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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903620/computational-motility-models-of-neurogastroenterology-and-neuromodulation
#1
Bradley B Barth, Xiling Shen
The success of neuromodulation therapies, particularly in the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves, has been greatly aided by computational, biophysical models. However, treating gastrointestinal disorders with electrical stimulation has been much less explored, partly because the mode of action of such treatments is unclear, and selection of stimulation parameters is often empirical. Progress in gut neuromodulation is limited by the comparative lack of biophysical models capable of simulating neuromodulation of gastrointestinal function...
August 15, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891860/microsomal-prostaglandin-e-synthase-1-plays-a-critical-role-in-long-term-motility-dysfunction-after-bowel-obstruction
#2
You-Min Lin, Yu Fu, Shrilakshmi Hegde, Yanbo Tang, Ravi Radhakrishnan, Xuan-Zheng Shi
Motility dysfunction is present not only during bowel obstruction (BO), but after obstruction is resolved. Previous studies found that lumen distension associated mechano-transcription of COX-2 and production of PGE2 in gut smooth muscle cells (SMC) account for motility dysfunction during obstruction. We hypothesized that PGE2 may exert autocrine effect in SMC to induce microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1), which contributes to motility dysfunction after obstruction is resolved. Partial colon obstruction was induced in rats with an obstruction band, which was released 7 days later...
June 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891616/contractility-of-the-epididymal-duct-function-regulation-and-potential-drug-effects
#3
Vera Elfgen, Andrea Mietens, Marco Mewe, Thorben Hau, Ralf Middendorff
During their transit through the epididymis, spermatozoa mature and acquire motility and fertilizing capacity. The smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of the epididymal duct are thought to be responsible for the adequate transport of spermatozoa. Thus, precise regulation of SMC function also represents a prerequisite for sperm maturation thereby contributing to male fertility. In this review we would like to highlight various aspects of epididymal SMC function and discuss several angles with respect to regulation of contraction and relaxation...
June 11, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882158/localization-of-cannabinoid-receptors-cb1-cb2-gpr55-and-ppar%C3%AE-in-the-canine-gastrointestinal-tract
#4
Giorgia Galiazzo, Fiorella Giancola, Agnese Stanzani, Federico Fracassi, Chiara Bernardini, Monica Forni, Marco Pietra, Roberto Chiocchetti
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is composed of cannabinoid receptors, their endogenous ligands, and the enzymes involved in endocannabinoid turnover. Modulating the activity of the ECS may influence a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes. A growing body of evidence indicates that activation of cannabinoid receptors by endogenous, plant-derived, or synthetic cannabinoids may exert beneficial effects on gastrointestinal inflammation and visceral pain. The present ex vivo study aimed to investigate immunohistochemically the distribution of cannabinoid receptors CB1, CB2, G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55), and peroxisome proliferation activation receptor alpha (PPARα) in the canine gastrointestinal tract...
June 7, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29803395/the-potential-role-of-thyrotropin-releasing-hormone-in-colonic-dysmotility-induced-by-water-avoidance-stress-in-rats
#5
Yanzhen Zhang, Chunfeng Wang, Lianfeng Zhang
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to investigate the effect and underlying mechanism of thyrotrophin releasing hormone (TRH) on colonic contractile disorders induced by chronic water avoidance stress (WAS). METHODS: Male SD rats were exposed to daily 1-h WAS or sham WAS for 10 consecutive days. The presence of TRH in the serum and colonic mucosa were determined using enzyme immunoassay kits. Immunohistochemistry and western blotting were performed to detect the expression of TRH receptor 1 (TRH-R1)...
May 23, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750899/bmp-2-enhances-the-migration-and-proliferation-of-hypoxia-induced-vsmcs-via-actin-cytoskeleton-cd44-and-matrix-metalloproteinase-linkage
#6
Min Yang, Zhiqin Fan, Fei Wang, Zhi-Hua Tian, Bo Ma, Bing Dong, Zhongwu Li, Ming Zhang, Wei Zhao
The persistent proliferation of hypoxia-induced vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in the arterial wall underlie the development of atherosclerosis. However, the mechanism that regulates the behavior of VSMCs, which involve in actin aggregation, and impedes their migration is still elusive. Here, we report that bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) leads to enrichment of CD44 and F-actin stress fiber and secretion of matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2) during hypoxia in vitro and following artificial hypoxia-induced atherosclerosis exacerbation in vivo...
May 8, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747422/role-of-bone-morphogenetic-protein-7-bmp7-in-the-modulation-of-corneal-stromal-and-epithelial-cell-functions
#7
Bhavani S Kowtharapu, Ruby Kala Prakasam, Radovan Murín, Dirk Koczan, Thomas Stahnke, Andreas Wree, Anselm G M Jünemann, Oliver Stachs
In the cornea, healing of the wounded avascular surface is an intricate process comprising the involvement of epithelial, stromal and neuronal cell interactions. These interactions result to the release of various growth factors that play prominent roles during corneal wound healing response. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are unique multi-functional potent growth factors of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily. Treatment of corneal epithelial cells with substance P and nerve growth factor resulted to an increase in the expression of BMP7 mRNA...
May 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746010/rho-kinase-rock-collaborates-with-pak-to-regulate-actin-polymerization-and-contraction-in-airway-smooth-muscle
#8
Wenwu Zhang, Bhupal P Bhetwal, Susan J Gunst
KEY POINTS: The mechanisms by which Rho kinase (ROCK) regulates airway smooth muscle contraction were determined in tracheal smooth muscle tissues. ROCK may mediate smooth muscle contraction by inhibiting myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) phosphatase. ROCK can also regulate F-actin dynamics during cell migration, and actin polymerization is critical for airway smooth muscle contraction. Our results show that ROCK does not regulate airway smooth muscle contraction by inhibiting myosin RLC phosphatase or by stimulating myosin RLC phosphorylation...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718926/bioengineered-intestinal-muscularis-complexes-with-long-term-spontaneous-and-periodic-contractions
#9
Qianqian Wang, Ke Wang, R Sergio Solorzano-Vargas, Po-Yu Lin, Christopher M Walthers, Anne-Laure Thomas, Martín G Martín, James C Y Dunn
Although critical for studies of gut motility and intestinal regeneration, the in vitro culture of intestinal muscularis with peristaltic function remains a significant challenge. Periodic contractions of intestinal muscularis result from the coordinated activity of smooth muscle cells (SMC), the enteric nervous system (ENS), and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC). Reproducing this activity requires the preservation of all these cells in one system. Here we report the first serum-free culture methodology that consistently maintains spontaneous and periodic contractions of murine and human intestinal muscularis cells for months...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701269/mechanical-and-migratory-properties-of-normal-scar-and-dupuytren-s-fibroblasts
#10
Prem Kumar Viji Babu, Carmela Rianna, Gazanfer Belge, Ursula Mirastschijski, Manfred Radmacher
Mechanical properties of myofibroblasts play a key role in Dupuytren's disease. Here, we used atomic force microscopy to measure the viscoelastic properties of 3 different types of human primary fibroblasts derived from a same patient: normal and scar dermal fibroblasts and palmar fascial fibroblasts from Dupuytren's nodules. Different stiffness hydrogels (soft ~1 kPa and stiff ~ 50 kPa) were used as cell culture matrix to mimic the mechanical properties of the natural tissues, and atomic force microscopy step response force curves were used to discriminate between elastic and viscous properties of cells...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700293/dna-methylation-through-dnmt1-has-an-essential-role-in-the-development-of-gastrointestinal-smooth-muscle-cells-and-disease
#11
Brian G Jorgensen, Robyn M Berent, Se Eun Ha, Kazuhide Horiguchi, Kent C Sasse, Laren S Becker, Seungil Ro
DNA methylation is a key epigenetic modification that can regulate gene expression. Genomic DNA hypomethylation is commonly found in many gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. Dysregulated gene expression in GI smooth muscle cells (GI-SMCs) can lead to motility disorders. However, the consequences of genomic DNA hypomethylation within GI-SMCs are still elusive. Utilizing a Cre-lox murine model, we have generated SMC-restricted DNA methyltransferase 1 (Dnmt1) knockout (KO) mice and analyzed the effects of Dnmt1 deficiency...
April 27, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687375/acetylshikonin-attenuates-angiotensin-ii-induced-proliferation-and-motility-of-human-brain-smooth-muscle-cells-by-inhibiting-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#12
Zequn Li, Zhiyuan Yan, Chunbo Xu, Yiqun Dong, Ye Xiong, Yongyue Dai
Cerebrovascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration contribute to hyperplasia in case of cerebrovascular remodeling and stroke. In the present study, we investigated the effects of acetylshikonin, the main ingredient of a Chinese traditional medicine Zicao, on human brain vascular smooth muscle cell (HBVSMCs) proliferation and migration induced by angiotensin II (AngII), and the underlying mechanisms. We found that acetylshikonin treatment significantly inhibited AngII-induced HBVSMCs proliferation and cell cycle transition from G1 to S phase...
April 23, 2018: Human Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686622/inhibitory-neural-regulation-of-the-ca-2-transients-in-intramuscular-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-in-the-small-intestine
#13
Salah A Baker, Bernard T Drumm, Caroline A Cobine, Kathleen D Keef, Kenton M Sanders
Gastrointestinal motility is coordinated by enteric neurons. Both inhibitory and excitatory motor neurons innervate the syncytium consisting of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and PDGFRα+ cells (SIP syncytium). Confocal imaging of mouse small intestines from animals expressing GCaMP3 in ICC were used to investigate inhibitory neural regulation of ICC in the deep muscular plexus (ICC-DMP). We hypothesized that Ca2+ signaling in ICC-DMP can be modulated by inhibitory enteric neural input...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626542/no-gc-in-cells-off-the-beaten-track
#14
REVIEW
Andreas Friebe, Barbara Voußen, Dieter Groneberg
Nitric oxide-sensitive guanylyl cyclase (NO-GC) has been shown to regulate a plethora of different functions in the body. These include, among many others, the fine-tuning of vascular tone, platelet reactivity and gastrointestinal motility. Evidence for the participation of NO-GC in these functions has been obtained from various species including humans, rodents, as well as insects. Clearly, individual cell types that express NO-GC contribute differentially to organ-specific NO/cGMP signaling in the body. Hence, identification of NO-GC-expressing cells and their individual involvement in NO/cGMP signaling constituted the focus of many studies over the last 40 years...
July 1, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625905/myogenic-oxidative-imbalance-interferes-with-antral-motility-in-obese-subjects
#15
Annunziata Scirocco, Lucia Pallotta, Marco Rengo, Antonia Ignazzi, Marilia Carabotti, Alessia Cicenia, Rosa Vona, Piero Chirletti, Maria Antonietta Maselli, Rossella Donghia, Mariagrazia Coluzzi, Paola Matarrese, Gianfranco Silecchia, Carola Severi
BACKGROUND: Obesity is characterized by a systemic low-grade chronic inflammatory oxidative condition that affects vascular and cardiac smooth muscle relaxation. In human antrum, relaxation is mediated by vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) through cAMP and cGMP signaling pathways. A genome-wide association study has demonstrated an association between VIP and obesity. AIM: To evaluate smooth muscle activity in human obese antrum, both in in vitro preparations as well as in vivo...
March 14, 2018: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606008/mulberry-polyphenol-extract-inhibits-fak-src-pi3k-complex-and-related-signaling-to-regulate-the-migration-in-a7r5-cells
#16
Meng-Hsun Yu, Tsung-Yuan Yang, Hsieh-Hsun Ho, Hui-Pei Huang, Kuei-Chuan Chan, Chau-Jong Wang
Atherosclerosis is characterized by the buildup of plaque inside arteries. Our recent studies demonstrated that polyphenolic natural products can reduce oxidative stress, inflammation, angiogenesis, hyperlipidemia, and hyperglycemia. A previous study also showed that mulberry water extract (MWE) can inhibit atherosclerosis and contains considerable amounts of polyphenols. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated whether mulberry polyphenol extract (MPE) containing high levels of polyphenolic compounds could affect vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC; A7r5 cell) motility...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572121/prognostic-significance-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-phenotypes-in-upper-urinary-tract-urothelial-carcinoma
#17
Junhun Cho, Sang Yun Ha, Seok-Hyung Kim, Hyun Hwan Sung, Ghee Young Kwon
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process which epithelial cells gain mesenchymal phenotype such as motility and invasiveness. We investigated the role of EMT in upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). The patient cohort included 93 cases of UTUC treated with radical nephroureterectomy. Tissue microarrays were constructed from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for E-cadherin, vimentin, and smooth muscle actin to evaluate the EMT status...
April 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542843/disruption-of-the-pacemaker-activity-of-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-via-nitric-oxide-contributes-to-postoperative-ileus
#18
N Kaji, S Nakayama, K Horiguchi, S Iino, H Ozaki, M Hori
BACKGROUND: Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) serve as intestinal pacemakers. Postoperative ileus (POI) is a gastrointestinal motility disorder that occurs following abdominal surgery, which is caused by inflammation-induced dysfunction of smooth muscles and enteric neurons. However, the participation of ICC in POI is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the functional changes of ICC in a mouse model of POI. METHODS: Intestinal manipulation (IM) was performed to induce POI...
March 15, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521017/diabetes-induced-colonic-slow-transit-mediated-by-the-up-regulation-of-pdgfr%C3%AE-cells-sk3-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice
#19
N-N Song, H-L Lu, C Lu, L Tong, S-Q Huang, X Huang, J Chen, Y-C Kim, W-X Xu
BACKGROUND: A major complication related to gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in diabetic patients is chronic constipation. Constipation has serious negative impacts on quality of life; however, without a comprehensive understanding of the disease, currently available treatments cannot provide a cure. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha-positive cells (PDGFRα+ cells), which form the SIP syncytium with interstitial cells of Cajal and smooth muscle cells, play important roles in GI motility...
March 9, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488290/inhibition-of-zero-bk-by-pkc-is-involved-in-carbachol-induced-enhancement-of-rat-colon-smooth-muscle-motility
#20
F Xin, H Huang, P Liu, J Ren, S Zhang, Y Cheng, W Wang
BACKGROUND: Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) activation is an important factor to enhance the motility of gastrointestinal (GI) smooth muscle. Large conductance Ca2+ -activated potassium (BK) channels are widely expressed in GI smooth muscle. Roles of BK in carbachol (a mAChR agonist) induced enhancement of GI motility and the molecular mechanisms remains unknown and were investigated in this study. METHODS: Colonic smooth muscle (CSM) strip was perfused to record motility in vitro...
February 28, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
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