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Phosphotidylcholine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606258/preparation-and-evaluation-of-a-novel-oral-delivery-system-for-low-molecular-weight-heparin
#1
Nallaguntla Lavanya, Yallamalli Indira Muzib, Jithan Aukunuru, Umamahesh Balekari
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present work was to prepare and evaluate a novel oral formulation for systemic delivery of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH). The formulation consisted of Eudragit S 100-coated positively charged liposomes encapsulating LMWH and a penetration enhancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Positively charged liposomes were first prepared by the thin film hydration method using lipid (soy phosphotidylcholine and cholesterol) and stearyl amine (SA) in the optimum ratio of 16:1, along with cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) as a penetration enhancer...
July 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27392247/glycerol-metabolism-promotes-biofilm-formation-by-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#2
Jessica Scoffield, Laura Silo-Suh
Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes persistent infections in the airways of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Airway sputum contains various host-derived nutrients that can be utilized by P. aeruginosa, including phosphotidylcholine, a major component of host cell membranes. Phosphotidylcholine can be degraded by P. aeruginosa to glycerol and fatty acids to increase the availability of glycerol in the CF lung. In this study, we explored the role that glycerol metabolism plays in biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa. We report that glycerol metabolism promotes biofilm formation by both a chronic CF isolate (FRD1) and a wound isolate (PAO1) of P...
August 2016: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27381745/genetic-enhancement-of-palmitic-acid-accumulation-in-cotton-seed-oil-through-rnai-down-regulation-of-ghkas2-encoding-%C3%AE-ketoacyl-acp-synthase-ii-kasii
#3
Qing Liu, Man Wu, Baolong Zhang, Pushkar Shrestha, James Petrie, Allan G Green, Surinder P Singh
Palmitic acid (C16:0) already makes up approximately 25% of the total fatty acids in the conventional cotton seed oil. However further enhancements in palmitic acid content at the expense of the predominant unsaturated fatty acids would provide increased oxidative stability of cotton seed oil and also impart the high melting point required for making margarine, shortening and confectionary products free of trans fatty acids. Seed-specific RNAi-mediated down-regulation of β-ketoacyl-ACP synthase II (KASII) catalysing the elongation of palmitoyl-ACP to stearoyl-ACP has succeeded in dramatically increasing the C16 fatty acid content of cotton seed oil to well beyond its natural limits, reaching up to 65% of total fatty acids...
July 6, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27352544/-optimization-of-formulation-and-process-of-paclitaxel-pegylated-liposomes-by-box-behnken-response-surface-methodology
#4
Ya-jun Shi, Xiao-feil Zhang, Qiu-ting Guo
OBJECTIVE: To develop a procedure for preparing paclitaxel encapsulated PEGylated liposomes. METHODS: The membrane hydration followed extraction method was used to prepare PEGylated liposomes. The process and formulation variables were optimized by "Box-Behnken Design (BBD)" of response surface methodology (RSM) with the amount of Soya phosphotidylcholine (SPC) and PEG2000-DSPE as well as the rate of SPC to drug as independent variables and entrapment efficiency as dependent variables for optimization of formulation variables while temperature, pressure and cycle times as independent variables and particle size and polydispersion index as dependent variables for process variables...
December 2015: Zhong Yao Cai, Zhongyaocai, Journal of Chinese Medicinal Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27026051/pleiotropic-effects-of-the-vacuolar-abc-transporter-mlt1-of-candida-albicans-on-cell-function-and-virulence
#5
Nitesh Kumar Khandelwal, Philipp Kaemmer, Toni M Förster, Ashutosh Singh, Alix T Coste, David R Andes, Bernhard Hube, Dominique Sanglard, Neeraj Chauhan, Rupinder Kaur, Christophe d'Enfert, Alok Kumar Mondal, Rajendra Prasad
Among the several mechanisms that contribute to MDR (multidrug resistance), the overexpression of drug-efflux pumps belonging to the ABC (ATP-binding cassette) superfamily is the most frequent cause of resistance to antifungal agents. The multidrug transporter proteins Cdr1p and Cdr2p of the ABCG subfamily are major players in the development of MDR in Candida albicans Because several genes coding for ABC proteins exist in the genome of C. albicans, but only Cdr1p and Cdr2p have established roles in MDR, it is implicit that the other members of the ABC family also have alternative physiological roles...
June 1, 2016: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26828121/solvent-exposed-lipid-tail-protrusions-depend-on-lipid-membrane-composition-and-curvature
#6
Mukarram A Tahir, Reid C Van Lehn, S H Choi, Alfredo Alexander-Katz
The stochastic protrusion of hydrophobic lipid tails into solution, a subclass of hydrophobic membrane defects, has recently been shown to be a critical step in a number of biological processes like membrane fusion. Understanding the factors that govern the appearance of lipid tail protrusions is critical for identifying membrane features that affect the rate of fusion or other processes that depend on contact with solvent-exposed lipid tails. In this work, we utilize atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to characterize the likelihood of tail protrusions in phosphotidylcholine lipid bilayers of varying composition, curvature, and hydration...
June 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26714775/hypercoagulation-and-elevation-of-blood-triglycerides-are-characteristics-of-kawasaki-disease
#7
Xi Chen, Zhen-Wen Zhao, Lin Li, Xue-Jun Chen, Hui Xu, Jin-Tu Lou, Lin-Jie Li, Li-Zhong Du, Chun-Hong Xie
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular damages poses risks to children with Kawasaki disease (KD). Although hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesteremia are risk factors of cardiovascular damages, studies on the blood lipid metabolism in KD are still limited. This study aims to analyze the blood lipids and coagulation in KD. METHODS: Triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol levels in the plasma and serum from 20 children with KD were examined in comparison with 10 healthy children (HC) as well as 10 children with high fever from identified bacterial infections (BT)...
2015: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26613152/effect-of-force-field-parameters-on-sodium-and-potassium-ion-binding-to-dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine-bilayers
#8
Arnau Cordomí, Olle Edholm, Juan J Perez
The behavior of electrolytes in molecular dynamics simulations of zwitterionic phospholipid bilayers is very sensitive to the force field parameters used. Here, several 200 ns molecular dynamics of simulations of dipalmitoyl phosphotidylcholine (PC) bilayers in 0.2 M sodium or potassium chloride using various common force field parameters for the cations are presented. All employed parameter sets give a larger number of Na(+) ions than K(+) ions that bind to the lipid heads, but depending on the parameter choice quite different results are seen...
August 11, 2009: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26574956/biomarkers-of-ectopic-fat-deposition-the-next-frontier-in-serum-lipidomics
#9
Leigh Perreault, Anne P Starling, Deborah Glueck, Joseph T Brozinick, Phil Sanders, Parker Siddall, Ming Shang Kuo, Dana Dabelea, Bryan C Bergman
CONTEXT: Strong evidence suggests that ectopic fat rather than fat mass per se drives risk for type 2 diabetes. Nonetheless, biomarkers of ectopic fat have gone unexplored. OBJECTIVE: To determine the utility of serum lipidomics to predict ectopic lipid deposition. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: The Clinical Translational Research Center at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus. PARTICIPANTS: Endurance-trained athletes (n = 15, 41 ± 0...
January 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26544552/atp-mediated-compositional-change-in-peripheral-myelin-membranes-a-comparative-raman-spectroscopy-and-time-of-flight-secondary-ion-mass-spectrometry-study
#10
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Nikolay Kutuzov, Alexander Gulin, Vladimir Lyaskovskiy, Victor Nadtochenko, Georgy Maksimov
In the present paper we addressed a mechanism of the myelin reorganization initiated by extracellular ATP and adenosine in sciatic nerves of the frog Rana temporaria. In combination with Raman microspectroscopy, allowing noninvasive live-cell measurements, we employed time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) to follow the underlying changes in chemical composition of myelin membranes triggered by the purinergic agents. The simultaneous increase in lipid ordering degree, decrease in membrane fluidity and the degree of fatty acid unsaturation were induced by both ATP and adenosine...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26296943/caenispirillum-deserti-sp-nov-a-spheroplast-forming-bacterium-isolated-from-a-salt-desert
#11
B Divyasree, K V N S Lakshmi, Dave Bharti, Ch Sasikala, Ch V Ramana
A Gram-stain-negative, vibrio-shaped, spheroplast-forming, motile, aerobic bacterium was isolated from the soil of a salt desert in Kutch, Gujarat, India. The strain, designated JC232(T), was oxidase- and catalase-positive. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain JC232(T) was a member of the genus Caenispirillum and was related most closely to Caenispirillum salinarum AK4(T) (98.9% similarity) and Caenispirillum bisanense K92(T) (96.8%). Genome relatedness based on DNA-DNA hybridization of strain JC232(T) with the type strains of closely related species was less than 40%...
September 2015: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26268669/influence-of-calcium-chloride-in-the-high-temperature-acetification-by-strain-acetobacter-aceti-wk-for-vinegar
#12
W Krusong, S Kerdpiboon, A Jindaprasert, S Yaiyen, S Pornpukdeewatana, S Tantratian
AIMS: To improve the thermotolerant properties (TTP) of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) cells for high temperature acetification. METHODS AND RESULTS: At high temperature (36 ± 1°C), the acetification rate (ETA) is usually lower than at 30 ± 1°C. The addition of 0·15% calcium chloride (CaCl2 ) may decrease the negative effect of the increase of temperature from 30 ± 1°C to 36 ± 1°C on the ETA. The effect of CaCl2 on the thermotolerant properties of acetic acid bacteria cells was investigated...
November 2015: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25595791/natural-igm-prevents-autoimmunity-by-enforcing-b-cell-central-tolerance-induction
#13
Trang T T Nguyen, Rebecca A Elsner, Nicole Baumgarth
It is unclear why selective deficiency in secreted (s)IgM causes Ab-mediated autoimmunity. We demonstrate that sIgM is required for normal B cell development and selection. The CD5(+) B cells that were previously shown to accumulate in body cavities of sIgM(-/-) mice are not B-1a cells, but CD19(int), CD43(-), short-lived, BCR signaling-unresponsive anergic B-2 cells. Body cavity B-1 cells were >10-fold reduced, including VH11(+) and phosphotidylcholine-specific B-1a cells, whereas splenic B-1 cells were unaffected and marginal zone B cells increased...
February 15, 2015: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25576831/anticoagulant-mechanism-and-platelet-deaggregation-property-of-a-non-cytotoxic-acidic-phospholipase-a2-purified-from-indian-cobra-naja-naja-venom-inhibition-of-anticoagulant-activity-by-low-molecular-weight-heparin
#14
Sumita Dutta, Debananda Gogoi, Ashis K Mukherjee
In the present study, anticoagulant and platelet modulating activities of an acidic phospholipase A2 (NnPLA2-I) purified from Indian cobra Naja naja venom was investigated. The NnPLA2-I displayed a mass of 15.2 kDa and 14,186.0 Da when analyzed by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF-MS, respectively. Peptide mass fingerprinting analysis of the NnPLA2-I showed its significant similarity with phospholipase A2 enzymes purified from cobra venom. BLAST analysis of one tryptic peptide sequence of NnPLA2-I demonstrated putative conserved domains of the PLA2-like superfamily...
March 2015: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24960450/a-new-route-for-synthesis-of-silver-gold-alloy-nanoparticles-loaded-within-phosphatidylcholine-liposome-structure-as-an-effective-antibacterial-agent-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#15
Amir H Salehi, Majid Montazer, Tayebeh Toliyat, Mahnaz Mahmoudi-Rad
Ag:Au alloy nanoparticles were successfully synthesized through the new route using co-reduction method with silver nitrate, chloroauric acid, cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium borohydride at room temperature. The Ag:Au alloy nanoparticles were then loaded within the phosphatidylcholine (97%) liposome structure. Various molar ratios of phosphotidylcholine and CTAB to the total metals were investigated showing its importance on the stability of nanocomposites suspension. The size distribution and morphology of encapsulated nanoparticles within the liposome structure were studied via ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectrum, transmission electron microscope (TEM) micrographs, and dynamic light scattering data...
March 2015: Journal of Liposome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24812359/thiophaeococcus-fuscus-sp-nov-isolated-from-a-lagoon
#16
B Divyasree, K V N S Lakshmi, Ch Sasikala, Ch V Ramana
A brown-coloured bacterium, designated strain JA633(T), was purified from a photoheterotrophic enrichment culture obtained from black sand of a lagoon. Cells of strain JA633(T) were coccoid-spherical, Gram-stain-negative and motile by means of polar flagella. Strain JA633(T) had an obligate requirement for NaCl and could tolerate up to 4% (w/v) NaCl. Internal photosynthetic membranes were present as vesicles. Photo-organoheterotrophy was the only growth mode observed. Strain JA633(T) contained bacteriochlorophyll a and a major (>85%) unidentified carotenoid of the spirilloxanthin series...
August 2014: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24783852/-identification-of-spore-germination-and-virulence-related-biomarkers-from-beauveria-bassiana-using-an-lc-ms-based-metabolomic-technique
#17
Feifei Luo, Shulin Li, Longyun Chen, Wancun Zhang, Bin Wang, Bo Huang, Fenglin Hu
OBJECTIVE: To identify biomarkers associated with germination and virulence of Beauveria bassiana. METHODS: Spore germination rate and virulence of seven B. bassiana isolates against Euproctis pseudoconspersa were determined, and an LC-MS-based metabolomic analysis was applied to identify the biomarkers from mycelia and conidial extracts associated with spore germination and virulence. RESULTS: The metabolites of carnitine, hercynine, acetylcarnitine, alpha, alpha-trehalose; Octa-Me, arg-arg-gln, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE(18:2/0:0)), phosphotidylcholine (PC(18:3/0:0)) and PC(18:2/0:0)) were higher in the mycelia of highly virulent isolates than those less virulent strains...
January 4, 2014: Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao, Acta Microbiologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24716859/interaction-forces-between-ternary-lipid-bilayers-containing-cholesterol
#18
James Kurniawan, Nai-Ning Yin, Gang-yu Liu, Tonya L Kuhl
Interaction force-distance profiles between substrate-supported membranes composed of equimolar ternary mixtures of unsaturated phosphotidylcholine (PC) lipid, saturated PC lipid, and cholesterol were determined using the surface force apparatus. Both double and single unsaturated PC lipids were studied. In all cases, the membranes were slightly negatively charged, resulting in a weak, long-range electrostatic repulsion. Corroborative atomic force microscopy, zeta potential, and fluorescence microscopy measurements were used to establish that a small level of charged lipid impurities (∼1/400 lipid molecules) were responsible for the repulsive electrostatic interaction between the membranes...
May 6, 2014: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24654960/total-phospholipids-in-edible-oils-by-in-vial-solvent-extraction-coupled-with-ftir-analysis
#19
Xianghe Meng, Qin Ye, Qiuyue Pan, Ding Yang, Min Wei, Yun Liu, Fred R Van De Voort
A simple procedure for the determination of total phospholipid (TPL) in edible oils was developed by combining a single-step, in situ methanol/acetonitrile (MeOH/ACN) extraction of the oil sample followed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis of the extract. Spectral analysis of extracts in a 25 m CaF2 cell obtained using 1:1 MeOH/ACN added to oil in a 2:1 ratio indicated that measurements made using only the asymmetric phosphate diester PO2- stretching band at 1243 cm-1 in 2nd derivative spectra were sufficient for the accurate measurement TPL with minimal co-extracted triglyceride interferences being encountered...
March 20, 2014: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24131543/pefluorocarbon-inhibition-of-bubble-induced-ca2-transients-in-an-in-vitro-model-of-vascular-gas-embolism
#20
Alexandra L Klinger, Judith Kandel, Benjamin Pichette, David M Eckmann
Endothelial injury resulting from deleterious interaction of gas microbubbles occurs in many surgical procedures and other medical interventions. The symptoms of vascular air embolism (VAE), while serious, are often difficult to detect, and there are essentially no pharmaceutical preventative or post-event treatments currently available. Perfluorocarbons (PFCs), however, have shown particular promise as a therapeutic option in reducing endothelial injury both in- and ex-vivo. Recently, we demonstrated the effectiveness of Oxycyte, a third-generation PFC formulated in a phosphotidylcholine emulsion, using an in vitro model of VAE developed in our laboratory...
January 2014: Experimental Biology and Medicine
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