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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545069/behavioral-alterations-are-associated-with-vitamin-b12-deficiency-in-the-transcobalamin-receptor-cd320-ko-mouse
#1
Kaveri Arora, Jeffrey M Sequeira, Alejandro I Hernández, Juan M Alarcon, Edward V Quadros
Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency is prevalent worldwide and causes megaloblastic anemia and neurologic deficits. While the anemia can be treated, the neurologic deficits can become refractive to treatment as the disease progresses. Therefore, timely intervention is critical for a favorable outcome. Moreover, the metabolic basis for the neuro-pathologic changes and the role of cobalamin deficiency in the pathology still remains unexplained. Using a transcobalamin receptor / CD320 knockout mouse that lacks the receptor for cellular uptake of transcobalamin bound cobalamin, we aimed to determine whether cobalamin deficiency in the central nervous system produced functional neurologic deficits in the mouse that would parallel those observed in humans...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544439/effects-of-cognitive-impairment-on-prosodic-parameters-of-speech-production-planning-in-multiple-sclerosis
#2
Céline De Looze, Noémie Moreau, Laurent Renié, Finnian Kelly, Alain Ghio, Audrey Rico, Bertrand Audoin, François Viallet, Jean Pelletier, Caterina Petrone
Cognitive impairment (CI) affects 40-65% of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). CI can have a negative impact on a patient's everyday activities, such as engaging in conversations. Speech production planning ability is crucial for successful verbal interactions and thus for preserving social and occupational skills. This study investigates the effect of cognitive-linguistic demand and CI on speech production planning in MS, as reflected in speech prosody. A secondary aim is to explore the clinical potential of prosodic features for the prediction of an individual's cognitive status in MS...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544426/the-catechol-o-methyltransferase-comt-val158met-genotype-modulates-working-memory-related-dorsolateral-prefrontal-response-and-performance-in-bipolar-disorder
#3
K W Miskowiak, H L Kjaerstad, M M Støttrup, A M Svendsen, K M Demant, L K Hoeffding, T M Werge, K E Burdick, K Domschke, A F Carvalho, E Vieta, M Vinberg, L V Kessing, H R Siebner, J Macoveanu
OBJECTIVES: Cognitive dysfunction affects a substantial proportion of patients with bipolar disorder (BD), and genetic-imaging paradigms may aid in the elucidation of mechanisms implicated in this symptomatic domain. The Val allele of the functional Val158Met polymorphism of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is associated with reduced prefrontal cortex dopamine and exaggerated working memory-related prefrontal activity. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated for the first time whether the COMT Val158Met genotype modulates prefrontal activity during spatial working memory in BD...
May 23, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544198/jaboticaba-berry-peel-intake-prevents-insulin-resistance-induced-tau-phosphorylation-in-mice
#4
Ângela G Batista, Edilene S Soares, Monique C P Mendonça, Juliana K da Silva, Ana Paula Dionísio, Cesar R Sartori, Maria Alice da Cruz-Höfling, Mário R Maróstica Júnior
The hyperphosphorylation of tau in the hippocampus can be caused by central and peripheral insulin resistance and these alterations are related to the development of tauopathies, such as Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we used a high-fat diet to induce obesity and insulin resistance in adult Swiss mice and checked whether supplementation with Myrciaria jaboticaba berry peel for 10 weeks could improve insulin sensitivity, learning/memory performance and prevent tau phosphorylation in the hippocampus. Furthermore, adipocytokines, inflammatory markers, and oxidative stress were assessed...
May 19, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543280/positive-autobiographical-memory-deficits-in-youth-with-depression-histories-and-their-never-depressed-siblings
#5
Ena Begovic, Vanessa Panaite, Lauren M Bylsma, Charles George, Maria Kovacs, Ilya Yaroslavsky, Ildikó Baji, István Benák, Roberta Dochnal, Enikő Kiss, Ágnes Vetró, Krisztina Kapornai, Jonathan Rottenberg
OBJECTIVES: Impaired positive autobiographical memory (AM) is closely linked to emotional disorders. AM impairments are often found in depressed adults and may be related to the difficulties such persons have in regulating their dysphoric mood. By contrast, less is known about AM disturbances among adolescents, or about the functional relationship of AM disturbances to early-onset depression. DESIGN: A high-risk family design served to compare four groups of youth who differed in depression histories and familial depression risk...
May 23, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542444/regional-brain-amyloid-%C3%AE-accumulation-associates-with-domain-specific-cognitive-performance-in-parkinson-disease-without-dementia
#6
Rizwan S Akhtar, Sharon X Xie, Yin J Chen, Jacqueline Rick, Rachel G Gross, Ilya M Nasrallah, Vivianna M Van Deerlin, John Q Trojanowski, Alice S Chen-Plotkin, Howard I Hurtig, Andrew D Siderowf, Jacob G Dubroff, Daniel Weintraub
Parkinson disease patients develop clinically significant cognitive impairment at variable times over their disease course, which is often preceded by milder deficits in memory, visuo-spatial, and executive domains. The significance of amyloid-β accumulation to these problems is unclear. We hypothesized that amyloid-β PET imaging by 18F-florbetapir, a radiotracer that detects fibrillar amyloid-β plaque deposits, would identify subjects with global cognitive impairment or poor performance in individual cognitive domains in non-demented Parkinson disease patients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542315/attitudes-of-older-people-with-mild-dementia-and-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-their-relatives-about-falls-risk-and-prevention-a-qualitative-study
#7
Tamsin Peach, Kristian Pollock, Veronika van der Wardt, Roshan das Nair, Pip Logan, Rowan H Harwood
OBJECTIVE: To explore the perceptions of older people with mild dementia and mild cognitive impairment, and their family carers, about falling, falls risk and the acceptability of falls prevention interventions. DESIGN: Qualitative study involving thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews with patient and relative dyads. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: 20 patient/ relative dyads recruited from Memory Assessment Services and Falls Prevention Services in the United Kingdom...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542314/toward-a-more-personalized-motor-function-rehabilitation-in-myotonic-dystrophy-type-1-the-role-of-neuroplasticity
#8
Simona Portaro, Antonino Naro, Antonino Chillura, Luana Billeri, Alessia Bramanti, Placido Bramanti, Carmelo Rodolico, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is the most prevalent adult muscular dystrophy, often accompanied by impairments in attention, memory, visuospatial and executive functions. Given that DM1 is a multi-system disorder, it requires a multi-disciplinary approach, including effective rehabilitation programs, focusing on the central nervous system neuroplasticity, in order to develop patient-tailored rehabilitative procedures for motor function recovery. Herein, we performed a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) study aimed at investigating central motor conduction time, sensory-motor plasticity, and cortical excitability in 7 genetically defined DM1 patients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542002/assessment-of-behavioral-disruption-in-rats-with-abdominal-inflammation-using-visual-cue-titration-and-the-five-choice-serial-reaction-time-task
#9
Thomas J Martin, Tracy J Strassburg, Amanda L Grigg, Susy A Kim, Douglas G Ririe, James C Eisenach
BACKGROUND: Both acute and chronic pain result in a number of behavioral symptoms in patients, including cognitive effects such as decreased attention and working memory. Intraperitoneal administration of dilute lactic acid in rodents has been used to induce abdominal inflammation and produce effects in behavioral assays of both sensory-discriminative and affective pain modalities. METHODS: Intraperitoneal injection of dilute lactic acid was used to study the impact of abdominal inflammation on an operant task requiring sustained visual attention in rats (N = 7 to 15/group) that adapts dynamically to performance ability...
May 25, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541754/overgeneral-autobiographical-memory-and-depression-in-older-adults-a-systematic-review
#10
F C L Wilson, J D Gregory
OBJECTIVES: Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is a well-researched phenomenon in working age adults with depression. However, the relevance and importance of OGM in older adult depression is not well established. The aim of this review was to synthesise existing literature on OGM and depressive symptoms in older adults under the framework of the Capture and Rumination, Functional Avoidance and Impaired Executive Control (CaR-FA-X) model. Is there an alternative to this as I thought references in abstracts were permissable under APA? METHOD: Literature searches were conducted using PsychINFO, PubMed and Web of Knowledge...
May 25, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541519/reduced-sleep-during-social-isolation-leads-to-cellular-stress-and-induction-of-the-unfolded-protein-response-upr
#11
Marishka K Brown, Ewa Strus, Nirinjini Naidoo
Study Objectives: Social isolation has a multitude of negative consequences on human health including the ability to endure challenges to the immune system, sleep amount and efficiency, and general morbidity and mortality. These adverse health outcomes are conserved in other social species. In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, social isolation leads to increased aggression, impaired memory and reduced amounts of daytime sleep. There is a correlation between molecules affected by social isolation and those implicated in sleep in Drosophila...
May 25, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541473/relationship-between-synaptic-ampar-and-spine-dynamics-impairments-in-the-fxs-mouse
#12
Anand Suresh, Anna Dunaevsky
Structural dynamics of dendritic spines are important for memory and learning and are impaired in neurodevelopmental disorders such as fragile X syndrome. Spine dynamics are regulated by activity-dependent mechanisms that involve modulation of AMPA receptors (AMPAR); however, the relationship between AMPAR and spine dynamics in vivo and how these are altered in FXS mouse model is not known. Here, we tracked AMPAR and spines over multiple days in vivo in the cortex and found that dendritic spines in the fmr1 KO mouse were denser, smaller, had higher turnover rates and contained less sGluA2 compared to littermate controls...
May 24, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541413/the-influence-of-the-apolipoprotein-e-apoe-gene-on-subacute-post-concussion-neurocognitive-performance-in-college-athletes
#13
Victoria C Merritt, Amanda R Rabinowitz, Peter A Arnett
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the ε4 allele of the APOE gene influences neurocognitive outcome following sports-related concussion. It was hypothesized that participants with an ε4 allele would show poorer neurocognitive performance and greater neurocognitive variability than those without an ε4 allele. Method: Participants included 57 concussed collegiate athletes (77.2% male) who participated in a concussion management program at a large university...
May 24, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540926/entorhinal-cortical-deep-brain-stimulation-rescues-memory-deficits-in-both-young-and-old-mice-genetically-engineered-to-model-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Frances Xia, Adelaide Yiu, Scellig Sd Stone, Soojin Oh, Andres M Lozano, Sheena A Josselyn, Paul W Frankland
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive cognitive decline. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been used to treat a variety of brain disorders and shows promise in alleviating cognitive symptoms in some AD patients (Laxton et al., 2010). We previously showed that DBS of the entorhinal cortex (EC) enhances spatial memory formation in normal (wild-type) mice (Stone et al., 2011). Here we tested the effects of EC-DBS on the progressive cognitive deficits in a genetically-based mouse model of AD...
May 25, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540667/neurocognitive-functioning-in-pediatric-craniopharyngioma-performance-before-treatment-with-proton-therapy
#15
Ashley S Fournier-Goodnight, Jason M Ashford, Thomas E Merchant, Frederick A Boop, Daniel J Indelicato, Lei Wang, Hui Zhang, Heather M Conklin
The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of patient-, disease-, and treatment-related variables upon neurocognitive outcomes in pediatric patients with craniopharyngioma prior to treatment with proton therapy or observation after radical resection. For all participants (N = 104), relevant clinical and demographic variables were attained and neurocognitive evaluations completed prior to irradiation or planned observation. One-sample t-tests were conducted to compare performance to published normative data...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540093/myxedema-crisis-presenting-with-seizures-a-rare-life-threatening-presentation-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#16
Sonali Sihindi Chapa Gunatilake, Uditha Bulugahapitiya
Myxedema crisis is a life-threatening extreme form of hypothyroidism with a high mortality rate if left untreated. Myxedema crisis is commonly seen in older patients, especially in women, and is associated with signs of hypothyroidism, hypothermia, hyponatraemia, hypercarbia, and hypoxemia. Patients might present with different organ specific symptoms. Seizures are a recognized but rare manifestation of myxedema with a very high mortality rate. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate management may improve the prognosis...
2017: Case Reports in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539885/intranasal-insulin-prevents-anesthesia-induced-cognitive-impairment-and-chronic-neurobehavioral-changes
#17
Yanxing Chen, Chun-Ling Dai, Zhe Wu, Khalid Iqbal, Fei Liu, Baorong Zhang, Cheng-Xin Gong
General anesthesia increases the risk for cognitive impairment post operation, especially in the elderly and vulnerable individuals. Recent animal studies on the impact of anesthesia on postoperative cognitive impairment have provided some valuable insights, but much remains to be understood. Here, by using mice of various ages and conditions, we found that anesthesia with propofol and sevoflurane caused significant deficits in spatial learning and memory, as tested using Morris Water Maze (MWM) 2-6 days after anesthesia exposure, in aged (17-18 months old) wild-type (WT) mice and in adult (7-8 months old) 3xTg-AD mice (a triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD)), but not in adult WT mice...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539281/-choline-improves-lipopolysaccharide-induced-central-nervous-system-inflammatory-response-and-cognitive-dysfunction-in-mice
#18
Jun Yu, Wei-Xing Zhao, Chun-Yan DU, Na Zhang, Wei-Dong Zhang, Sheng-Yang Jin, Hai Wang, Ze-Guo Feng
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of choline in ameliorating lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced central nervous system inflammation and cognitive deficits in mice and explore the underlying mechanism. METHODS: Seventy-two mice were randomized into saline control group, LPS group, choline intervention group and choline control group. In the latter two groups, the mice received pretreatment with intraperitoneal injections of choline (40 mg/kg, 3 times daily for 3 consecutive days) prior to microinjection of LPS into the lateral cerebral ventricle to induce central nervous system inflammation; in saline and LPS groups, the mice were pretreated with saline in the same manner before intraventicular injection of artificial cerebrospinal fluid...
May 20, 2017: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538174/schizophrenia-related-microdeletion-impairs-emotional-memory-through-microrna-dependent-disruption-of-thalamic-inputs-to-the-amygdala
#19
Tae-Yeon Eom, Ildar T Bayazitov, Kara Anderson, Jing Yu, Stanislav S Zakharenko
Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) are at high risk of developing psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia. Individuals with 22q11DS and schizophrenia are impaired in emotional memory, anticipating, recalling, and assigning a correct context to emotions. The neuronal circuits responsible for these emotional memory deficits are unknown. Here, we show that 22q11DS mouse models have disrupted synaptic transmission at thalamic inputs to the lateral amygdala (thalamo-LA projections). This synaptic deficit is caused by haploinsufficiency of the 22q11DS gene Dgcr8, which is involved in microRNA processing, and is mediated by the increased dopamine receptor Drd2 levels in the thalamus and by reduced probability of glutamate release from thalamic inputs...
May 23, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538088/effects-of-the-insulin-sensitizer-metformin-in-alzheimer-disease-pilot-data-from-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-crossover-study
#20
Aaron M Koenig, Dawn Mechanic-Hamilton, Sharon X Xie, Martha F Combs, Anne R Cappola, Long Xie, John A Detre, David A Wolk, Steven E Arnold
Epidemiological studies have identified a robust association between type II diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer disease (AD), and neurobiological studies have suggested the presence of central nervous system insulin resistance in individuals with AD. Given this association, we hypothesized that the central nervous system-penetrant insulin-sensitizing medication metformin would be beneficial as a disease-modifying and/or symptomatic therapy for AD, and conducted a placebo-controlled crossover study of its effects on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), neuroimaging, and cognitive biomarkers...
April 2017: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
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