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Memory Impairment

Xin Li, Adeline Gadzinsky, Liying Gong, Haijun Tong, Virginie Calderon, Yue Li, Daisuke Kitamura, Ulf Klein, Wallace Y Langdon, Fajian Hou, Yong-Rui Zou, Hua Gu
Selective expansion of high-affinity antigen-specific B cells in germinal centers (GCs) is a key event in antibody affinity maturation. GC B cells with improved affinity can either continue affinity-driven selection or exit the GC to differentiate into plasma cells (PCs) or memory B cells. Here we found that deleting E3 ubiquitin ligases Cbl and Cbl-b (Cbls) in GC B cells resulted in the early exit of high-affinity antigen-specific B cells from the GC reaction and thus impaired clonal expansion. Cbls were highly expressed in GC light zone (LZ) B cells, where they promoted the ubiquitination and degradation of Irf4, a transcription factor facilitating PC fate choice...
March 20, 2018: Immunity
Jianhua Tang, Yuqing Zhen, Ling Yu, Cui Lv, Juan Zheng, Hui Liang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the neuropsychological characteristics and changes in CRP, S100B, MBP, HSP-7, and NSE in serum. METHOD: Sixty-six (66) patients treated in our hospital as CCCI group were chosen for our study, and 90 patients with depression were selected as the depression group. The patients in both groups were examined with CT perfusion, depression, anxiety and cognition evaluation. Their serum CRP, S100B, MBP, HSP-70 and NSE levels were detected. Neuropsychological and serum markers characteristics were compared...
January 2018: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
Nicholas I Bradfield, Kathryn A Ellis, Greg Savage, Paul Maruff, Samantha Burnham, David Darby, Nicola T Lautenschlager, Ralph N Martins, Colin L Masters, Stephanie R Rainey-Smith, Joanne Robertson, Christopher Rowe, Michael Woodward, David Ames
BACKGROUND: Given the long preclinical disease course of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology, novel treatments may be more efficacious if administered before the emergence of dementia. Thus, accurate prediction of who will develop AD dementia is of key importance in selecting individuals for trials of treatment and may become crucial for future selection of patients for therapy. METHODS: As part of the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle Flagship Study of Ageing, 901 individuals who did not have dementia were recruited...
March 20, 2018: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
Wolf Osterode, Sandra Schranz, Galateja Jordakieva
Mental and physical stress is common in physicians during night shifts. Neurocognitive effects of sleep deprivation as well as alterations in hormonal and metabolic parameters have previously been described. The aim of this crossover study was to evaluate the effects of night-shift work with partial sleep deprivation on steroid hormone excretion and possible associations with mood, sleep characteristics and cognitive functions in physicians. In total, 34 physicians (mean age 42 ± 8.5 years, 76.5% male) from different departments of the General Hospital of Vienna, Austria, were randomly assigned to two conditions: a regular day shift (8 h on duty, condition 1) and a continuous day-night shift (24 h on duty, condition 2)...
March 21, 2018: Chronobiology International
S A Nemkova
The article covers the problems of diagnosis and treatment of mental impairment in children with cerebral palsy. Mental disorders in cerebral palsy include cognitive impairment (disorders of perception, memory, attention, motor-visual coordination, intelligence and speech), border disorders (cerebral/asthenic, neurosis-like, psychopathic-like syndromes) and personality disorders (accentuation of character, mental infantilism). Diagnosis of mental disorders in patients with cerebral palsy is a challenging task, due to various combinations of them with physical, speech and sensory disorders, which requires a differentiated approach...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Jorge A Avila, Roseanna M Zanca, Denis Shor, Nicholas Paleologos, Amber A Alliger, Maria E Figueiredo-Pereira, Peter A Serrano
Methamphetamine (MA) is an addictive drug with neurotoxic effects on the brain producing cognitive impairment and increasing the risk for neurodegenerative disease. Research has focused largely on examining the neurochemical and behavioral deficits induced by injecting relatively high doses of MA [30 mg/kg of body weight (bw)] identifying the upper limits of MA-induced neurotoxicity. Accordingly, we have developed an appetitive mouse model of voluntary oral MA administration (VOMA) based on the consumption of a palatable sweetened oatmeal mash containing a known amount of MA...
February 2018: Heliyon
Tenpei Akita, Kazushi Aoto, Mitsuhiro Kato, Masaaki Shiina, Hiroki Mutoh, Mitsuko Nakashima, Ichiro Kuki, Shin Okazaki, Shinichi Magara, Takashi Shiihara, Kenji Yokochi, Kaori Aiba, Jun Tohyama, Chihiro Ohba, Satoko Miyatake, Noriko Miyake, Kazuhiro Ogata, Atsuo Fukuda, Naomichi Matsumoto, Hirotomo Saitsu
Objective: α ( CAMK2A ) and β ( CAMK2B ) isoforms of Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) play a pivotal role in neuronal plasticity and in learning and memory processes in the brain. Here, we explore the possible involvement of α - and β -CaMKII variants in neurodevelopmental disorders. Methods: Whole-exome sequencing was performed for 976 individuals with intellectual disability, developmental delay, and epilepsy. The effect of CAMK2A and CAMK2B variants on CaMKII structure and firing of neurons was evaluated by computational structural analysis, immunoblotting, and electrophysiological analysis...
March 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Geor Bakker, Claudia Vingerhoets, Daphne Boucherie, Matthan Caan, Oswald Bloemen, Jos Eersels, Jan Booij, Thérèse van Amelsvoort
Background: It is still unclear which underlying mechanisms are involved in cognitive deficits of psychotic disorders. Pro-cognitive effects of muscarinic M1 receptor agonists suggest alterations in M1 receptor functioning may modulate these symptoms. Post mortem studies in patients with schizophrenia have shown significantly reduced M1 receptor expression rates in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) compared to controls. To date no in-vivo examinations of M1 receptor binding in relation to cognitive impairments have been done...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Xian-Qin Luo, Ao Li, Xue Yang, Xiao Xiao, Rong Hu, Tian-Wen Wang, Xiao-Yun Dou, Da-Jian Yang, Zhi Dong
Background: Cerebral hypoperfusion is a pivotal risk factor for vascular dementia (VD), for which effective therapy remains inadequate. Persistent inflammatory responses and excessive chemotaxis of microglia/macrophages in the brain may accelerate the progression of VD. Endocannabinoids are involved in neuronal protection against inflammation-induced neuronal injury. Cannabinoids acting at cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2 R) can decrease inflammation. Based on the identification of paeoniflorin (PF) as a CB2 R agonist, we investigated the neuroprotective and microglia/macrophages M1 to M2 polarization promoting effects of PF in a permanent four-vessel occlusion rat model...
2018: Chinese Medicine
Nancy R Stallings, Melissa A O'Neal, Jie Hu, Ege T Kavalali, Ilya Bezprozvanny, James S Malter
Early-stage Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the loss of dendritic spines in the neocortex of the brain. This phenomenon precedes tau pathology, plaque formation, and neurodegeneration and likely contributes to synaptic loss, memory impairment, and behavioral changes in patients. Studies suggest that dendritic spine loss is induced by soluble, multimeric amyloid-β (Aβ42 ), which, through postsynaptic signaling, activates the protein phosphatase calcineurin. We investigated how calcineurin caused spine pathology and found that the cis-trans prolyl isomerase Pin1 was a critical downstream target of Aβ42 -calcineurin signaling...
March 20, 2018: Science Signaling
Tanusree Sen, Pampa Saha, Nilkantha Sen
Acetylation of the microtubule-associated protein tau promotes its polymerization into neurofibrillary tangles that are implicated in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The gaseous neurotransmitter nitric oxide (NO) regulates cell signaling through the nitrosylation of proteins. We found that NO production and tau acetylation at Lys280 occurred in the brain tissue in mice and in cultured mouse cortical neurons in response to exposure to amyloid-β1-42 (Aβ1-42 ), a peptide that is also implicated in AD...
March 20, 2018: Science Signaling
Amanda Rodrigues Vieira, Nayara Salles, Marco Borges, Theo Mota
For more than a century, visual learning and memory has been studied in the honeybee Apis mellifera using operant appetitive conditioning. Although honeybees show impressive visual learning capacities in this well-established protocol, operant training of free-flying animals can hardly be combined with invasive protocols for studying the neurobiological basis of visual learning. In view of that, different efforts have been made to develop new classical conditioning protocols for studying visual learning in harnessed honeybees, though learning performances remain considerably poorer than those obtained in free-flying animals...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Nathanael J Yates, Dijana Tesic, Kirk W Feindel, Jeremy T Smith, Michael W Clarke, Celeste Wale, Rachael C Crew, Michaela D Wharfe, Andrew J O Whitehouse, Caitlin S Wyrwoll
Early life vitamin D plays a prominent role in neurodevelopment and subsequent brain function, including schizophrenic-like outcomes and increasing evidence for an association with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here, we investigate how early life vitamin D deficiency during rat pregnancy and lactation alters maternal care and influences neurodevelopment and affective, cognitive and social behaviours in male adult offspring. Sprague-Dawley rats were placed on either a vitamin D control (2195 IU/kg) or deficient diet (0 IU/kg) for five weeks before timed mating, and diet exposure was maintained until weaning of offspring on postnatal day (PND) 23...
May 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
Jolien Fleur Leijenaar, Geert Jan Groeneveld, Wiesje Maria van der Flier, Philip Scheltens, Erica Surya Klaassen, Henry Chanoch Weinstein, Geert Jan Biessels, Frederik Barkhof, Niels Daniël Prins
BACKGROUND: People with vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) constitute a clinically heterogeneous group, but previous symptomatic drug trials in VCI did not take this clinical heterogeneity into account. Executive dysfunction and memory impairment are the cognitive domains that are most frequently impaired in VCI, and these impairments are likely to reflect vascular damage to specific neurotransmitter systems, which opens the possibility for targeted symptomatic treatment directed at specific neurotransmitters...
March 20, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Karem H Alzoubi, Omar F Khabour, Mohammad Ahmad
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disabling prevalent and difficult-to-treat psychiatric disorder, which can develop after the exposure to severe traumatic events such as those occurring during wars and natural disasters. Pentoxifylline (PTX) is a potent antioxidant, which has an important role in prevention of cognitive dysfunctions. In the present study, the effect of PTX on memory impairment induced by PTSD was investigated using the rat animal model. PTSD-like behavior was induced in animals using a single-prolonged stress (SPS) rat model of PTSD (2 h restrain, 20 min forced swimming, 15 min rest, 1-2 min diethyl ether exposure)...
March 17, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Juan C Olaya, Carrie L Heusner, Mitsuyuki Matsumoto, Cynthia Shannon Weickert, Tim Karl
Elevated levels of the type III (III) isoforms of neuregulin 1 (NRG1) have been observed in the brains of schizophrenia patients that carry NRG1 HapICE risk alleles, which is thought to contribute to the aetiology of the disease. We generated transgenic mice with forebrain driven Nrg1 III overexpression (Nrg1 III tg) and previously found that male heterozygous Nrg1 type III tg mice exhibit several schizophrenia-relevant behaviours including social and cognitive deficits as well as impaired sensorimotor gating...
March 17, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Shuhua Lai, Gangwei Wu, Zhixian Jiang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Impaired fear memory extinction is widely considered a key mechanism of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Recent studies have suggested that neuroinflammation after a single prolonged stress (SPS) exposure may play a critical role in the impaired fear memory extinction. Studies have shown that high mobility group box chromosomal protein 1 (HMGB-1) is critically involved in neuroinflammation. However, the role of HMGB-1 underlying the development of impairment of fear memory extinction is still not known...
March 16, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
J L Sanchez-Gonzalez, J I Calvo-Arenillas, J L Sanchez-Rodriguez
INTRODUCTION: Clinical evidence gathered in recent years indicates that elderly individuals more frequently display cognitive changes. These age-related changes refer, above all, to memory functions and to the speed of thinking and reasoning. A number of studies have shown that physical activity can be used as an important mechanism for protecting the cognitive functions. AIM: To test the hypothesis that physical exercise is able to bring about changes in the cognitive functions of healthy elderly adults without cognitive impairment, thereby improving their quality of life...
April 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Erin E Morgan, Steven Paul Woods, Jennifer E Iudicello, Igor Grant, Javier Villalobos
Two factors that influence HIV health behaviors and therefore may contribute to gaps in the HIV treatment continuum are poor health-related self-efficacy and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). However, the relationship between HAND and self-efficacy has not been assessed. In an HIV sample, 91 individuals with intact cognition (HAND-) and 40 individuals with HAND (HAND+) were administered a measure of self-efficacy for healthcare interactions with providers. Participants with HAND had significantly lower scores on this measure, which were correlated with poorer episodic and semantic memory performance, as well as self-reported memory symptoms in daily life...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings
Uros Marusic, Sidney Grosprêtre
Normal and pathological ageing are associated with several motor impairments that reduce quality of life and represent a general challenge for public healthcare systems. Consequently, over the past decades, many scientists and physiotherapists dedicated their research to the development and improvement of safe and costless methods to counteract the progressive decline of motor functions with age. The urgency of finding new and easy to implement methods is even more paramount in case of acute pathologies (e...
March 20, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
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