolved in SMCs, and CCh activated a Cl- conductance in ICC-IM and a non-selective cation conductance (NSCC) in SMCs...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428595/galanin-enhances-systemic-glucose-metabolism-through-enteric-nitric-oxide-synthase-expressed-neurons
#2
Anne Abot, Alexandre Lucas, Tereza Bautzova, Arnaud Bessac, Audren Fournel, Sophie Le-Gonidec, Philippe Valet, Cédric Moro, Patrice D Cani, Claude Knauf
OBJECTIVE: Decreasing duodenal contraction is now considered as a major focus for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, identifying bioactive molecules able to target the enteric nervous system, which controls the motility of intestinal smooth muscle cells, represents a new therapeutic avenue. For this reason, we chose to study the impact of oral galanin on this system in diabetic mice. METHODS: Enteric neurotransmission, duodenal contraction, glucose absorption, modification of gut-brain axis, and glucose metabolism (glucose tolerance, insulinemia, glucose entry in tissue, hepatic glucose metabolism) were assessed...
January 31, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410074/the-relative-composition-of-actin-isoforms-regulates-cell-surface-biophysical-features-and-cellular-behaviors
#3
Xin Xie, Muhammedin Deliorman, Mohammad A Qasaimeh, Piergiorgio Percipalle
BACKGROUND: Cell surface mechanics is able to physically and biomechanically affect cell shape and motility, vesicle trafficking and actin dynamics. The biophysical properties of cell surface are strongly influenced by cytoskeletal elements. In mammals, tissue-specific expression of six actin isoforms is thought to confer differential biomechanical properties. However, the relative contribution of actin isoforms to cell surface properties is not well understood. Here, we sought to investigate whether and how the composition of endogenous actin isoforms directly affects the biomechanical features of cell surface and cellular behavior...
February 1, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399568/effects-of-atp-on-pacemaker-activity-of-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-from-the-mouse-small-intestine
#4
Il Koo Park, Jin Ho Kim, Chan Guk Park, Man Yoo Kim, Shankar Prasad Parajuli, Chan Sik Hong, Seok Choi, Jae Yeoul Jun
Purinergic receptors play an important role in regulating gastrointestinal (GI) motility. Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) are pacemaker cells that regulate GI smooth muscle activity. We studied the functional roles of external adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) on pacemaker activity in cultured ICCs from mouse small intestines by using the whole-cell patch clamp technique and intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) imaging. External ATP dose-dependently depolarized the resting membrane and produced tonic inward pacemaker currents, and these effects were antagonized by suramin, a purinergic P2 receptor antagonist...
January 2018: Chonnam Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377328/nitrergic-signaling-via-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-and-smooth-muscle-cells-influences-circular-smooth-muscle-contractility-in-murine-colon
#5
K Beck, A Friebe, B Voussen
BACKGROUND: Regulation of gastrointestinal motility involves excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission. Nitric oxide (NO), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter, acts via its receptor NO-sensitive guanylyl cyclase (NO-GC). In the GI tract, NO-GC is expressed in several cell types such as smooth muscle cells (SMC) and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC). Using cell-specific knockout mice, we have previously shown that NO-GC modulates spontaneous contractions in colonic longitudinal smooth muscle...
January 29, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361518/the-igcam-clmp-is-required-for-intestinal-and-ureteral-smooth-muscle-contraction-by-regulating-connexin43-and-45-expression-in-mice
#6
Hanna Langhorst, René Jüttner, Dieter Groneberg, Azadeh Mohtashamdolatshahi, Laura Pelz, Bettina Purfürst, Kai M Schmidt-Ott, Andreas Friebe, Fritz G Rathjen
The function of the IgCAM CLMP which is implicated in congenital short-bowel syndrome in humans was studied in mice. Although the levels of mRNAs encoding Connexin43 or 45 are not or only marginally affected, respectively, absence of CLMP caused a severe reduction of both proteins in smooth muscle cells of the intestine and of Connexin43 in the ureter. Analysis of calcium signaling revealed a disordered cell-cell communication between smooth muscle cells which in turn induced an impaired and uncoordinated motility of the intestine and the ureter...
January 19, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323774/obesity-impairs-oligopeptide-amino-acid-induced-ghrelin-release-and-smooth-muscle-contractions-in-the-human-proximal-stomach
#7
L Vancleef, T Thijs, F Baert, L J Ceulemans, E Canovai, Q Wang, S Steensels, A Segers, R Farré, J Pirenne, M Lannoo, J Tack, I Depoortere
SCOPE: The satiation properties of proteins involve effects on gut peptide release and gastrointestinal motility which may be altered during obesity. This study compared the in vitro response and role of amino acid (AA) taste receptors (TASR) in the effect of AAs and a casein hydrolysate on ghrelin release and smooth muscle (SM) contractions in the proximal gut of lean and obese patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Basal ghrelin release, measured from mucosal segments, was maximal in the fundus and decreased distally...
January 11, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310796/the-dynamic-actin-cytoskeleton-in-smooth-muscle
#8
Dale D Tang
Smooth muscle contraction requires both myosin activation and actin cytoskeletal remodeling. Actin cytoskeletal reorganization facilitates smooth muscle contraction by promoting force transmission between the contractile unit and the extracellular matrix (ECM), and by enhancing intercellular mechanical transduction. Myosin may be viewed to serve as an "engine" for smooth muscle contraction whereas the actin cytoskeleton may function as a "transmission system" in smooth muscle. The actin cytoskeleton in smooth muscle also undergoes restructuring upon activation with growth factors or the ECM, which controls smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration...
2018: Advances in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259559/mechanical-regulation-of-gene-expression-in-gut-smooth-muscle-cells
#9
REVIEW
Xuan-Zheng Shi
Intraluminal contents and their movement along the gastrointestinal tract create shear stress and mechanical stretch on the gut wall. While the shear stress is important in the initiation of immediate physiological responses, the circumferential mechanical stretch, such as that in obstructive bowel disorders, exerts long-lasting impacts on bowel functions by mainly affecting the deeper muscularis externae. Recent studies demonstrate that mechanical stretch alters gene transcription in gut smooth muscle cells (SMC), and the stretch-altered gene expression (mechano-transcription) may play a critical role in pathogenesis of motility dysfunction and abdominal pain in obstruction...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242169/c60-fullerenes-disrupt-cellular-signalling-leading-to-trpc4-and-trpc6-channels-opening-by-the-activation-of-muscarinic-receptors-and-g-proteins-in-small-intestinal-smooth-muscles
#10
Dariia O Dryn, Mariia I Melnyk, Lina T Al Kury, Yuriy I Prylutskyy, Uwe Ritter, Alexander V Zholos
The effect of water-soluble pristine C60 fullerene nanoparticles (C60NPs) on receptor-operated cation channels formed by TRPC4/C6 proteins in ileal smooth muscle cells was investigated for the first time. Activation of these channels subsequent to acetylcholine binding to the expressed in these cells M2 and M3 muscarinic receptors represents the key event in the parasympathetic control of gastrointestinal smooth muscle motility and cholinergic excitation-contraction coupling. Experiments were performed on single collagenase-dispersed mouse ileal myocytes using patch-clamp techniques with symmetrical 125mM Cs+ solutions and [Ca2+]i 'clamped' at 100nM in order to isolate the muscarinic cation current (mICAT)...
December 11, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220864/the-nature-of-catecholamine-containing-neurons-in-the-enteric-nervous-system-in-relationship-with-organogenesis-normal-human-anatomy-and-neurodegeneration
#11
G Natale, L Ryskalin, C L Busceti, F Biagioni, F Fornai
The gastrointestinal tract is provided with extrinsic and intrinsic innervation. The extrinsic innervation includes the classic vagal parasympathetic and sympathetic components, with afferent sensitive and efferent secretomotor fibers. The intrinsic innervations is represented by the enteric nervous system (ENS), which is recognized as a complex neural network controlling a variety of cell populations, including smooth muscle cells, mucosal secretory cells, endocrine cells, microvasculature, immune and inflammatory cells...
September 1, 2017: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197295/reproductive-aging-in-male-dogs-the-epididymal-sperm-defects-and-expression-of-androgen-receptor-in-reproductive-tissues
#12
C Bhanmeechao, S Srisuwatanasagul, N Prapaiwan, S Ponglowhapan
The present study aimed at investigating age-related changes in epididymal sperm motility, morphology, DNA integrity and androgen receptor (AR) expression in canine reproductive tissues. Fifty-five healthy medium-sized male dogs were divided into four groups: young (1 - 3 years old, n = 14), adult (>3 - 6 years old, n = 12), old (>6 - 9 years old, n = 14) and senile (>9 years old, n = 15). After routine castration, testes, epididymides (head, body and tail) and vas deferens were collected. Spermatozoa were flushed from epididymal tails and their motility, morphology and DNA integrity were examined...
November 16, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174387/role-of-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-in-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-transplanted-kidney-cells-in-recipients-with-chronic-allograft-dysfunction
#13
Chunchun Zhao, Zhen Xu, Zijie Wang, Chuanjian Suo, Jun Tao, Zhijian Han, Min Gu, Ruoyun Tan
BACKGROUND: Chronic allograft dysfunction (CAD) is characterized by allograft kidney interstitial fibrosis, the underlying mechanism of which is unclear. Our aim was to elucidate the role and mechanism of TNF-α-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in transplant kidney tubular interstitial fibrosis. METHODS: Human kidney tissues from normal volunteers and CAD patients were assessed using periodic acid-Schiff, Masson trichrome and immunohistochemical staining...
November 23, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159902/histamine-enhanced-contractile-responses-of-gastric-smooth-muscle-via-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-in-the-syrian-hamster
#14
S Naganuma, T Shiina, S Yasuda, Y Suzuki, Y Shimizu
BACKGROUND: Gastric motility is controlled by the autonomic and enteric nervous systems and by interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs). Although histamine is known to be released from enterochromaffin-like cells in the gastric mucosa, its regulatory roles in gastric motility are still controversial. Therefore, we investigated the functional roles of histamine in gastric motility. METHODS: Stomach preparations from hamsters were used because the stomach of hamsters can be easily separated into the forestomach and the glandular stomach...
November 21, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131936/nanomechanical-force-mapping-of-restricted-cell-to-cell-collisions-oscillating-between-contraction-and-relaxation
#15
Benhui Hu, Wan Ru Leow, Pingqiang Cai, Yong-Qiang Li, Yun-Long Wu, Xiaodong Chen
Contact-mediated cell migration strongly determines the invasiveness of the corresponding cells, collective migration, and morphogenesis. The quantitative study of cellular response upon contact relies on cell-to-cell collision, which rarely occurs in conventional cell culture. Herein, we developed a strategy to activate a robust cell-to-cell collision within smooth muscle cell pairs. Nanomechanical traction force mapping reveals that the collision process is promoted by the oscillatory modulations between contraction and relaxation and orientated by the filopodial bridge composed of nanosized contractile machinery...
November 16, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105467/-effect-of-electroacupuncture-at-zusanli-st-36-on-vimentin-a-kind-of-cytoskeleton-protein-related-to-smooth-muscle-contraction-in-rats-with-diarrhea-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#16
Da-Ye Yang, Hua Wang, Jia Li, Song Wu, Jian-Min Liu, Dan Wang, Li-Hua Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) at "Zusanli" (ST 36) on cytoskeleton protein-Vimentin (related to smooth muscle contraction) in rats with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D). METHODS: Sixty female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into normal, model, EA and pinaverium bromide (PB) groups (n=15/group). The IBS-D model was established by the method of high lactose feeding and chronic unpredictable mild stress...
October 25, 2017: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104047/mechanism-of-sodium-hydrosulfide-modulation-of-l-type-calcium-channels-in-rat-colonic-smooth-muscle-cells
#17
Qincai Tang, Xiaojing Quan, Lin Yan, Haixia Ren, Wei Chen, Hong Xia, Hesheng Luo
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) can exert different effects on the gastrointestinal tract by modulating ion channels. Previously, we found that H2S donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) regulates colonic motility through L-type calcium channels, but the molecular mechanism remains unknown. The present study was designed to investigate possible mechanisms underlying the modulation of L-type calcium channels by NaHS in rat colonic smooth muscle cells. L-type calcium currents in colonic smooth muscle cells were recorded using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique...
November 9, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063998/diabetes-mellitus-and-the-colon
#18
REVIEW
Marc S Piper, Richard J Saad
Diabetes mellitus (DM) can affect the structure and function of the colon promoting commonly encountered lower gastrointestinal symptoms such as constipation, diarrhea, abdominal distention, bloating, and abdominal pain. Specific colonic disorders for which adults with DM are at greater risk include chronic constipation, enteropathic diarrhea, colorectal cancer (CRC), inflammatory bowel disease, microscopic colitis, and Clostridium difficile colitis. Smooth muscle structure and function, density of the interstitial cells of Cajal, and the health and function of the autonomic and enteric nerves of the colon are all potential affected by DM...
December 2017: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057688/rock-as-a-therapeutic-target-for-ischemic-stroke
#19
Nikola Sladojevic, Brian Yu, James K Liao
Stroke is a major cause of disability and the fifth leading cause of death. Currently, the only approved acute medical treatment of ischemic stroke is tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), but its effectiveness is greatly predicated upon early administration of the drug. There is, therefore, an urgent need to find new therapeutic options for acute stroke. Areas covered: In this review, we summarize the role of Rho-associated coiled-coil containing kinase (ROCK) and its potential as a therapeutic target in stroke pathophysiology...
October 30, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052298/idiopathic-gastroparesis-is-associated-with-specific-transcriptional-changes-in-the-gastric-muscularis-externa
#20
B P Herring, A M Hoggatt, A Gupta, S Griffith, A Nakeeb, J N Choi, M T Idrees, T Nowak, D L Morris, J M Wo
BACKGROUND: The molecular changes that occur in the stomach that are associated with idiopathic gastroparesis are poorly described. The aim of this study was to use quantitative analysis of mRNA expression to identify changes in mRNAs encoding proteins required for the normal motility functions of the stomach. METHODS: Full-thickness stomach biopsy samples were collected from non-diabetic control subjects who exhibited no symptoms of gastroparesis and from patients with idiopathic gastroparesis...
October 20, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
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