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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446067/headache-linked-to-intracranial-hypertension-and-hypertrophic-pachymeningitis-as-the-initial-and-dominant-presentation-of-granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-case-report-and-review-of-the-recent-literature
#1
Marianthi A Arnaoutoglou, Chrysostomos G Xerras, Ioannis K Kalevrosoglou, Vasileios D Rafailidis, Konstantinos P Notas, Thomas I Tegos
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to report a rare case of headache as the initial symptom of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) and to review the recent literature. BACKGROUND: Granulomatosis with polyangiitis is a rare, systemic, autoimmune disease of unknown etiology. GPA has a wide spectrum of clinical symptomatology, including involvement of the nervous system, even as the initial manifestation. Symptoms of the peripheral nervous system used to dominate the clinical symptomatology...
February 15, 2018: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423423/rapid-reversal-of-complete-binocular-blindness-with-high-dose-corticosteroids-and-lumbar-drain-in-a-solid-organ-transplant-recipient-with-cryptococcal-meningitis-and-immune-reconstitution-syndrome-first-case-study-and-literature-review
#2
Zoe Weiss, Nihaal Mehta, Su Nandar Aung, Michael Migliori, Dimitrios Farmakiotis
Blindness is a rare, devastating, usually permanent complication of cryptococcal meningitis (CM). We present the first case of complete vision loss in a solid organ transplant recipient with CM treated with placement of a lumbar drain who had a dramatic visual recovery that started after 3 doses of high-dose steroids.
February 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408878/the-endocannabinoid-system-in-canine-steroid-responsive-meningitis-arteritis-and-intraspinal-spirocercosis
#3
Jessica Freundt-Revilla, Franciska Heinrich, Alexander Zoerner, Felix Gesell, Martin Beyerbach, Merav Shamir, Anna Oevermann, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Andrea Tipold
Endocannabinoids (ECs) are involved in immunomodulation, neuroprotection and control of inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS). Activation of cannabinoid type 2 receptors (CB2) is known to diminish the release of pro-inflammatory factors and enhance the secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) has been proved to induce the migration of eosinophils in a CB2 receptor-dependent manner in peripheral blood and activate neutrophils independent of CB activation in humans...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405037/osmotic-therapies-added-to-antibiotics-for-acute-bacterial-meningitis
#4
REVIEW
Emma Cb Wall, Katherine Mb Ajdukiewicz, Hanna Bergman, Robert S Heyderman, Paul Garner
BACKGROUND: Every day children and adults die from acute community-acquired bacterial meningitis, particularly in low-income countries, and survivors risk deafness, epilepsy and neurological disabilities. Osmotic therapies may attract extra-vascular fluid and reduce cerebral oedema, and thus reduce death and improve neurological outcomes.This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2013. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of osmotic therapies added to antibiotics for acute bacterial meningitis in children and adults on mortality, deafness and neurological disability...
February 6, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330273/rheumatoid-disease-an-unusual-cause-of-relapsing-meningoencephalitis
#5
Sian K Alexander, Maria Di Cicco, Ute Pohl, Alberto Cifelli
A 73-year-old man presented with three episodes of dysphasia and disinhibited behaviour, a single seizure and transient ischaemic attack-like events characterised by right arm and/or leg weakness. These episodes were separated by month-long asymptomatic intervals. Medical history included rheumatoid arthritis, which was clinically quiescent on leflunomide.Repeated cerebrospinal fluid examination showed a persistent lymphocytosis with mildly reduced glucose and elevated protein; oligoclonal bands and viral PCR were negative...
January 12, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321200/bilateral-haemorrhagic-basal-ganglia-infarction-associated-with-early-onset-group-b-streptococcus-meningitis
#6
Rajesh Gupta, Taiwo Maraiyesa, Brendon Conry
A 2-day-old infant presented with poor feeding and grunting. Investigations revealed a raised C reactive protein of 164. Full septic screen was done, which subsequently confirmed a diagnosis of group B streptococcus meningitis. Baby was apyrexial and haemodynamically stable. There were no obvious neurological manifestations, and a routine cranial ultrasound scan was done, which revealed echogenic changes in the basal ganglia and thalami. MRI brain showed extensive haemorrhagic infarction within the lentiform and caudate nuclei with involvement of both posterior limbs of the internal capsule...
January 9, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301177/iatrogenic-spinal-subarachnoid-hematoma-after-diagnostic-lumbar-puncture
#7
Jung Hyun Park, Jong Yeol Kim
Spinal subarachnoid hematoma (SSH) following diagnostic lumbar puncture is very rare. Generally, SSH is more likely to occur when the patient has coagulopathy or is undergoing anticoagulant therapy. Unlike the usual complications, such as headache, dizziness, and back pain at the needle puncture site, SSH may result in permanent neurologic deficits if not properly treated within a short period of time. An otherwise healthy 43-year-old female with no predisposing factors presented with fever and headache. Diagnostic lumbar puncture was performed under suspicion of acute meningitis...
December 2017: Korean Journal of Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299893/response-of-vancomycin-according-to-steroid-dosage-in-pediatric-patients-with-culture-proven-bacterial-meningitis
#8
Shin Ae Lee, Jin Kyu Kim, Dae Sun Jo, Sun Jun Kim
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of combined vancomycin and steroid therapy for the treatment of culture-proven bacterial meningitis in pediatric patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified a total of 86 pediatric patients with culture-positive cerebrospinal fluid who were treated at our facility between 2005 and 2015. Ten of these patients (5 boys and 5 girls) received first-line treatment with vancomycin as the initial form of therapy. All cultured bacteria were sensitive to vancomycin...
December 2017: Infection & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277461/intra-cranial-granulomatous-disease-in-common-variable-immunodeficiency-case-series-and-review-of-the-literature
#9
REVIEW
Catherine E Najem, Jason Springer, Richard Prayson, Daniel A Culver, James Fernandez, Jinny Tavee, Rula A Hajj-Ali
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is typically characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia and often but not always recurrent infections. Paradoxically, 8-22% of patients with CVID develop granulomatous disease. Granulomata have been described in many organs including the lungs, skin, liver, spleen, kidneys, eyes, lymph nodes, and intestines. Data about central nervous system (CNS) involvement in CVID are extremely rare. We aim to describe a case series and include an extensive literature review of CNS involvement in CVID to understand the different features and patterns of the disease...
October 20, 2017: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201129/cerebral-vasculitis-in-a-case-of-meningitis
#10
Devdeep Mukherjee, Agnisekhar Saha
Cerebral vasculitis is a serious complication of meningitis with Streptococcus pneumoniae. We report a 5 yr old girl who was admitted in May 2015 at Fortis Hospital, Kolkata, India and was diagnosed to have pneumococcal meningitis with vasculitis on DWMRI within a week of onset of fever. She was given high dose of methyl-prednisolone simultaneously with antibiotics and successfully treated without any neuro-sequelae. Although vasculitis has been documented to develop as sequelae to bacterial meningitis usually in the second week, our patient had an early presentation...
2017: Iranian Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199500/management-of-a-rare-case-of-posterior-condylar-canal-dural-arteriovenous-fistula-presenting-with-subarachnoid-haemorrhage-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#11
Somorendra Singh Shambanduram, Leve Joseph Devarajan Sebastian, Nishchint Jain, Ajay Garg, Shailesh B Gaikwad
Posterior condylar canal dural arteriovenous fistula (PCC dAVF) is a rare entity with only three cases having been reported so far in the English literature. We describe the clinical presentation, imaging, and endovascular management of an elderly man with left PCC dAVF presenting with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). Endovascular management of such cases requires thorough understanding of the vascular anatomy around the craniovertebral junction (CVJ) and variable bridging vein draining patterns. The fistula in our case was fed by the posterior meningeal branch of the left vertebral artery and was draining through a dilated and tortuous medullary bridging vein into the antero-lateral pontomedullary venous system...
January 1, 2017: Interventional Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123908/a-case-of-disseminated-cryptococcosis-with-necrotizing-fasciitis-in-a-non-hiv-patient
#12
Tetsuya Hoshino, Kazuya Omura, Shinichi Kimura, Hiroyuki Takahashi, Katsuhiko Kamei, Misako Ohkusu
Case: Disseminated cryptococcosis is a well-recognized condition among HIV patients, but it also occurs in non-HIV patients. Necrotizing fasciitis caused by cryptococcus is rare. An 81-year-old man who had received steroid therapy presented with erythema and pain in his right thigh. After the rapid progression of symptoms and a failure to respond to antibiotic therapy, a clinical diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis was made. We performed debridement, and yeasts were detected using a Gram stain of the fascia...
October 2017: Acute Medicine & Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118502/bilateral-sensorineural-hearing-loss-secondary-to-sympathetic-ophthalmia-in-a-human-leukocyte-antigen-a2-positive-patient
#13
Konstantinos T Tsaousis, Vasileios E Konidaris, Theodoros Empeslidis
We report a case of sympathetic ophthalmia 1 month following trauma in a 71-year-old immunocompetent female patient of Indian origin. The patient was hospitalized with signs and symptoms of meningism, ataxia, and neurosensory deafness. We explore and provide further clinical evidence in supporting the hypothesis of antigen cross-reactivity derived from tissues with common neural crest embryological background such as the uvea and cells of the labyrinth. The patient was human leukocyte antigen-A2 positive and treatment with oral steroids and cyclosporine has managed to have favorable results and control the inflammation...
September 2017: Oman Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061245/neurosarcoidosis
#14
REVIEW
Patompong Ungprasert, Eric L Matteson
Neurosarcoidosis occurs in 3% to 10% of patients with sarcoidosis. Cranial neuropathy and meningeal involvement are the most common manifestations, but any part of the nervous system can be affected. Definite diagnosis requires the presence of noncaseating granuloma in the nervous system, although histopathologic confirmation is often not obtainable. Moderate to high dose of glucocorticoids is the main therapy for neurosarcoidosis. Relapse often occurs after the dose of glucocorticoids is tapered down, often necessitating the use of steroid-sparing immunosuppressive agents...
November 2017: Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050838/three-children-of-meningoencephalitis-with-kikuchi-necrotizing-lymphadenitis
#15
Joung-Hee Byun, Su Eun Park, Sang Ook Nam, Young A Kim, Young Mi Kim, Gyu Min Yeon, Yun-Jin Lee
BACKGROUND: Kikuchi necrotizing lymphadenitis (KNL) is a rare and benign cause of lymphadenopathy, most often cervical. The etiology of KNL remains unknown. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement, such as in meningoencephalitis, is a very rare clinical manifestation of KNL, especially in children. CASE REPORTS: A 12-year-old boy presented with unilateral cervical lymphadenopathy and fever. Histopathological findings led to the diagnosis of KNL. He revisited due to severe headache and vomiting one week later...
October 16, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050399/diagnostic-criteria-for-chronic-lymphocytic-inflammation-with-pontine-perivascular-enhancement-responsive-to-steroids-clippers
#16
W Oliver Tobin, Yong Guo, Karl N Krecke, Joseph E Parisi, Claudia F Lucchinetti, Sean J Pittock, Jay Mandrekar, Divyanshu Dubey, Jan Debruyne, B Mark Keegan
Chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS) is a central nervous system inflammatory syndrome predominantly affecting the brainstem, cerebellum, and spinal cord. Following its initial description, the salient features of CLIPPERS have been confirmed and expanded upon, but the lack of formalized diagnostic criteria has led to reports of patients with dissimilar features purported to have CLIPPERS. We evaluated clinical, radiological and pathological features of patients referred for suspected CLIPPERS and propose diagnostic criteria to discriminate CLIPPERS from non-CLIPPERS aetiologies...
September 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021984/mri-findings-of-early-stage-hyperacute-hemorrhage-causing-extramedullary-compression-of-the-cervical-spinal-cord-in-a-dog-with-suspected-steroid-responsive-meningitis-arteritis
#17
Adriano Wang-Leandro, Enrice-Ina Huenerfauth, Katharina Heissl, Andrea Tipold
A 9-month-old female Weimaraner was presented to the emergency service due to episodes of fever and neck pain. Physical examination revealed a stiff neck posture and elevated body temperature. Shortly after clinical examination was performed, the dog developed peracute onset of non-ambulatory tetraparesis compatible with a C1-C5 spinal cord (SC) lesion. Immediately thereafter (<1 h), MRI of the cervical SC was performed with a 3-T scanner. A left ventrolateral intradural-extramedullary SC compression caused by a round-shaped structure at the level of C3--C4 was evidenced...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956537/epidemiology-and-treatment-of-the-commonest-form-of-listeriosis-meningitis-and-bacteraemia
#18
Pasquale Pagliano, Ferhat Arslan, Tiziana Ascione
Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive bacillus and facultative intracellular bacterium whose transmission occurs mainly through the consumption of contaminated food. Listeriosis has an incidence estimated at around three-six cases per million per year and the most common forms of the infection are neurolisteriosis, bacteraemia, and maternal-neonatal infection. Those affected by listeriosis are at the extremes age of the life or report specific risk factors, such as malignancies, causing a defect of cellular immunity...
September 1, 2017: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921665/effects-of-oral-prednisone-administration-on-serum-cystatin-c-in-dogs
#19
J Muñoz, P Soblechero, F J Duque, B Macías-García, P Ruiz, C Zaragoza, R Barrera
BACKGROUND: Oral administration of glucocorticoid alters serum cystatin C (sCysC) concentration in humans. OBJECTIVE: To determine if oral administration of prednisone alters sCysC in dogs without pre-existing renal disease. ANIMALS: Forty six dogs were included: 10 dogs diagnosed with steroid responsive meningitis arteritis (SRMA; group A), 20 dogs diagnosed of pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH; group B), and 16 healthy control dogs (group C)...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895024/tuberculosis-meningitis
#20
REVIEW
Kassem Bourgi, Christina Fiske, Timothy R Sterling
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As the most severe form of tuberculosis (TB), TB meningitis disproportionately affects developing countries and results in significant morbidity and mortality. In this report, we review recent updates in the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of TB meningitis. RECENT FINDINGS: Young children and people living with HIV continue to be at highest risk for TB meningitis. Early diagnosis remains challenging, especially since conventional diagnostic tests have sub-optimal sensitivity and specificity...
September 11, 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
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