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Qunwei Tang, Yanyan Duan, Benlin He, Haiyan Chen
Solar cells that can harvest energy in all weathers are promising in solving the energy crisis and environmental problems. The power outputs are nearly zero under dark conditions for state-of-the-art solar cells. To address this issue, we present herein a class of platinum alloy (PtMx , M=Ni, Fe, Co, Cu, Mo) tailored all-weather solar cells that can harvest energy from rain and realize photoelectric conversion under sun illumination. By tuning the stoichiometric Pt/M ratio and M species, the optimized solar cell yields a photoelectric conversion efficiency of 10...
October 14, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Woong-Joo Whang, Young-Sik Yoo, Choun-Ki Joo, Geunyoung Yoon
PURPOSE: To analyze surgically induced refractive change (SIRC) and change in high-order aberration after Raindrop corneal inlay insertion, and assess the extent to which Raindrop corneal inlay insertion could correct presbyopia. DESIGN: Interventional case series. METHODS: 17 patients were included if they had a corneal thickness of 500 μm or greater and a stable manifest spherical equivalent refraction between -0.50 and +1.00 diopters.(D) The Raindrop corneal inlay (ReVision Optics, Lake Forest, CA) was implanted on the stromal bed of a femtosecond laser-assisted generated flap of non-dominant eyes...
September 30, 2016: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Somnath Bhattacharya, Atin Dey, Sayantan Saha, Saurav Kar
A 42-year-old housewife, the resident of rural part of West Bengal, presented with gradually progressive exertional dyspnea associated with a dry cough for last 3 years clinical features were suggestive of diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD). Her chest X-ray posteroanterior view and high resolution computed tomography scan of the thorax showed bilateral patchy ground glass opacities and reticulonodular pattern. Search for the etiology revealed classical skin findings of chronic arsenic exposure in the form of generalized darkening and thickening of skin and keratotic lesions over the palms and soles and classical raindrop pigmentation over leg which was present for last 7 years subsequently her bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, hair, nail, and drinking water showed significant amount of arsenic contamination...
September 2016: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
Yongsheng Wu, Charles G Hannah, Pramod Thupaki, Ruping Mo, Brent Law
Raindrops falling on the sea surface produce turbulence. The present study examined the influence of rain-induced turbulence on oil droplet size and dispersion of oil spills in Douglas Channel in British Columbia, Canada using hourly atmospheric data in 2011-2013. We examined three types of oils: a light oil (Cold Lake Diluent - CLD), and two heavy oils (Cold Lake Blend - CLB and Access Western Blend - AWB). We found that the turbulent energy dissipation rate produced by rainfalls is comparable to what is produced by wind-induced wave breaking in our study area...
September 5, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Chun-Jui Huang, Chi-Lung Tseng, Harn-Shen Chen, Chanda Garabwan, Samuela Korovo, Kam-Tsun Tang, Justin Ging-Shing Won, Chang-Hsun Hsieh, Fan-Fen Wang
Little is known about iodine nutritional status in island countries in the Pacific Ocean. The primary objective of this study was to report for the first time the iodine nutritional status of people in Nauru. In addition, sources of iodine nutrition (i.e., water and salt) were investigated. A school-based cross-sectional survey of children aged 6-12 years was conducted in three primary schools of Nauru. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was determined by spot urine samples. Available water and salt samples in Nauru were collected for the measurement of iodine content...
2016: Nutrients
Sung-Soo Yoon, Dahl-Young Khang
A simple, low-cost, scalable patterning method has been demonstrated for chemically welded Ag nanowires (AgNWs) network. The chemically welded network of AgNWs on substrates has been patterned by modified microcontact printing (μCP). As an ink for the μCP, uncured high-viscosity siloxane polymer has been applied. Using elastomeric polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamp that has been replicated from micromachined Si master mold by metal-assisted chemical etching, the printed siloxane ink materials have been cured by simple UV/ozone exposure for 3 min, which acts as an etch barrier in ensuing wet-removal of exposed AgNWs network...
September 7, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jeffrey Whitman, John Hovanesian, Roger F Steinert, Douglas Koch, Richard Potvin
PURPOSE: To evaluate improvement in the through-focus acuity and visual function provided by a corneal inlay designed to modify the surface shape of the central cornea. SETTING: Two clinical practices, United States. DESIGN: Prospective nonrandomized clinical trial. METHODS: Emmetropic patients with presbyopia who required a reading addition (add) from +1.50 to +2.00 diopters (D) had implantation of the Raindrop Near Vision Inlay in the nondominant eye...
July 2016: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
Yi Hong, Celine Bonhomme, Minh-Hoang Le, Ghassan Chebbo
Nowadays, the increasing use of vehicles is causing contaminated stormwater runoff to drain from roads. The detailed understanding of urban wash-off processes is essential for addressing urban management issues. However, existing modelling approaches are rarely applied for these objectives due to the lack of realistic input data, unsuitability of physical descriptions, and inadequate documentation of model testing. In this context, we implement a method of coupling monitoring surveys with the physically-based FullSWOF (Full Shallow Water equations for Overland Flow) model (Delestre et al...
October 1, 2016: Water Research
Zhao Pan, William G Pitt, Yuanming Zhang, Nan Wu, Ye Tao, Tadd T Truscott
Desert plants possess highly evolved water conservation and transport systems, from the root structures that maximize absorption of scarce ground water(1-5), to the minimization of leaf surface area(6) to enhance water retention. Recent attention has focused on leaf structures that are adapted to collect water and promote nucleation from humid air(7-9). Syntrichia caninervis Mitt. (Pottiaceae) is one of the most abundant desert mosses in the world and thrives in an extreme environment with multiple but limited water resources (such as dew, fog, snow and rain), yet the mechanisms for water collection and transport have never been completely revealed...
2016: Nature Plants
Milan Stojković, Nenad Jaćimović
This paper presents one-dimensional numerical model for snowmelt/accumulation simulations, based on the equation of heat energy. It is assumed that the snow column is homogeneous at the current time step; however, its characteristics such as snow density and thermal conductivity are treated as functions of time. The equation of heat energy for snow column is solved using the implicit finite difference method. The incoming energy at the snow surface includes the following parts: conduction, convection, radiation and the raindrop energy...
2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Qunwei Tang, Xiaopeng Wang, Peizhi Yang, Benlin He
All-weather solar cells are promising in solving the energy crisis. A flexible solar cell is presented that is triggered by combining an electron-enriched graphene electrode with a dye-sensitized solar cell. The new solar cell can be excited by incident light on sunny days and raindrops on rainy days, yielding an optimal solar-to-electric conversion efficiency of 6.53 % under AM 1.5 irradiation and current over microamps as well as a voltage of hundreds of microvolts by simulated raindrops. The formation of π-electron|cation electrical double-layer pseudocapacitors at graphene/raindrop interface is contributable to current and voltage outputs at switchable charging-discharging process...
April 18, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Tova Band-Winterstein, Anat Freund
Intimate partner violence (IPV) in faith-based communities has unique characteristics that social workers should consider. This qualitative study examines how social workers describe their encounter with abused Jewish ultra-Orthodox women. In-depth interviews were conducted among 24 social workers (one man, 23 women: four were ultra-Orthodox, 19 were modern Orthodox, and one was secular); all respondents worked in the public sector, welfare offices, and non-profit organizations in ultra-Orthodox communities...
February 19, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Audrey Boudrot, Jimmy Pico, Isabelle Merle, Eduardo Granados, Sergio Vílchez, Philippe Tixier, Elías de Melo Virginio Filho, Fernando Casanoves, Ana Tapia, Clémentine Allinne, Robert A Rice, Jacques Avelino
Hemileia vastatrix caused a severe epidemic in Central America in 2012-13. The gradual development of that epidemic on nearly a continental scale suggests that dispersal at different scales played a significant role. Shade has been proposed as a way of reducing uredospore dispersal. The effect of shade (two strata: Erythrina poeppigiana below and Chloroleucon eurycyclum above) and full sun on H. vastatrix dispersal was studied with Burkard traps in relation to meteorological records. Annual and daily patterns of dispersal were observed, with peaks of uredospore capture obtained during wet seasons and in the early afternoon...
June 2016: Phytopathology
Jeffrey Whitman, Paul J Dougherty, Gregory D Parkhurst, John Olkowski, Stephen G Slade, John Hovanesian, Ralph Chu, Jon Dishler, Dan B Tran, Robert Lehmann, Harvey Carter, Roger F Steinert, Douglas D Koch
PURPOSE: To report 1-year safety and efficacy clinical outcomes of a shape-changing corneal inlay for the treatment of presbyopia. DESIGN: Prospective, nonrandomized, multicenter United States Food and Drug Administration Investigational Device Exemption clinical trial ( identifier, NCT01373580). PARTICIPANTS: Nondominant eyes (N = 373) of emmetropic presbyopic subjects were implanted at 11 sites with the Raindrop Near Vision Inlay (ReVision Optics, Lake Forest, CA); 340 eyes underwent the 1-year follow-up visit...
March 2016: Ophthalmology
Michael Wilkinson
Rainfall from ice-free cumulus clouds requires collisions of large numbers of microscopic droplets to create every raindrop. The onset of rain showers can be surprisingly rapid, much faster than the mean time required for a single collision. Large-deviation theory is used to explain this observation.
January 8, 2016: Physical Review Letters
V Salamalikis, A A Argiriou, E Dotsika
In dry and warm environments sub-cloud evaporation influences the falling raindrops modifying their final stable isotopic content. During their descent from the cloud base towards the ground surface, through the unsaturated atmosphere, hydrometeors are subjected to evaporation whereas the kinetic fractionation results to less depleted or enriched isotopic signatures compared to the initial isotopic composition of the raindrops at cloud base. Nowadays the development of Generalized Climate Models (GCMs) that include isotopic content calculation modules are of great interest for the isotopic tracing of the global hydrological cycle...
February 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Qianyun Zhang, Ming Gao, Runchen Zhao, Xiang Cheng
Combining high-speed photography with laser profilometry, we study the dynamics and the morphology of liquid-drop impact cratering in wet granular media-a ubiquitous phenomenon relevant to many important geological, agricultural, and industrial processes. By systematically investigating important variables such as impact energy, the size of impinging drops, and the degree of liquid saturation in granular beds, we uncover a scaling law for the size of impact craters. We show that this scaling can be explained by considering the balance between the inertia of impinging drops and the strength of impacted surface...
October 2015: Physical Review. E, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics
Maribeth O Hassett, Mark W F Fischer, Nicholas P Money
Millions of tons of fungal spores are dispersed in the atmosphere every year. These living cells, along with plant spores and pollen grains, may act as nuclei for condensation of water in clouds. Basidiospores released by mushrooms form a significant proportion of these aerosols, particularly above tropical forests. Mushroom spores are discharged from gills by the rapid displacement of a droplet of fluid on the cell surface. This droplet is formed by the condensation of water on the spore surface stimulated by the secretion of mannitol and other hygroscopic sugars...
2015: PloS One
Shaodi You, Robby Tan, Rei Kawakami, Yasuhiro Mukaigawa, Katsushi Ikeuchi
Raindrops adhered to a windscreen or window glass can significantly degrade the visibility of a scene. Modeling, detecting and removing raindrops will, therefore, benefit many computer vision applications, particularly outdoor surveillance systems and intelligent vehicle systems. In this paper, a method that automatically detects and removes adherent raindrops is introduced. The core idea is to exploit the local spatio-temporal derivatives of raindrops. To accomplish the idea, we first model adherent raindrops using law of physics, and detect raindrops based on these models in combination with motion and intensity temporal derivatives of the input video...
October 16, 2015: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Roger F Steinert, Jim Schwiegerling, Alan Lang, Adam Roy, Keith Holliday, Enrique Barragán Garza, Arturo S Chayet
PURPOSE: To demonstrate the independence of visual performance over a range of preoperative refraction and age in presbyopes implanted with a corneal shape-changing inlay (Raindrop Near Vision Inlay). SETTING: Two multispecialty clinics, Monterrey and Tijuana, Mexico. DESIGN: Prospective case series. METHODS: The nondominant eyes of patients were implanted with the hydrogel corneal inlay beneath a femtosecond flap, centered on the pupil...
August 2015: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
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