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Zhenlong Wu
Drop impact on an airfoil surface takes place in drop-laden two-phase flow conditions such as rain and icing, which are encountered by wind turbines or airplanes. This phenomenon is characterized by complex nonlinear interactions that manifest rich flow physics and pose unique modeling challenges. In this article, the state of the art of the research about drop impact on airfoil surface in the natural drop-laden two-phase flow environment is presented. The potential flow physics, hazards, characteristic parameters, droplet trajectory calculation, drop impact dynamics and effects are discussed...
May 17, 2018: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
Fabio Solis, Cesar Gonzalez
New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 378, Issue 20, Page 1930-1930, May 2018.
May 17, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
Cunlong Yu, Chuxin Li, Can Gao, Zhichao Dong, Lei Wu, Lei Jiang
Liquid drops impacting on a solid surface is a familiar phenomenon. On rainy days, it is quite important for leaves to drain off impacting raindrops. Water can bounce off or flow down a water-repellent leaf easily, but with difficulty on a hydrophilic leaf. Here, we show an interesting phenomenon in which impacting drops on the hydrophilic pitcher rim of Nepenthes alata can spread outward to prohibit water filling the pitcher tank. We mimic the peristome surface through a designed 3D printing and replicating way and report a time-dependently switchable liquid transport based on biomimetic topological structures, where surface curvature can work synergistically with the surface microtextures to manipulate the switchable spreading performance...
May 2, 2018: ACS Nano
Abdallah Mahrous, Jessica B Ciralsky, Edward C Lai
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Presbyopia is an inevitable age-related loss of accommodation that results in spectacle dependence with common everyday near-vision tasks. Many surgical approaches to presbyopic correction have been investigated, with monovision correction being amongst the most common and attractive options. In this article, we will review the advantages and disadvantages of the new modalities of presbyopic monovision correction. RECENT FINDINGS: New methods such as mini-monovision, corneal inlays, and multifocal corneal ablation aim to maximize stereopsis and decrease the anisometropic side effects of conventional monovision...
July 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
T Vidal, C Gigot, C de Vallavieille-Pope, L Huber, S Saint-Jean
Background and Aims: Growing cultivars differing by their disease resistance level together (cultivar mixtures) can reduce the propagation of diseases. Although architectural characteristics of cultivars are little considered in mixture design, they could have an effect on disease, in particular through spore dispersal by rain splash, which occurs over short distances. The objective of this work was to assess the impact of plant height of wheat cultivars in mixtures on splash dispersal of Zymoseptoria tritici, which causes septoria tritici leaf blotch...
March 20, 2018: Annals of Botany
Enrique Barragán-Garza, Douglas D Koch, Luis G Vargas, Alan Lang, Adam Roy
PURPOSE: To assess the clinically acceptable range of inlay decentration with respect to the light-constricted pupil center and the coaxially sighted corneal light reflex (CSCLR) for an inlay (Raindrop Near Vision Inlay; ReVision Optics, Inc., Lake Forest, CA) that reshapes the anterior corneal surface. METHODS: In this retrospective, observational cohort study of 115 patients with emmetropic or low hyperopic presbyopia who were implanted with a shape-changing corneal inlay, visual acuity, task performance (in good and dim light), reports of halos and glare, and satisfaction data were collected from the preoperative and 3-month postoperative examinations...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Refractive Surgery
Jeong Won Jo, Do Seon Jeong, Chi Yeon Kim
Palmoplantar keratodermas (PPK) are heterogeneous disorders characterized by abnormal keratinization. Especially, punctate PPK (PPPK), one of the subtypes of hereditary PPK, is a rare punctate keratoderma characterized by tiny "raindrop" keratoses having a tendency to coalesce on the edge of soles, which are exposed to sustained pressure. If typical punctate lesions are confined to the palms and soles and the patient has a family history and late onset, it can be considered as PPPK type I (PPKP1), also called Buschke-Fisher-Brauer disease...
May 2018: Journal of Dermatology
Jian Luo, Zicheng Zheng, Tingxuan Li, Shuqin He
This study investigated the variation characteristics of micro-topography during successive erosive stages of water erosion: splash erosion (SpE), sheet erosion (ShE), and rill erosion (RE). Micro-topography was quantified using surface elevation change, soil roughness (SR) and multifractal model. Results showed that the area of soil surface elevation decay increased gradually with the development of water erosion. With rainfall, the combined effects of the detachment by raindrop impact and the transport of runoff decreased SR, whereas rill erosion contributed to increase SR...
February 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yuqiang Liu, Na Sun, Jiawei Liu, Zhen Wen, Xuhui Sun, Shuit-Tong Lee, Baoquan Sun
Solar cells, as promising devices for converting light into electricity, have a dramatically reduced performance on rainy days. Here, an energy harvesting structure that integrates a solar cell and a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) device is built to realize power generation from both sunlight and raindrops. A heterojunction silicon (Si) solar cell is integrated with a TENG by a mutual electrode of a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) film. Regarding the solar cell, imprinted PEDOT:PSS is used to reduce light reflection, which leads to an enhanced short-circuit current density...
March 27, 2018: ACS Nano
Sami Lehtinen
Among carnivorous plants, the Venus flytrap is of particular interest for the rapid movement of its snap-traps and hypothesised prey selection, where small prey are allowed to escape from the traps. In this paper, we provide the first mathematical cost-benefit model for carnivory in the Venus flytrap. Specifically, we analyse the dynamics of prey capture; the costs and benefits of capturing and digesting its prey; and optimisation of trap size and prey selection. We fit the model to available data, making predictions regarding trap behaviour...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Elena Armenise, Robert W Simmons, Sujung Ahn, Amin Garbout, Stefan H Doerr, Sacha J Mooney, Craig J Sturrock, Karl Ritz
This study delivers new insights into rainfall-induced seal formation through a novel approach in the use of X-ray Computed Tomography (CT). Up to now seal and crust thickness have been directly quantified mainly through visual examination of sealed/crusted surfaces, and there has been no quantitative method to estimate this important property. X-ray CT images were quantitatively analysed to derive formal measures of seal and crust thickness. A factorial experiment was established in the laboratory using open-topped microcosms packed with soil...
January 2018: Journal of Hydrology
Ning Li, Lei Wu, Cunlong Yu, Haoyu Dai, Ting Wang, Zhichao Dong, Lei Jiang
The ballistic ejection of liquid drops by electrostatic manipulating has both fundamental and practical implications, from raindrops in thunderclouds to self-cleaning, anti-icing, condensation, and heat transfer enhancements. In this paper, the ballistic jumping behavior of liquid drops from a superhydrophobic surface is investigated. Powered by the repulsion of the same kind of charges, water drops can jump from the surface. The electrostatic acting time for the jumping of a microliter supercooled drop only takes several milliseconds, even shorter than the time for icing...
February 2018: Advanced Materials
Roger F Steinert, Douglas D Koch, Beatrice Cochener, Alan Lang, Enrique Barragán-Garza, Arturo Chayet, Luis G Vargas
PURPOSE: To compare the induced addition (add)-power profile and epithelial remodeling between patients receiving hyperopic and myopic laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) concurrently with implantation of a corneal shape-changing inlay. SETTING: Specialty clinics in Monterrey and Tijuana, Mexico. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: Preoperative hyperopic patients (mean spherical equivalent [SE] treatment +1...
November 2017: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
Roderick F G J King, Ben Jones, John P O'Hara
PURPOSE: This study evaluated whether glycogen-associated water is a protected entity not subject to normal osmotic homeostasis. An investigation into practical and theoretical aspects of the functionality of this water as a determinant of osmolality, dehydration, and glycogen concentration was undertaken. METHODS: In vitro experiments were conducted to determine the intrinsic osmolality of glycogen-potassium phosphate mixtures as would be found intra-cellularly at glycogen concentrations of 2% for muscle and 5 and 10% for liver...
February 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
A J Liu, X X Yang, X J Xu, Q X Wu, X J Tian, X L Yang, X R Wu, L P Wei, Y H Zhang
Objective: To investigate the clinical phenotypes and the mutant allele proportion of parents with SCN1A gene mutation mosaicism of Dravet syndrome (DS) children, thus to provide guidance for family reproduction and prenatal diagnosis. Method: The clinical data and peripheral blood DNA samples of DS patients with a SCN1A gene mutation proved by Sanger sequencing were collected prospectively from February 2005 to November 2016 in Department of Pediatrics, Peking University First Hospital. The same mutation was searched in parents and other available relatives...
November 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Yan-Fang Wang, Ge Li, Ling Tang, Chun-Yong Yang, Rong-Ying Li
In order to study the effect elements of anthers opening-closing movement of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis, and its cell morphology regulatory mechanism. Anthers daily opening in the morning and closing in the evening and its corresponding ecological elements changes were recorded. Different light, temperature, humidity experiment and artificial rainfall experiment were designed to observe the effect on anthers opening-closing movement, paraffin sections were made to observe the cell morphology change when the anthers daily opening and closing...
May 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Guillaume Lacombe, Christian Valentin, Phabvilay Sounyafong, Anneke de Rouw, Bounsamai Soulileuth, Norbert Silvera, Alain Pierret, Oloth Sengtaheuanghoung, Olivier Ribolzi
In Montane Southeast Asia, deforestation and unsuitable combinations of crops and agricultural practices degrade soils at an unprecedented rate. Typically, smallholder farmers gain income from "available" land by replacing fallow or secondary forest by perennial crops. We aimed to understand how these practices increase or reduce soil erosion. Ten land uses were monitored in Northern Laos during the 2015 monsoon, using local farmers' fields. Experiments included plots of the conventional system (food crops and fallow), and land uses corresponding to new market opportunities (e...
March 2018: Science of the Total Environment
E R Pansarin, P J Bergamo, M J Ferreira-Caliman
Flowering plants often depend on the attraction of biotic pollinators for sexual reproduction. Consequently, the emergence and maintenance of selected floral attributes related to pollinator attraction and rewarding are driven by pollinator pressure. In this paper we explore the effect of pollinators, rainfall, temperature and air humidity on the reproduction of a Brazilian terrestrial orchid, Cranichis candida based on data of phenology, flower resources, olfactory and visual attraction cues, pollinators and breeding system...
March 2018: Plant Biology
Alexander Haußmann
The shape deviation of falling raindrops from exact spheres is known to affect the appearance of natural rainbows, e.g., by enhancing the visibility of supernumerary arcs around the top or by creating branching effects known as "twinned rainbows." To check the accuracy of numerical optical models for rainbow scattering from such nonspherical drops, two simple and low-cost experiments are presented in this paper: (1) sessile, i.e., sitting, drops on ultrahydrophobic surfaces, and (2) glass beads in the shape of falling raindrops...
July 1, 2017: Applied Optics
Philip Laven
Supernumerary arcs on rainbows are historically important because in the early 1800s they provided evidence in favor of the wave theory of light. The success of Airy's rainbow integral has overshadowed the earlier contribution from Young, who proposed that supernumerary arcs were caused by interference between two geometrical rays that emerge from the raindrop at the same scattering angle. Airy dismissed Young's idea as "the imperfect theory of interference" because it predicted supernumerary arcs at the wrong angles...
July 1, 2017: Applied Optics
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