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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320100/drosophila-melanogaster-a-potential-model-organism-for-identification-of-pharmacological-properties-of-plants-plant-derived-components
#1
REVIEW
Komal Panchal, Anand K Tiwari
Plants/plant-derived components have been used from ancient times to treat/cure several human diseases. Plants and their parts possess several chemical components that play the vital role in the improvement of human health and their life expectancy. Allopathic medicines have been playing a key role in the treatment of several diseases. Though allopathic medicines provide fast relief, long time consumption cause serious health concerns such as hyperallergic reactions, liver damage, etc. So, the study of medicinal plants which rarely cause any side effect is very important to mankind...
March 18, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317899/minocycline-treatment-suppresses-juvenile-development-and-growth-by-attenuating-insulin-tor-signaling-in-drosophila-animal-model
#2
Hyun Myoung Yun, Sujin Noh, Seogang Hyun
Minocycline is a broad spectrum, semi-synthetic tetracycline analog that is used to treat bacterial infection. Recently, this drug has been receiving increasing attention for its non-antibiotic properties, including anti-inflammatory, tumor suppressive, and neuroprotective effects. Drosophila is a useful model organism for studying human metabolism and disease. In this study, we investigated the effects of minocycline on juvenile development and growth in Drosophila. Feeding minocycline to Drosophila larvae suppresses larval body growth and delays the timing of pupation in a dose-dependent manner...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316031/transactivation-domain-of-human-c-myc-is-essential-to-alleviate-poly-q-mediated-neurotoxicity-in-drosophila-disease-models
#3
Kritika Raj, Surajit Sarkar
Polyglutamine (poly(Q)) disorders, such as Huntington's disease (HD) and spinocerebellar ataxias, represent a group of neurological disorders which arise due to an atypically expanded poly(Q) tract in the coding region of the affected gene. Pathogenesis of these disorders inside the cells begins with the assembly of these mutant proteins in the form of insoluble inclusion bodies (IBs), which progressively sequester several vital cellular transcription factors and other essential proteins, and finally leads to neuronal dysfunction and apoptosis...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304334/kdm2-family-members-are-regulated-by-hif-1-in-hypoxia
#4
Michael Batie, Jimena Druker, Laura D'Ignazio, Sonia Rocha
Hypoxia is not only a developmental cue but also a stress and pathological stimulus in many human diseases. The response to hypoxia at the cellular level relies on the activity of the transcription factor family, hypoxia inducible factor (HIF). HIF-1 is responsible for the acute response and transactivates a variety of genes involved in cellular metabolism, cell death, and cell growth. Here, we show that hypoxia results in increased mRNA levels for human lysine (K)-specific demethylase 2 (KDM2) family members, KDM2A and KDM2B, and also for Drosophila melanogaster KDM2, a histone and protein demethylase...
March 17, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301478/retrotransposon-activation-contributes-to-neurodegeneration-in-a-drosophila-tdp-43-model-of-als
#5
Lisa Krug, Nabanita Chatterjee, Rebeca Borges-Monroy, Stephen Hearn, Wen-Wei Liao, Kathleen Morrill, Lisa Prazak, Nikolay Rozhkov, Delphine Theodorou, Molly Hammell, Josh Dubnau
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) are two incurable neurodegenerative disorders that exist on a symptomological spectrum and share both genetic underpinnings and pathophysiological hallmarks. Functional abnormality of TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43), an aggregation-prone RNA and DNA binding protein, is observed in the vast majority of both familial and sporadic ALS cases and in ~40% of FTLD cases, but the cascade of events leading to cell death are not understood...
March 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295377/time-restricted-feeding-for-prevention-and-treatment-of-cardiometabolic-disorders
#6
Girish C Melkani, Satchidananda Panda
The soaring prevalence of obesity and diabetes is associated with an increase in comorbidities, including elevated risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). CVDs continue to be among the leading causes of death and disability in the United States. While increased nutrition intake from an energy dense diet is known to disrupt metabolic homeostasis and contributes to the disease risk, circadian rhythm disruption is emerging as a new risk factor for CVD. Circadian rhythms coordinate cardiovascular health via temporal control of organismal metabolism and physiology...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286087/minos-insertion-mutant-of-the-drosophila-gba-gene-homologue-showed-abnormal-phenotypes-of-climbing-ability-sleep-and-life-span-with-accumulation-of-hydroxy-glucocerebroside
#7
Haruhisa Kawasaki, Takahiro Suzuki, Kumpei Ito, Tsubasa Takahara, Naoko Goto-Inoue, Mitsutoshi Setou, Kazuki Sakata, Norio Ishida
Gaucher's disease in humans is considered a deficiency of glucocerebrosidase (GlcCerase) that result in the accumulation of its substrate, glucocerebroside (GlcCer). Although mouse models of Gaucher's disease have been reported from several laboratories, these models are limited due to the perinatal lethality of GlcCerase gene. Here, we examined phenotypes of Drosophila melanogaster homologues genes of the human Gaucher's disease gene by using Minos insertion. One of two Minos insertion mutants to unknown function gene (CG31414) accumulates the hydroxy-GlcCer in whole body of Drosophila melanogaster...
March 7, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284721/the-hydroxylated-form-of-docosahexaenoic-acid-dha-h-modifies-the-brain-lipid-composition-in-a-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-improving-behavioral-motor-function-and-survival
#8
Raheem J Mohaibes, María A Fiol-deRoque, Manuel Torres, Margarita Ordinas, David J López, José A Castro, Pablo V Escribá, Xavier Busquets
We have compared the effect of the commonly used ω-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid ethyl ester (DHA-EE), and of its 2-hydroxylated DHA form (DHA-H), on brain lipid composition, behavior and lifespan in a new human transgenic Drosophila melanogaster model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The transgenic flies expressed human Aβ42 and tau, and the overexpression of these human transgenes in the CNS of these flies produced progressive defects in motor function (antigeotaxic behavior) while reducing the animal's lifespan...
March 8, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280861/a-growing-role-for-the-hippo-signaling-pathway-in-the-heart
#9
REVIEW
Yu Zhang, Dominic P Del Re
Heart disease is a major cause of clinical morbidity and mortality, and a significant health and economic burden worldwide. The loss of functional cardiomyocytes, often a result of myocardial infarction, leads to impaired cardiac output and ultimately heart failure. Therefore, efforts to improve cardiomyocyte viability and stimulate cardiomyocyte proliferation remain attractive therapeutic goals. Originally identified in Drosophila, the Hippo signaling pathway is highly conserved from flies to humans and regulates organ size through modulation of both cell survival and proliferation...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260226/toward-a-new-insight-of-calcium-oxalate-stones-in-drosophila-by-micro-computerized-tomography
#10
Wen-Chi Chen, Huey-Yi Chen, Po-Chi Liao, Shih-Jing Wang, Ming-Yen Tsai, Yung-Hsiang Chen, Wei-Yong Lin
We previously developed an animal model of calcium oxalate (CaOx) deposition on the Malphigian tubules of Drosophila melanogaster as a model of urolithiasis. Here, we introduce a new tool for the study of anatomical structure for Drosophila. As a consequence of technical development, the invention of micro-computerized tomography (CT) has been introduced to the small animal, such as rat and mice. We used Drosophila as a model organism and fed the flies 0.5% lithogenic agent ethylene glycol for 3 weeks. Samples were simply prepared for further scanned by micro-CT to scan samples at 800 nm resolution...
March 4, 2017: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258125/a-drosophila-model-of-dominant-inclusion-body-myopathy-3-shows-diminished-myosin-kinetics-that-reduce-muscle-power-and-yield-myofibrillar-defects
#11
Jennifer A Suggs, Girish C Melkani, Bernadette M Glasheen, Mia M Detor, Anju Melkani, Nathan P Marsan, Douglas M Swank, Sanford I Bernstein
Inclusion body myopathy type 3 (IBM-3) patients display congenital joint contractures with early-onset muscle weakness that becomes more severe in adults. The disease arises from an autosomal dominant point mutation causing an E706K substitution in myosin heavy chain type IIa. We previously expressed the corresponding myosin mutation (E701K) in homozygous Drosophila indirect flight muscles and recapitulated the myofibrillar degeneration and inclusion bodies observed in the human disease. We also found that purified E701K myosin has dramatically reduced actin-sliding velocity and ATPase levels...
March 3, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257468/the-genetic-basis-for-variation-in-resistance-to-infection-in-the-drosophila-melanogaster-genetic-reference-panel
#12
Jonathan B Wang, Hsiao-Ling Lu, Raymond J St Leger
Individuals vary extensively in the way they respond to disease but the genetic basis of this variation is not fully understood. We found substantial individual variation in resistance and tolerance to the fungal pathogen Metarhizium anisopliae Ma549 using the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP). In addition, we found that host defense to Ma549 was correlated with defense to the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pa14, and several previously published DGRP phenotypes including oxidative stress sensitivity, starvation stress resistance, hemolymph glucose levels, and sleep indices...
March 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253259/scalable-design-of-paired-crispr-guide-rnas-for-genomic-deletion
#13
Carlos Pulido-Quetglas, Estel Aparicio-Prat, Carme Arnan, Taisia Polidori, Toni Hermoso, Emilio Palumbo, Julia Ponomarenko, Roderic Guigo, Rory Johnson
CRISPR-Cas9 technology can be used to engineer precise genomic deletions with pairs of single guide RNAs (sgRNAs). This approach has been widely adopted for diverse applications, from disease modelling of individual loci, to parallelized loss-of-function screens of thousands of regulatory elements. However, no solution has been presented for the unique bioinformatic design requirements of CRISPR deletion. We here present CRISPETa, a pipeline for flexible and scalable paired sgRNA design based on an empirical scoring model...
March 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246182/membrane-currents-gene-expression-and-circadian-clocks
#14
Charles N Allen, Michael N Nitabach, Christopher S Colwell
Neuronal circadian oscillators in the mammalian and Drosophila brain express a circadian clock comprised of interlocking gene transcription feedback loops. The genetic clock regulates the membrane electrical activity by poorly understood signaling pathways to generate a circadian pattern of action potential firing. During the day, Na(+) channels contribute an excitatory drive for the spontaneous activity of circadian clock neurons. Multiple types of K(+) channels regulate the action potential firing pattern and the nightly reduction in neuronal activity...
February 28, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243526/bax-inhibitor-1-knockdown-phenotypes-are-suppressed-by-buffy-and-exacerbate-degeneration-in-a-drosophila-model-of-parkinson-disease
#15
P Githure M'Angale, Brian E Staveley
BACKGROUND: Bax inhibitor-1 (BI-1) is an evolutionarily conserved cytoprotective transmembrane protein that acts as a suppressor of Bax-induced apoptosis by regulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced cell death. We knocked down BI-1 in the sensitive dopa decarboxylase (Ddc) expressing neurons of Drosophila melanogaster to investigate its neuroprotective functions. We additionally sought to rescue the BI-1-induced phenotypes by co-expression with the pro-survival Buffy and determined the effect of BI-1 knockdown on the neurodegenerative α-synuclein-induced Parkinson disease (PD) model...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237966/drosophila-model-of-myeloproliferative-neoplasm-reveals-a-feed-forward-loop-in-the-jak-pathway-mediated-by-p38-mapk-signalling
#16
Ana Terriente-Félix, Lidia Pérez, Sarah J Bray, Angel R Nebreda, Marco Milán
Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) of the Philadelphia-negative class comprise polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). They are associated with aberrant amounts of myeloid lineage cells in the blood, and in the case of overt PMF, with the development of myelofibrosis in the bone marrow and the failure to produce normal blood cells. These diseases are usually caused by gain-of-function mutations in the kinase JAK2 Here we use Drosophila to investigate the consequences of activation of the JAK2 ortholog in hematopoiesis...
February 24, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236966/regulation-of-drosophila-development-by-the-golgi-kinase-four-jointed
#17
Yoko Keira, Moe Wada, Hiroyuki O Ishikawa
Despite intensive research on kinases and protein phosphorylation, most studies focus on kinases localized to the cytosol and nucleus. Studies in Drosophila discovered a novel signaling pathway that regulates growth and planar cell polarity. In this pathway, the atypical cadherin Fat acts as a receptor, and the cadherin Dachsous (Ds) serves as its ligand. Genetic studies in Drosophila identified the four-jointed gene as a regulator of the Fat pathway. Four-jointed (Fj) resides in the Golgi and phosphorylates the cadherin domains of Fat and Ds...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215745/astrocyte-transport-of-glutamate-and-neuronal-activity-reciprocally-modulate-tau-pathology-in-drosophila
#18
Jason G Kilian, Heng-Wei Hsu, Kenneth Mata, Fred W Wolf, Masashi Kitazawa
Abnormal buildup of the microtubule associated protein tau is a major pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and various tauopathies. The mechanisms by which pathological tau accumulates and spreads throughout the brain remain largely unknown. Previously, we demonstrated that a restoration of the major astrocytic glutamate transporter, GLT1, ameliorated a buildup of tau pathology and rescued cognition in a mouse model of AD. We hypothesized that aberrant extracellular glutamate and abnormal neuronal excitatory activities promoted tau pathology...
February 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213160/molecular-pathogenesis-of-peripheral-neuropathies-insights-from-drosophila-models
#19
REVIEW
Julia Bussmann, Erik Storkebaum
Peripheral neuropathies are characterized by degeneration of peripheral motor, sensory and/or autonomic axons, leading to progressive distal muscle weakness, sensory deficits and/or autonomic dysfunction. Acquired peripheral neuropathies, e.g., as a side effect of chemotherapy, are distinguished from inherited peripheral neuropathies (IPNs). Drosophila models for chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy and several IPNs have provided novel insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying axonal degeneration...
February 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205321/an-investigative-graduate-laboratory-course-for-teaching-modern-dna-techniques
#20
Alexandre de Lencastre, A Thomas Torello, Lani C Keller
This graduate-level DNA methods laboratory course is designed to model a discovery-based research project and engages students in both traditional DNA analysis methods and modern recombinant DNA cloning techniques. In the first part of the course, students clone the Drosophila ortholog of a human disease gene of their choosing using Gateway(®) cloning. In the second part of the course, students examine the expression of their gene of interest in human cell lines by reverse transcription PCR and learn how to analyze data from quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) experiments...
February 16, 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
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