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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211715/liquid-grain-mixing-suppresses-droplet-spreading-and-splashing-during-impact
#1
Song-Chuan Zhao, Rianne de Jong, Devaraj van der Meer
Would a raindrop impacting on a coarse beach behave differently from that impacting on a desert of fine sand? We study this question by a series of model experiments, where the packing density of the granular target, the wettability of individual grains, the grain size, the impacting liquid, and the impact speed are varied. We find that by increasing the grain size and/or the wettability of individual grains the maximum droplet spreading undergoes a transition from a capillary regime towards a viscous regime, and splashing is suppressed...
February 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199898/differential-release-of-manure-borne-bioactive-phosphorus-forms-to-runoff-and-leachate-under-simulated-rain
#2
R A Blaustein, Thanh H Dao, Y A Pachepsky, D R Shelton
Limited information exists on the unhindered release of bioactive phosphorus (P) from a manure layer to model the partitioning and transport of component P forms before they reach an underlying soil. Rain simulations were conducted to quantify effects of intensity (30, 60, and 90 mm h(-1)) on P release from an application of 60 Mg ha(-1) of dairy manure. Runoff contained water-extractable- (WEP), exchangeable and enzyme-labile bioactive P (TBIOP), in contrast to the operationally defined "dissolved-reactive P" form...
February 12, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119004/contribution-of-raindrop-impact-to-the-change-of-soil-physical-properties-and-water-erosion-under-semi-arid-rainfalls
#3
Ali Reza Vaezi, Morvarid Ahmadi, Artemi Cerdà
Soil erosion by water is a three-phase process that consists of detachment of soil particles from the soil mass, transportation of detached particles either by raindrop impact or surface water flow, and sedimentation. Detachment by raindrops is a key component of the soil erosion process. However, little information is available on the role of raindrop impact on soil losses in the semi-arid regions where vegetation cover is often poor and does not protect the soil from rainfall. The objective of this study is to determine the contribution of raindrop impact to changes in soil physical properties and soil losses in a semiarid weakly-aggregated agricultural soil...
January 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118137/effect-of-source-of-dna-on-the-quantitative-analysis-of-genetically-engineered-traits-using-digital-pcr-and-real-time-pcr
#4
Tigst Demeke, Jemima Malabanan, Michelle Holigroski, Monika Eng
Seven commercially available DNA extraction kits were compared with a cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method to determine the suitability of the extracted DNA for RainDrop digital PCR (dPCR) and real-time PCR (RT-PCR) quantification of OXY235 canola, FP967 flax, and DP305423 soybean (spiked at the 0.1% level). For the kits, the highest amount of DNA extracted from a 0.2 g sample was obtained using OmniPrep for Plant for flax and DNeasy <em>mericon</em> Food for canola and soybean. For canola, DNA extracted with the Fast ID Genomic DNA Extraction Kit, FastDNA Spin Kit, GM Quicker 2, NucleoSpin Food, and DNeasy <em>mericon</em> Food was suitable for dPCR and RT-PCR...
December 22, 2016: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990347/digital-pcr-dynamic-range-is-approaching-that-of-real-time-quantitative-pcr
#5
Gerwyn M Jones, Eloise Busby, Jeremy A Garson, Paul R Grant, Eleni Nastouli, Alison S Devonshire, Alexandra S Whale
Digital PCR (dPCR) has been reported to be more precise and sensitive than real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) in a variety of models and applications. However, in the majority of commercially available dPCR platforms, the dynamic range is dependent on the number of partitions analysed and so is typically limited to four orders of magnitude; reduced compared with the typical seven orders achievable by qPCR. Using two different biological models (HIV DNA analysis and KRAS genotyping), we have demonstrated that the RainDrop Digital PCR System (RainDance Technologies) is capable of performing accurate and precise quantification over six orders of magnitude thereby approaching that achievable by qPCR...
December 2016: Biomolecular Detection and Quantification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979961/rt-qpcr-and-rt-digital-pcr-a-comparison-of-different-platforms-for-the-evaluation-of-residual-disease-in-chronic-myeloid-leukemia
#6
Mary Alikian, Alexandra S Whale, Susanna Akiki, Kim Piechocki, Celia Torrado, Thet Myint, Simon Cowen, Michael Griffiths, Alistair G Reid, Jane Apperley, Helen White, Jim F Huggett, Letizia Foroni
BACKGROUND: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are the cornerstone of successful clinical management of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Quantitative monitoring of the percentage of the BCR, RhoGEF, and GTPase activating protein-ABL proto-oncogene 1, non-receptor tyrosine kinase fusion transcript BCR-ABL1(IS) (%BCR-ABL1(IS)) by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) is the gold standard strategy for evaluating patient response to TKIs and classification into prognostic subgroups...
December 15, 2016: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935271/self-powered-random-number-generator-based-on-coupled-triboelectric-and-electrostatic-induction-effects-at-the-liquid-dielectric-interface
#7
Aifang Yu, Xiangyu Chen, Haotian Cui, Libo Chen, Jianjun Luo, Wei Tang, Mingzeng Peng, Yang Zhang, Junyi Zhai, Zhong Lin Wang
Modern cryptography increasingly employs random numbers generated from physical sources in lieu of conventional software-based pseudorandom numbers, primarily owing to the great demand of unpredictable, indecipherable cryptographic keys from true random numbers for information security. Thus, far, the sole demonstration of true random numbers has been generated through thermal noise and/or quantum effects, which suffers from expensive and complex equipment. In this paper, we demonstrate a method for self-powered creation of true random numbers by using triboelectric technology to collect random signals from nature...
December 27, 2016: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930796/surgical-correction-of-presbyopic-ametropia-with-non-refractive-transparent-corneal-inlay-and-an-implantable-collamer-lens
#8
Carlos Gutierrez Amoros
PURPOSE: To report the clinical outcomes of two patients implanted with the Raindrop Near Vision Inlay (ReVision Optics, Inc., Lake Forest, CA) to correct for presbyopia and the Visian implantable collamer lens (ICL) (STAAR Surgical, Monrovia, CA) to correct refractive error. METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: Two patients with presbyopic ametropia complained of blurred vision for distance and near. Both patients received a corneal inlay in the non-dominant eye followed by the Raindrop Inlay the following day...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810330/foxl2-402c-g-mutation-can-be-identified-in-the-circulating-tumor-dna-of-patients-with-adult-type-granulosa-cell-tumor
#9
Anniina Färkkilä, Melissa K McConechy, Winnie Yang, Aline Talhouk, Ying Ng, Amy Lum, Ryan D Morin, Kevin Bushell, Annika Riska, Jessica N McAlpine, C Blake Gilks, Leila Unkila-Kallio, Mikko Anttonen, David G Huntsman
Adult granulosa cell tumors (AGCTs) of the ovary are molecularly characterized by the pathognomonic FOXL2 402C>G (C134W) mutation. To improve diagnostics and follow-up, we developed a specific digital droplet PCR (ddPCR) assay to detect the FOXL2 mutation in the circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) of AGCT patients. Optimization of the ddPCR assay was performed using a TaqMan primer/probe with the RainDance RainDrop digital PCR system. The ddPCR assay was performed on circulating cell-free DNA extracted from 120 serial plasma samples collected prospectively from 35 AGCT patients...
January 2017: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics: JMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739638/platinum-alloy-tailored-all-weather-solar-cells-for-energy-harvesting-from-sun-and-rain
#10
Qunwei Tang, Yanyan Duan, Benlin He, Haiyan Chen
Solar cells that can harvest energy in all weathers are promising in solving the energy crisis and environmental problems. The power outputs are nearly zero under dark conditions for state-of-the-art solar cells. To address this issue, we present herein a class of platinum alloy (PtMx , M=Ni, Fe, Co, Cu, Mo) tailored all-weather solar cells that can harvest energy from rain and realize photoelectric conversion under sun illumination. By tuning the stoichiometric Pt/M ratio and M species, the optimized solar cell yields a photoelectric conversion efficiency of 10...
October 14, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697473/changes-in-keratometric-values-and-corneal-high-order-aberrations-after-hydrogel-inlay-implantation
#11
Woong-Joo Whang, Young-Sik Yoo, Choun-Ki Joo, Geunyoung Yoon
PURPOSE: We sought to analyze surgically induced refractive change (SIRC) and change in high-order aberration after Raindrop corneal inlay insertion (ReVision Optics, Lake Forest, CA), and assess the extent to which Raindrop corneal inlay insertion could correct presbyopia. DESIGN: Interventional case series. METHODS: Seventeen patients were included if they had a corneal thickness ≥500 μm and a stable manifest spherical equivalent refraction between 0...
January 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625453/diffuse-parenchymal-lung-disease-in-a-case-of-chronic-arsenic-exposure
#12
Somnath Bhattacharya, Atin Dey, Sayantan Saha, Saurav Kar
A 42-year-old housewife, the resident of rural part of West Bengal, presented with gradually progressive exertional dyspnea associated with a dry cough for last 3 years clinical features were suggestive of diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD). Her chest X-ray posteroanterior view and high resolution computed tomography scan of the thorax showed bilateral patchy ground glass opacities and reticulonodular pattern. Search for the etiology revealed classical skin findings of chronic arsenic exposure in the form of generalized darkening and thickening of skin and keratotic lesions over the palms and soles and classical raindrop pigmentation over leg which was present for last 7 years subsequently her bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, hair, nail, and drinking water showed significant amount of arsenic contamination...
September 2016: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609234/effects-of-rainfall-on-oil-droplet-size-and-the-dispersion-of-spilled-oil-with-application-to-douglas-channel-british-columbia-canada
#13
Yongsheng Wu, Charles G Hannah, Pramod Thupaki, Ruping Mo, Brent Law
Raindrops falling on the sea surface produce turbulence. The present study examined the influence of rain-induced turbulence on oil droplet size and dispersion of oil spills in Douglas Channel in British Columbia, Canada using hourly atmospheric data in 2011-2013. We examined three types of oils: a light oil (Cold Lake Diluent - CLD), and two heavy oils (Cold Lake Blend - CLB and Access Western Blend - AWB). We found that the turbulent energy dissipation rate produced by rainfalls is comparable to what is produced by wind-induced wave breaking in our study area...
January 15, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563920/iodine-nutritional-status-of-school-children-in-nauru-2015
#14
Chun-Jui Huang, Chi-Lung Tseng, Harn-Shen Chen, Chanda Garabwan, Samuela Korovo, Kam-Tsun Tang, Justin Ging-Shing Won, Chang-Hsun Hsieh, Fan-Fen Wang
Little is known about iodine nutritional status in island countries in the Pacific Ocean. The primary objective of this study was to report for the first time the iodine nutritional status of people in Nauru. In addition, sources of iodine nutrition (i.e., water and salt) were investigated. A school-based cross-sectional survey of children aged 6-12 years was conducted in three primary schools of Nauru. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was determined by spot urine samples. Available water and salt samples in Nauru were collected for the measurement of iodine content...
August 23, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27548278/facile-patterning-of-ag-nanowires-network-by-micro-contact-printing-of-siloxane
#15
Sung-Soo Yoon, Dahl-Young Khang
A simple, low-cost, scalable patterning method has been demonstrated for chemically welded Ag nanowires (AgNWs) network. The chemically welded network of AgNWs on substrates has been patterned by modified microcontact printing (μCP). As an ink for the μCP, uncured high-viscosity siloxane polymer has been applied. Using elastomeric polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamp that has been replicated from micromachined Si master mold by metal-assisted chemical etching, the printed siloxane ink materials have been cured by simple UV/ozone exposure for 3 min, which acts as an etch barrier in ensuing wet-removal of exposed AgNWs network...
September 7, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27492093/through-focus-performance-with-a-corneal-shape-changing-inlay-one-year-results
#16
Jeffrey Whitman, John Hovanesian, Roger F Steinert, Douglas Koch, Richard Potvin
PURPOSE: To evaluate improvement in the through-focus acuity and visual function provided by a corneal inlay designed to modify the surface shape of the central cornea. SETTING: Two clinical practices, United States. DESIGN: Prospective nonrandomized clinical trial. METHODS: Emmetropic patients with presbyopia who required a reading addition (add) from +1.50 to +2.00 diopters (D) had implantation of the Raindrop Near Vision Inlay in the nondominant eye...
July 2016: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27328366/a-new-approach-of-monitoring-and-physically-based-modelling-to-investigate-urban-wash-off-process-on-a-road-catchment-near-paris
#17
Yi Hong, Celine Bonhomme, Minh-Hoang Le, Ghassan Chebbo
Nowadays, the increasing use of vehicles is causing contaminated stormwater runoff to drain from roads. The detailed understanding of urban wash-off processes is essential for addressing urban management issues. However, existing modelling approaches are rarely applied for these objectives due to the lack of realistic input data, unsuitability of physical descriptions, and inadequate documentation of model testing. In this context, we implement a method of coupling monitoring surveys with the physically-based FullSWOF (Full Shallow Water equations for Overland Flow) model (Delestre et al...
October 1, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27302768/the-upside-down-water-collection-system-of-syntrichia-caninervis
#18
Zhao Pan, William G Pitt, Yuanming Zhang, Nan Wu, Ye Tao, Tadd T Truscott
Desert plants possess highly evolved water conservation and transport systems, from the root structures that maximize absorption of scarce ground water(1-5), to the minimization of leaf surface area(6) to enhance water retention. Recent attention has focused on leaf structures that are adapted to collect water and promote nucleation from humid air(7-9). Syntrichia caninervis Mitt. (Pottiaceae) is one of the most abundant desert mosses in the world and thrives in an extreme environment with multiple but limited water resources (such as dew, fog, snow and rain), yet the mechanisms for water collection and transport have never been completely revealed...
2016: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27054726/a-simple-numerical-method-for-snowmelt-simulation-based-on-the-equation-of-heat-energy
#19
Milan Stojković, Nenad Jaćimović
This paper presents one-dimensional numerical model for snowmelt/accumulation simulations, based on the equation of heat energy. It is assumed that the snow column is homogeneous at the current time step; however, its characteristics such as snow density and thermal conductivity are treated as functions of time. The equation of heat energy for snow column is solved using the implicit finite difference method. The incoming energy at the snow surface includes the following parts: conduction, convection, radiation and the raindrop energy...
2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26996147/a-solar-cell-that-is-triggered-by-sun-and-rain
#20
Qunwei Tang, Xiaopeng Wang, Peizhi Yang, Benlin He
All-weather solar cells are promising in solving the energy crisis. A flexible solar cell is presented that is triggered by combining an electron-enriched graphene electrode with a dye-sensitized solar cell. The new solar cell can be excited by incident light on sunny days and raindrops on rainy days, yielding an optimal solar-to-electric conversion efficiency of 6.53 % under AM 1.5 irradiation and current over microamps as well as a voltage of hundreds of microvolts by simulated raindrops. The formation of π-electron|cation electrical double-layer pseudocapacitors at graphene/raindrop interface is contributable to current and voltage outputs at switchable charging-discharging process...
April 18, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
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