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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905515/neonicotinoid-induced-impairment-of-odour-coding-in-the-honeybee
#1
Mara Andrione, Giorgio Vallortigara, Renzo Antolini, Albrecht Haase
Exposure to neonicotinoid pesticides is considered one of the possible causes of honeybee (Apis mellifera) population decline. At sublethal doses, these chemicals have been shown to negatively affect a number of behaviours, including performance of olfactory learning and memory, due to their interference with acetylcholine signalling in the mushroom bodies. Here we provide evidence that neonicotinoids can affect odour coding upstream of the mushroom bodies, in the first odour processing centres of the honeybee brain, i...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905502/immune-responsiveness-of-cd4-t-cells-during-streptococcus-suis-serotype-2-infection
#2
Marie-Pier Lecours, Corinne Letendre, Damian Clarke, Paul Lemire, Tristan Galbas, Marie-Odile Benoit-Biancamano, Jacques Thibodeau, Marcelo Gottschalk, Mariela Segura
The pathogenesis of Streptococcus suis infection, a major swine and human pathogen, is only partially understood and knowledge on the host adaptive immune response is critically scarce. Yet, S. suis virulence factors, particularly its capsular polysaccharide (CPS), enable this bacterium to modulate dendritic cell (DC) functions and potentially impair the immune response. This study aimed to evaluate modulation of T cell activation during S. suis infection and the role of DCs in this response. S. suis-stimulated total mouse splenocytes readily produced TNF-α, IL-6, IFN-γ, CCL3, CXCL9, and IL-10...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905357/-screening-of-cognitive-impairment-in-the-old-and-old-old-population-with-the-3-ct-scale
#3
D A Gutorova, E E Vasenina, O S Levin
AIM: To determine sensitivity and specificity of the 3-CT scale, a combination of 3 simple and minimum cost tests, for screening purposes in old and old-old patients in comparison to the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 106 patients. Assessment of sensitivity and specificity of neuropsychological testing with ROC-curves was used. RESULTS: MoCA showed moderate sensitivity (0...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905355/-cerebral-microbleeds-in-cerebrovascular-and-neurodegenerative-diseases-with-cognitive-impairment
#4
T A Polyakova, O S Levin
AIM: To study a role of cerebral microbleeds (CMB) in the diagnosis of main cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative diseases with cognitive impairment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: CMB were studied in 120 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and vascular dementia using 1.5T MRI in T2 * gradient echo. An impact of CMB on cognitive functions and the relationship with signs of vascular and neurodegenerative lesions of the brain were studied as well...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905341/heidenhain-variant-of-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-in-a-patient-who-had-bovine-bioprosthetic-valve-implantation
#5
Jehard Hashoul, Waleed Saliba, Irina Bloch, Haneen Jabaly-Habib
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by rapidly progressing dementia, general neurologic deterioration, and death. When the leading symptoms are visual disturbances, it is termed as the Heidenhain variant of CJD (HvCJD). CJD was reported following prion-contaminated pericardium transplants but never after bovine bioprosthetic cardiac valve. In this case report, we describe HvCJD in a patient who had a bovine bioprosthetic cardiac valve implant. An 82-year-old-woman was referred to neuro-ophthalmology clinic for unexplained visual loss that started 1 month previously...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904710/the-comt-rs165599-gene-polymorphism-contributes-to-chemotherapy-induced-cognitive-impairment-in-breast-cancer-patients
#6
Huaidong Cheng, Wen Li, Chen Gan, Bo Zhang, Qianqian Jia, Kai Wang
The present study aimed to investigate the effect of genetic polymorphisms of catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT), apolipoprotein E (APOE), and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on the modulation of the chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment (CICI) in breast cancer patients. Eighty triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) and 165 non-triple negative breast cancer (NTNBC) patients were selected, and subjected to a number of neuropsychological tests, including memory questionnaires, before and after chemotherapy...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904515/interaction-between-c-reactive-protein-and-cognitive-functions-according-to-apoe-gene-polymorphism-in-post-menopausal-women
#7
Iwona Bojar, Mariusz Gujski, Jarosław Pinkas, Dorota Raczkiewicz, Alfred Owoc, Ewa Humeniuk
INTRODUCTION: A potential factor increasing the risk of the development of cognitive impairment with age is apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 carrier status. A subsequent factor which may increase the risk of development of cognitive impairment at an older age is the concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP). The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between cognitive functions and the concentration of CRP in post-menopausal women who were carriers of particular apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) polymorphisms...
December 1, 2016: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904493/beta-2-adrenergic-receptor-activation-enhances-neurogenesis-in-alzheimer-s-disease-mice
#8
Gao-Shang Chai, Yang-Yang Wang, Amina Yasheng, Peng Zhao
Impaired hippocampal neurogenesis is one of the early pathological features of Alzheimer's disease. Enhancing adult hippocampal neurogenesis has been pursued as a potential therapeutic strategy for Alzheimer's disease. Recent studies have demonstrated that environmental novelty activates β2-adrenergic signaling and prevents the memory impairment induced by amyloid-β oligomers. Here, we hypothesized that β2-adrenoceptor activation would enhance neurogenesis and ameliorate memory deficits in Alzheimer's disease...
October 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904421/cannabis-induced-moto-cognitive-dysfunction-in-wistar-rats-ameliorative-efficacy-of-nigella-sativa
#9
Aminu Imam, Moyosore Saliu Ajao, Abdulbasit Amin, Wahab Imam Abdulmajeed, Abdulmumin Ibrahim, Olayemi Joseph Olajide, Musa Iyiola Ajibola, Abdulmusawir Alli-Oluwafuyi, Wasiu Gbolahan Balogun
BACKGROUND: Cannabis is a widely used illicit drug with various threats of personality syndrome, and Nigella sativa has been widely implicated as having therapeutic efficacy in many neurological diseases. The present study investigates the ameliorative efficacy of Nigella sativa oil (NSO) on cannabis-induced moto-cognitive defects. METHODS: Scopolamine (1 mg/kg i.p.) was given to induce dementia as a standard base line for cannabis (20 mg/kg)-induced cognitive impairment, followed by an oral administration of NSO (1 ml/kg) for 14 consecutive days...
September 2016: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903935/impairment-of-decision-making-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-neuroeconomic-approach
#10
Maria Sepúlveda, Begoña Fernández-Diez, Elena H Martínez-Lapiscina, Sara Llufriu, Nuria Sola-Valls, Irati Zubizarreta, Yolanda Blanco, Albert Saiz, Dino Levy, Paul Glimcher, Pablo Villoslada
OBJECTIVE: To assess the decision-making impairment in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and how they relate to other cognitive domains. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis in 84 patients with MS, and 21 matched healthy controls using four tasks taken from behavioral economics: (1) risk preferences, (2) choice consistency, (3) delay of gratification, and (4) rate of learning. All tasks were conducted using real-world reward outcomes (food or money) in different real-life conditions...
November 30, 2016: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903817/effects-of-orthostatic-hypotension-on-cognition-in-parkinson-disease
#11
Justin Centi, Roy Freeman, Christopher H Gibbons, Sandy Neargarder, Alexander O Canova, Alice Cronin-Golomb
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relation between orthostatic hypotension (OH) and posture-mediated cognitive impairment in Parkinson disease (PD) using a cross-sectional and within-group design. METHODS: Individuals without dementia with idiopathic PD included 18 with OH (PDOH) and 19 without OH; 18 control participants were also included. Neuropsychological tests were conducted in supine and upright-tilted positions. Blood pressure was assessed in each posture. RESULTS: The PD groups performed similarly while supine, demonstrating executive dysfunction in sustained attention and response inhibition, and reduced semantic fluency and verbal memory (encoding and retention)...
November 30, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903722/adenosine-kinase-deficiency-in-the-brain-results-in-maladaptive-synaptic-plasticity
#12
Ursula S Sandau, Mariana Colino-Oliveira, Abbie Jones, Bounmy Saleumvong, Shayla Q Coffman, Long Liu, Catarina Miranda-Lourenço, Cátia Palminha, Vânia L Batalha, Yiming Xu, Yuqing Huo, Maria J Diógenes, Ana M Sebastião, Detlev Boison
: Adenosine kinase (ADK) deficiency in human patients (OMIM:614300) disrupts the methionine cycle and triggers hypermethioninemia, hepatic encephalopathy, cognitive impairment, and seizures. To identify whether this neurological phenotype is intrinsically based on ADK deficiency in the brain or if it is secondary to liver dysfunction, we generated a mouse model with a brain-wide deletion of ADK by introducing a Nestin-Cre transgene into a line of conditional ADK deficient Adk(fl/fl) mice...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903705/organization-of-the-claustrum-to-entorhinal-cortical-connection-in-mice
#13
Takuma Kitanishi, Naoki Matsuo
: The claustrum, a subcortical structure situated between the insular cortex and striatum, is reciprocally connected with almost all neocortical regions. Based on this connectivity, the claustrum has been postulated to integrate multisensory information and, in turn, coordinate widespread cortical activity. While studies have identified how sensory information is mapped onto the claustrum, the function of individual topographically-arranged claustro-cortical pathways has been little explored...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903595/lifelong-imbalanced-linoleic-alpha-linolenic-acid-intake-impairs-emotional-and-cognitive-behavior-in-adult-rats-via-changes-in-brain-endocannabinoid-system
#14
Erica Zamberletti, Fabiana Piscitelli, Valentina De Castro, Elisabetta Murru, Marina Gabaglio, Paola Colucci, Chiara Fanali, Pamela Prini, Tiziana Bisogno, Mauro Maccarrone, Patrizia Campolongo, Sebastiano Banni, Tiziana Rubino, Daniela Parolaro
Imbalanced dietary n-3 and n-6 PUFA content has been associated with a number of neurological conditions. Endocannabinoids are n-6 PUFA derivatives, whose brain concentrations are sensitive to modifications of fatty acid composition of the diet, and play a central role in the regulation of mood and cognition. As such, the endocannabinoid system appears to be an ideal candidate for mediating the effects of dietary fatty acids on mood and cognition. Lifelong administration of isocaloric alpha linolenic acid (ALA) deficient and enriched diets induced short-term memory deficits, whereas only dietary ALA enrichment altered emotional reactivity in adult male rats compared to animals fed a standard diet, balanced in ALA/linoleic (LA) ratio...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903330/intraindividual-cognitive-variability-in-middle-age-predicts-cognitive-impairment-8-10-years-later-results-from-the-wisconsin-registry-for-alzheimer-s-prevention
#15
Rebecca L Koscik, Sara E Berman, Lindsay R Clark, Kimberly D Mueller, Ozioma C Okonkwo, Carey E Gleason, Bruce P Hermann, Mark A Sager, Sterling C Johnson
OBJECTIVES: Intraindividual cognitive variability (IICV) has been shown to differentiate between groups with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and dementia. This study examined whether baseline IICV predicted subsequent mild to moderate cognitive impairment in a cognitively normal baseline sample. METHODS: Participants with 4 waves of cognitive assessment were drawn from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention (WRAP; n=684; 53.6(6.6) baseline age; 9...
November 2016: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903327/auditory-vigilance-and-working-memory-in-youth-at-familial-risk-for-schizophrenia-or-affective-psychosis-in-the-harvard-adolescent-family-high-risk-study
#16
Larry J Seidman, Andrea Pousada-Casal, Silvia Scala, Eric C Meyer, William S Stone, Heidi W Thermenos, Elena Molokotos, Jessica Agnew-Blais, Ming T Tsuang, Stephen V Faraone
BACKGROUND: The degree of overlap between schizophrenia (SCZ) and affective psychosis (AFF) has been a recurring question since Kraepelin's subdivision of the major psychoses. Studying nonpsychotic relatives allows a comparison of disorder-associated phenotypes, without potential confounds that can obscure distinctive features of the disorder. Because attention and working memory have been proposed as potential endophenotypes for SCZ and AFF, we compared these cognitive features in individuals at familial high-risk (FHR) for the disorders...
November 2016: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903289/changes-in-cerebral-glucose-metabolism-after-3%C3%A2-weeks-of-noninvasive-electrical-stimulation-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-patients
#17
Kyongsik Yun, In-Uk Song, Yong-An Chung
BACKGROUND: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a syndrome that disrupts an individual's cognitive function but preserves activities of daily living. MCI is thought to be a prodromal stage of dementia, which disrupts patients' daily lives and causes severe cognitive dysfunction. Although extensive clinical trials have attempted to slow or stop the MCI to dementia conversion, the results have been largely unsuccessful. The purpose of this study was to determine whether noninvasive electrical stimulation of MCI changes glucose metabolism...
December 1, 2016: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901517/ideomotor-limb-apraxia-as-a-staging-tool-in-individuals-with-alzheimer-s-disease-iliad
#18
William D Soulsby, Nezar El-Ruwie, Shravan Gatla, Katelyn Anderson Zimmer, Safa Najmi, Alexander Chen, John T Chibnall, George T Grossberg
BACKGROUND: Ideomotor apraxia (IMA) is known to affect individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Combined with impaired cognitive function, IMA can support evidence of probable AD. However, apraxia is a condition that is difficult to diagnose. The Postural Knowledge Test (PKT), developed by Mozaz et al, was designed to easily identify limb apraxia in multiple sclerosis yet demonstrated potential utility for AD. ILIAD is a pilot study to investigate correlation between the PKT and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE)...
November 2016: Annals of Clinical Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901345/effects-of-environmental-enrichment-on-behavioral-and-spatial-cognitive-deficits-in-morphine-dependent-and-withdrawn-rats
#19
Arezoo Hammami-Abrand Abadi, Hossein Miladi-Gorji
This study was designed to examine the effect of environmental enrichment during morphine dependence and withdrawal on morphine-induced behavioral and spatial cognitive disorders in morphine-withdrawn rats. Adult male Wistar rats (190 ± 20 g) were injected with bi-daily doses (10 mg/kg, 12 h intervals) of morphine for 14 days. Rats were reared in SE or EE during the development of dependence on morphine and withdrawal. Then, rats were tested for spatial learning and memory (the water maze), spontaneous withdrawal signs, and grooming behavior...
September 19, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899170/confabulation-developing-the-emotion-dysregulation-hypothesis
#20
REVIEW
Oliver H Turnbull, Christian E Salas
Confabulations offer unique opportunities for establishing the neurobiological basis of delusional thinking. As regards causal factors, a review of the confabulation literature suggests that neither amnesia nor executive impairment can be the sole (or perhaps even the primary) cause of all delusional beliefs - though they may act in concert with other factors. A key perspective in the modern literature is that many delusions have an emotionally positive or 'wishful' element, that may serve to modulate or manage emotional experience...
October 19, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
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