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Smooth muscle cell motility

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188197/teaching-a-changing-paradigm-in-physiology-a-historical-perspective-on-gut-interstitial-cells
#1
REVIEW
Bernard T Drumm, Salah A Baker
The study and teaching of gastrointestinal (GI) physiology necessitates an understanding of the cellular basis of contractile and electrical coupling behaviors in the muscle layers that comprise the gut wall. Our knowledge of the cellular origin of GI motility has drastically changed over the last 100 yr. While the pacing and coordination of GI contraction was once thought to be solely attributable to smooth muscle cells, it is now widely accepted that the motility patterns observed in the GI tract exist as a result of a multicellular system, consisting of not only smooth muscle cells but also enteric neurons and distinct populations of specialized interstitial cells that all work in concert to ensure proper GI functions...
March 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174275/rhoa-knockout-fibroblasts-lose-tumor-inhibitory-capacity-in-vitro-and-promote-tumor-growth-in-vivo
#2
Twana Alkasalias, Andrey Alexeyenko, Katharina Hennig, Frida Danielsson, Robert Jan Lebbink, Matthew Fielden, S Pauliina Turunen, Kaisa Lehti, Vladimir Kashuba, Harsha S Madapura, Benedek Bozoky, Emma Lundberg, Martial Balland, Hayrettin Guvén, George Klein, Annica K B Gad, Tatiana Pavlova
Fibroblasts are a main player in the tumor-inhibitory microenvironment. Upon tumor initiation and progression, fibroblasts can lose their tumor-inhibitory capacity and promote tumor growth. The molecular mechanisms that underlie this switch have not been defined completely. Previously, we identified four proteins overexpressed in cancer-associated fibroblasts and linked to Rho GTPase signaling. Here, we show that knocking out the Ras homolog family member A (RhoA) gene in normal fibroblasts decreased their tumor-inhibitory capacity, as judged by neighbor suppression in vitro and accompanied by promotion of tumor growth in vivo...
February 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159817/tissue-transglutaminase-modulates-vascular-stiffness-and-function-through-crosslinking-dependent-and-crosslinking-independent-functions
#3
Jochen Steppan, Yehudit Bergman, Kayla Viegas, Dinani Armstrong, Siqi Tan, Huilei Wang, Sean Melucci, Daijiro Hori, Sung Yong Park, Sebastian F Barreto, Abraham Isak, Sandeep Jandu, Nicholas Flavahan, Mark Butlin, Steven S An, Alberto Avolio, Dan E Berkowitz, Marc K Halushka, Lakshmi Santhanam
BACKGROUND: The structural elements of the vascular wall, namely, extracellular matrix and smooth muscle cells (SMCs), contribute to the overall stiffness of the vessel. In this study, we examined the crosslinking-dependent and crosslinking-independent roles of tissue transglutaminase (TG2) in vascular function and stiffness. METHODS AND RESULTS: SMCs were isolated from the aortae of TG2-/- and wild-type (WT) mice. Cell adhesion was examined by using electrical cell-substrate impedance sensing and PicoGreen assay...
February 3, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137975/establishing-and-maintaining-primary-cell-cultures-derived-from-the-ctenophore-mnemiopsis-leidyi
#4
Lauren E Vandepas, Kaitlyn J Warren, Chris T Amemiya, William E Browne
We have developed an efficient method for the preparation and maintenance of primary cell cultures isolated from adult Mnemiopsis leidyi, a lobate ctenophore. Our primary cell cultures are derived from tissue explants or enzymatically-dissociated cells, and maintained in a complex undefined ctenophore mesogleal serum. These methods can be used to isolate, maintain, and visually monitor ctenophore cells to assess proliferation, cellular morphology, and cell differentiation in future studies. Exemplar cell types that can be easily isolated from primary cultures include proliferative ectodermal and endodermal cells, motile amebocyte-like cells, and giant smooth muscle cells that exhibit inducible contractile properties...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115057/optogenetic-demonstration-of-functional-innervation-of-mouse-colon-by-neurons-derived-from-transplanted-neural-cells
#5
Lincon A Stamp, Rachel M Gwynne, Jaime P P Foong, Alan E Lomax, Marlene M Hao, David I Kaplan, Christopher A Reid, Steven Petrou, Andrew M Allen, Joel C Bornstein, Heather M Young
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Cell therapy offers the potential to treat gastrointestinal motility disorders caused by diseased or absent enteric neurons. We examined whether neurons generated from transplanted enteric neural cells provide a functional innervation of bowel smooth muscle in mice. METHODS: Enteric neural cells expressing the light-sensitive ion channel, channelrhodopsin, were isolated from the fetal or postnatal mouse bowel and transplanted into the distal colon of 3-4 week old wild-type recipient mice...
January 20, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062917/the-enteric-nervous-system-and-the-musculature-of-the-colon-are-altered-in-patients-with-spina-bifida-and-spinal-cord-injury
#6
Marjanne den Braber-Ymker, Martin Lammens, Michel J A M van Putten, Iris D Nagtegaal
Neurogenic bowel dysfunction occurs in a large percentage of adult patients with spina bifida (SB) and spinal cord injury (SCI), significantly affecting their quality of life. Although bowel motility is autonomously regulated by the enteric nervous system (ENS), disruption of the modulation of the ENS by extrinsic innervation as present in many patients with SB and SCI might lead to motility disorders. In order to gain insight in the pathophysiology, we studied histological changes of the neuromuscular structures in the colon of SB and SCI patients...
February 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062501/p2y12-promotes-migration-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-through-cofilin-dephosphorylation-during-atherogenesis
#7
Xuan Niu, Shu-Lan Pi, Suraj Baral, Yuan-Peng Xia, Quan-Wei He, Ya-Nan Li, Hui-Juan Jin, Man Li, Meng-Die Wang, Ling Mao, Bo Hu
OBJECTIVE: P2Y12 is a well-recognized receptor expressed on platelets and the target of thienopyridine-type antiplatelet drugs. However, recent evidence suggests that P2Y12 expressed in vessel wall plays a role in atherogenesis, but the mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, we examined the molecular mechanisms of how vessel wall P2Y12 mediates vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) migration and promotes the progression of atherosclerosis. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Using a high-fat diet-fed ApoE knockout mice model, we found that the expression of P2Y12 in VSMCs increased in a time-dependent manner and had a linear relationship with the plaque area...
January 5, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043906/heterotrimeric-g-stimulatory-protein-alpha-subunit-is-required-for-intestinal-smooth-muscle-contraction-in-mice
#8
Xiaoteng Qin, Shangming Liu, Qiulun Lu, Meng Zhang, Xiuxin Jiang, Sanyuan Hu, Jingxin Li, Cheng Zhang, Jiangang Gao, Min-Sheng Zhu, Yun Zhang, Wencheng Zhang
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The alpha subunit of the heterotrimeric G stimulatory protein (Gsa), encoded by the guanine nucleotide binding protein, alpha stimulating gene (Gnas, in mice), is expressed ubiquitously and mediates receptor-stimulated production of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and activation of the protein kinase A signaling pathway. We investigated the roles of Gsa in vivo in smooth muscle cells of mice. METHODS: We performed studies of mice with Cre recombinase-mediated disruption of Gnas in smooth muscle cells (Gsa(SMKO) and SM22-CreER(T2), induced in adult mice by tamoxifen)...
December 30, 2016: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018918/role-of-bkca-in-stretch-induced-relaxation-of-colonic-smooth-muscle
#9
Jie Ren, Fang Xin, Ping Liu, Hai-Yan Zhao, Si-Tao Zhang, Peng Han, Hai-Xia Huang, Wei Wang
Stretch-induced relaxation has not been clearly identified in gastrointestinal tract. The present study is to explore the role of large conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (BKCa) in stretch-induced relaxation of colon. The expression and currents of BKCa were detected and the basal muscle tone and contraction amplitude of colonic smooth muscle strips were measured. The expression of BKCa in colon is higher than other GI segments (P < 0.05). The density of BKCa currents was very high in colonic smooth muscle cells (SMCs)...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018095/gastrointestinal-neuromuscular-apparatus-an-underestimated-target-of-gut-microbiota
#10
EDITORIAL
Michele Pier Luca Guarino, Michele Cicala, Lorenza Putignani, Carola Severi
Over the last few years, the importance of the resident intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of several gastro-intestinal diseases has been largely investigated. Growing evidence suggest that microbiota can influence gastro-intestinal motility. The current working hypothesis is that dysbiosis-driven mucosal alterations induce the production of several inflammatory/immune mediators which affect gut neuro-muscular functions. Besides these indirect mucosal-mediated effects, the present review highlights that recent evidence suggests that microbiota can directly affect enteric nerves and smooth muscle cells functions through its metabolic products or bacterial molecular components translocated from the intestinal lumen...
December 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003530/the-stentable-in-vitro-artery-an-instrumented-platform-for-endovascular-device-development-and-optimization
#11
Elizabeth E Antoine, François P Cornat, Abdul I Barakat
Although vascular disease is a leading cause of mortality, in vitro tools for controlled, quantitative studies of vascular biological processes in an environment that reflects physiological complexity remain limited. We developed a novel in vitro artery that exhibits a number of unique features distinguishing it from tissue-engineered or organ-on-a-chip constructs, most notably that it allows deployment of endovascular devices including stents, quantitative real-time tracking of cellular responses and detailed measurement of flow velocity and lumenal shear stress using particle image velocimetry...
December 2016: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992856/induction-of-fibroblast-senescence-generates-a-non-fibrogenic-myofibroblast-phenotype-that-differentially-impacts-on-cancer-prognosis
#12
Massimiliano Mellone, Christopher J Hanley, Steve Thirdborough, Toby Mellows, Edwin Garcia, Jeongmin Woo, Joanne Tod, Steve Frampton, Veronika Jenei, Karwan A Moutasim, Tasnuva D Kabir, Peter A Brennan, Giulia Venturi, Kirsty Ford, Nicolas Herranz, Kue Peng Lim, James Clarke, Daniel W Lambert, Stephen S Prime, Timothy J Underwood, Pandurangan Vijayanand, Kevin W Eliceiri, Christopher Woelk, Emma V King, Jesus Gil, Christian H Ottensmeier, Gareth J Thomas
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) remain a poorly characterized, heterogeneous cell population. Here we characterized two previously described tumor-promoting CAF sub-types, smooth muscle actin (SMA)-positive myofibroblasts and senescent fibroblasts, identifying a novel link between the two. Analysis of CAF cultured ex vivo, showed that senescent CAF are predominantly SMA-positive; this was confirmed by immunochemistry in head & neck (HNSCC) and esophageal (EAC) cancers. In vitro, we found that fibroblasts induced to senesce develop molecular, ultrastructural and contractile features typical of myofibroblasts and this is dependent on canonical TGF-β signaling...
December 15, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991922/phosphoglycerate-mutase-1-promotes-cancer-cell-migration-independent-of-its-metabolic-activity
#13
D Zhang, N Jin, W Sun, X Li, B Liu, Z Xie, J Qu, J Xu, X Yang, Y Su, S Tang, H Han, D Chen, J Ding, M Tan, M Huang, M Geng
Phosphoglycerate mutase 1 (PGAM1) is a glycolytic enzyme that coordinates glycolysis and biosynthesis to promote cancer growth via its metabolic activity. Here, we report the discovery of a non-metabolic function of PGAM1 in promoting cancer metastasis. A proteomic study identified α-smooth muscle actin (ACTA2) as a PGAM1-associated protein. PGAM1 modulated actin filaments assembly, cell motility and cancer cell migration via directly interacting with ACTA2, which was independent of its metabolic activity...
December 19, 2016: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939576/advanced-glycation-end-products-interfere-with-gastric-smooth-muscle-contractile-marker-expression-via-the-age-rage-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#14
Ting Yu, Yongping Zheng, Yun Wang, Wenjie Xiong, Lin Lin
Excessive production of advanced glycation end products (AGE) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. Smooth muscle (SM) phenotype transition is involved in diabetes-associated gastric motility dysfunction. We investigated whether AGE interfere with gastric antral SM contractile marker expression. Sixteen Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic groups. Sixteen weeks after streptozotocin administration, gastric antral SM strip contractility in the groups were measured...
December 7, 2016: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927633/nck-associated-protein-1-modulated-by-mirna-214-determines-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-migration-proliferation-and-neointima-hyperplasia
#15
Tayyab Adeel Afzal, Le Anh Luong, Dan Chen, Cheng Zhang, Feng Yang, Qishan Chen, Weiwei An, Edmund Wilkes, Kenta Yashiro, Pedro R Cutillas, Li Zhang, Qingzhong Xiao
BACKGROUND: MicroRNA miR-214 has been implicated in many biological cellular functions, but the impact of miR-214 and its target genes on vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation, migration, and neointima smooth muscle cell hyperplasia is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Expression of miR-214 was closely regulated by different pathogenic stimuli in VSMCs through a transcriptional mechanism and decreased in response to vascular injury. Overexpression of miR-214 in serum-starved VSMCs significantly decreased VSMC proliferation and migration, whereas knockdown of miR-214 dramatically increased VSMC proliferation and migration...
December 7, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881401/alterations-of-colonic-function-in-the-winnie-mouse-model-of-spontaneous-chronic-colitis
#16
Ainsley M Robinson, Ahmed A Rahman, Simona Elisa Carbone, Sarron Randall-Demllo, Rhiannon Filippone, Joel Charles Bornstein, Rajaraman Eri, Kulmira Nurgali
The Winnie mouse, carrying a missense mutation in Muc2, is a model for chronic intestinal inflammation demonstrating symptoms closely resembling inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Alterations to the immune environment, morphological structure and innervation of Winnie mouse colon have been identified; however analyses of intestinal transit and colonic functions have not been conducted. In this study, we investigated in vivo intestinal transit in radiographic studies and in vitro motility of the isolated colon in organ bath experiments...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875260/the-presence-and-role-of-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-in-the-proximal-intestine-of-shorthorn-sculpin-myoxocephalus-scorpius
#17
Jeroen Brijs, Grant W Hennig, Anna-Maria Kellermann, Michael Axelsson, Catharina Olsson
Rhythmic contractions of the mammalian gastrointestinal tract can occur in the absence of neuronal or hormonal stimulation due to the generation of spontaneous electrical activity by interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) that are electrically coupled to smooth muscle cells. The myogenically-driven component of gastrointestinal motility patterns in fish likely also involves ICC, however, little is known of their presence, distribution and function in any fish species. In the present study, we combined immunohistochemistry and in vivo recordings of intestinal motility to investigate the involvement of ICC in the motility of the proximal intestine in adult shorthorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius)...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854297/prelamin-a-accumulation-attenuates-rac1-activity-and-increases-the-intrinsic-migrational-persistence-of-aged-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#18
Lauren J Porter, Mark R Holt, Daniel Soong, Catherine M Shanahan, Derek T Warren
Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) motility is essential during both physiological and pathological vessel remodeling. Although ageing has emerged as a major risk factor in the development of cardiovascular disease, our understanding of the impact of ageing on VSMC motility remains limited. Prelamin A accumulation is known to drive VSMC ageing and we show that presenescent VSMCs, that have accumulated prelamin A, display increased focal adhesion dynamics, augmented migrational velocity/persistence and attenuated Rac1 activity...
November 15, 2016: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825967/a-novel-splice-variant-of-supervillin-sv5-promotes-carcinoma-cell-proliferation-and-cell-migration
#19
Xueran Chen, Haoran Yang, Shangrong Zhang, Zhen Wang, Fang Ye, Chaozhao Liang, Hongzhi Wang, Zhiyou Fang
Supervillin is an actin-associated protein that regulates actin dynamics by interacting with Myosin II, F-actin, and Cortactin to promote cell contractility and cell motility. Two splicing variants of human Supervillin (SV1 and SV4) have been reported in non-muscle cells; SV1 lacks 3 exons present in the larger isoform SV4. SV2, also called archvillin, is present in striated muscle; SV3, also called smooth muscle archvillin or SmAV, was cloned from smooth muscle. In the present study, we identify a novel splicing variant of Supervillin (SV5)...
January 1, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796881/telocytes-new-players-in-gallstone-disease
#20
Artur Pasternak, Krzysztof Gil, Andrzej Matyja
Cholesterol gallstone disease is highly prevalent in Western countries, particularly in women and some specific ethnic groups. The mechanisms behind the formation of gallstones are not clearly understood, but gallbladder dysmotility seems to be a key factor that triggers the precipitation of cholesterol microcrystals from supersaturated lithogenic bile.Given that newly described interstitial cells, telocytes, are present in the gallbladder and they are located in close vicinity of smooth muscle cell and neural fibers possibly interfering with gallbladder motility or contractility, authors are trying to summarize the current knowledge on the role of telocytes with respect to disturbed gallbladder function in gallstone disease...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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