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Dosage sensitivity

Marwa R El-Zahry, Bernhard Lendl
A simple, fast and sensitive surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) method for quantitative determination of fluoroquinolone antibiotic Ofloxacin (OFX) is presented. Also the stability behavior of OFX was investigated by monitoring the SERS spectra of OFX after various degradation processes. Acidic, basic and oxidative force degradation processes were applied at different time intervals. The forced degradation conditions were conducted and followed using SERS method utilizing silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) as a SERS substrate...
December 5, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Peter B Gilbert, Michal Juraska, Allan C deCamp, Shelly Karuna, Srilatha Edupuganti, Nyaradzo Mgodi, Deborah J Donnell, Carter Bentley, Nirupama Sista, Philip Andrew, Abby Isaacs, Yunda Huang, Lily Zhang, Edmund Capparelli, Nidhi Kochar, Jing Wang, Susan H Eshleman, Kenneth H Mayer, Craig A Magaret, John Hural, James G Kublin, Glenda Gray, David C Montefiori, Margarita M Gomez, David N Burns, Julie McElrath, Julie Ledgerwood, Barney S Graham, John R Mascola, Myron Cohen, Lawrence Corey
Background: Anti-HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) have been developed as potential agents for prevention of HIV-1 infection. The HIV Vaccine Trials Network and the HIV Prevention Trials Network are conducting the Antibody Mediated Prevention (AMP) trials to assess whether, and how, intravenous infusion of the anti-CD4 binding site bnAb, VRC01, prevents HIV-1 infection. These are the first test-of-concept studies to assess HIV-1 bnAb prevention efficacy in humans. Methods: The AMP trials are two parallel phase 2b HIV-1 prevention efficacy trials conducted in two cohorts: 2700 HIV-uninfected men and transgender persons who have sex with men in the United States, Peru, Brazil, and Switzerland; and 1500 HIV-uninfected sexually active women in seven countries in sub-Saharan Africa...
January 2017: Statistical Communications in Infectious Diseases
Li Xiong, Angela N Barrett, Rui Hua, Sherry S Y Ho, Li Jun, K C Allen Chan, Zhong Mei, Mahesh Choolani
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether targeted sequencing and relative mutation dosage can be used to correctly diagnose inheritance of maternal β-thalassaemia mutations in cell-free DNA. DESIGN: Feasibility study using samples collected in a prenatal clinic. SETTING: South East Asia. POPULATION: Couples where both partners were known to be carriers of one of four common β-thalassaemia mutations or an HbE mutation, and therefore at risk of carrying a fetus affected with β-thalassaemia...
December 6, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Francesco Figorilli, Antonella Putignano, Olivier Roux, Pauline Houssel-Debry, Claire Francoz, Catherine Paugam-Burtz, Olivier Soubrane, Banwari Agarwal, François Durand, Rajiv Jalan
INTRODUCTION: King's College Hospital criteria are currently used to select liver transplant candidates in acetaminophen-related acute liver failure (ALF). Although widely accepted, they show a poor sensitivity in predicting pre-transplant mortality and cannot predict the outcome after surgery. In this study we aimed to develop a new prognostic score that can allow patient selection for liver transplantation more appropriately and identify patients at high risk of futile transplantation...
2017: PloS One
Khaled Brahmi, Wided Bouguerra, Soumaya Harbi, Elimame Elaloui, Mouna Loungou, Béchir Hamrouni
This laboratory study investigated the parameters efficiency of the new technology: ballasted electro-flocculation (BEF) using aluminum (Al) electrodes to remove cadmium and zinc from industrial mining wastewater (MWW). The principle of the BEF process is based on the use of micro-sand and polymer together to increase the weight of the flocs and the rate at which they settle is radically changing the electrocoagulation-electroflocculation settling methodology. Based on the examination of the operation parameters one by one, the best removal percentage was obtained at a current intensity of 2A, a the flow rate of 20L/h, a micro-sand dose of 6g/L, a polyéthylèneimine (PEI) polymer dose of 100mg, the contact times of 30min, a stirring speed of 50 RPM, a monopolar configuration of the electrodes, and an electrodes number of 10...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Rukiye Vardar, Muharrem Keskin
Empirical acid suppression tests that are performed with proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are used to detect both the presence of acid-related gastrointestinal symptoms and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). In comparison to other diagnostic methods, it is non-invasive, easily applicable, and cost-effective in the diagnosis of GERD. In addition to typical reflux symptoms, it can also be used for diagnostic purposes in patients with non-cardiac chest pain (NCCP). If the symptom response is 50% and above when obtained using the PPI test in patients with NCCP, it can be considered as positive and the treatment should be continued sensitivity of the PPI test in patients with typical symptoms of GERD is 27%-89%, while its specificity is 35%-83%...
December 2017: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
Bailiang Wang, Huihua Liu, Lin Sun, Yingying Jin, Xiaoxu Ding, Lingli Li, Jian Ji, Hao Chen
Bacterial infections and biofilm formation on the surface of implants is an important issue which greatly affect biomedical applications and even cause device failure. Construction of high drug loading systems on the surface and control the drug release on-demand is an efficient way to lower the development of resistant bacteria and biofilm formation. In the present study, (montmorillonite/hyaluronic acid-gentamicin)10 ((MMT/HA-GS)10) organic/inorganic hybrid multilayer films were alternately self-assembled on substrates...
November 30, 2017: Biomacromolecules
Menglu Yang, Ying Chi, Chunying Guo, Junwen Huang, Li Yang, Liu Yang
PURPOSE: To analyze the clinical features and long-term prognosis of uveitis in tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis (TINU) syndrome in a cohort of Chinese patients. METHODS: A total of 32 patients with TINU syndrome between 2000 - 2016 were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: Mild anterior inflammation was observed in all cases. Ultra-wide-field fluorescence angiography (UWFA) was conducted on 13 patients, and peripheral vascular leakage was observed in 22/26 eyes (84...
November 30, 2017: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Ren-Yu Qu, Jing-Fang Yang, Devendar Ponnam, Wei-Ming Kang, Yu-Chao Liu, Qiong Chen, Cong-Wei Niu, Zhen Xi, Guang-Fu Yang
In the search for new anti-resistance acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS, EC inhibitors to combat weed resistance associated with AHAS mutations, a series of 2-[(4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)oxy]-6-(substituted phenoxy)benzoic acids 11-38 were designed and synthesized via the strategy of conformational flexibility analysis. Compounds 21, 22, 26, 33, 36 and 38 with high potency against both wild-type AtAHAS and its P197L mutant were identified as promising candidates with low resistance factors (RF, defined as the ratio between the ki values towards P197L mutant and wild type AHAS) ranging from 0...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Frederico Ribeiro Pires, Andréia Christine Bonotto Farias Franco, Alfredo Elias Gilio, Eduardo Juan Troster
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate Bacterial Meningitis Score (BMS) on its own and in association with Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) lactate dosage in order to distinguish bacterial from aseptic meningitis. METHODS: Children diagnosed with meningitis at a tertiary hospital between January/2011 and December/2014 were selected. All data were obtained upon admission. BMS was applied and included: CSF Gram staining (2 points); CSF neutrophil count ≥1,000 cells/mm3 (1 point); CSF protein ≥80 mg/dL (1 point); peripheral blood neutrophil count ≥10,000 cells/mm3 (1 point) and seizures upon/before arrival (1 point)...
October 2017: Revista Paulista de Pediatria: Orgão Oficial da Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo
Gaofeng Wang, Sushmita Mustafi, Vladimir Camarena, Claude-Henry Volmar, Tyler C Huff, David W Sant, Shaun P Brothers, Zhao-Jun Liu, Claes Wahlestedt
Bromodomain and extra-terminal inhibitors (BETi) are promising cancer therapies, yet prominent side effects of BETi at effective doses have been reported in Phase I clinical trials. Here we screened a panel of small molecules targeting epigenetic modulators against human metastatic melanoma cells. Cells were pretreated with or without ascorbate (vitamin C), which promotes DNA demethylation and subsequently changes the sensitivity to drugs. Top hits were structurally unrelated BETi including JQ1, I-BET151, CPI-203, and BI-2536...
November 27, 2017: Cancer Research
Frederik Lessmann, Daniel Bury, Tobias Weiss, Heiko Hayen, Thomas Brüning, Holger M Koch
CONTEXT: Human exposure biomonitoring relies on the availability of specific, sensitive biomarkers. For emerging chemicals, the identification (prediction, synthesis, verification) of such biomarkers is time and cost intensive. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to further elucidate the urinary metabolic profile of the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) terephthalate (DEHTP) in search of probably additional biomarkers of exposure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Urine samples of an oral low dose volunteer study were analysed by HPLC-Q-Orbitrap-MS combined with a commercial data mining software...
November 28, 2017: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
(no author information available yet)
3-Nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) is a potential replacement for energetics in military munitions. It is a component of IMX-101, a munition designed to prevent unintentional detonation. This report summarizes the dermal, oral, and inhalation animal toxicity data, including the results of genotoxicity and limited reproductive and developmental studies. NTO has an acute LD50 in rats and mice of >5000 mg/kg, is a potential eye and skin irritant, but does not induce skin sensitization. Acute inhalation toxicity studies in rats were negative, but testicular hypoplasia was observed in a 14-day oral study in rats administered NTO at >500 mg/kg/day...
January 1, 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
(no author information available yet)
1-Nitroguanine (NG), also known as picrate, guanidine nitro, and N'-nitroguanidine, is used by the military as a propellant. Oral rodent LD50 data are generally >5000 mg/kg. NG is neither an eye nor a skin irritant, and it is not a skin sensitizer. NG is not genotoxic. No inhalation data are available; however, there are data from both 14- and 90-day oral (feed) toxicity studies in male and female Sprague Dawley rats at dosages up to 1000 mg/kg/day. There were no deaths on these studies and the only effect considered possibly related to treatment was decreased weight in females at the high-dose level in the 90-day study...
January 1, 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Robabeh Soleimani, Zivar Salehi, Soheil Soltanipour, Tolou Hasandokht, Mir Mohammad Jalali
Methylphenidate (MPH) is the most commonly used treatment for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. However, the response to MPH is not similar in all patients. This meta-analysis investigated the potential role of SLC6A3 polymorphisms in response to MPH in children with ADHD. Clinical trials or naturalistic studies were selected from electronic databases. A meta-analysis was conducted using a random-effects model. Cohen's d effect size and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were determined...
November 24, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
Anna Lisa Iorio, Martina da Ros, Lorenzo Genitori, Maurizio Lucchesi, Fabiana Colelli, Giacomo Signorino, Francesco Cardile, Giacomo Laffi, Maurizio de Martino, Claudio Pisano, Iacopo Sardi
Despite multimodal treatments comprising, radiation therapy (RT) and chemotherapy with temozolomide (TMZ), the prognosis of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains dismal and consolidated therapy yields a median survival of 14.6 months. Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) mediated chemoresistance and high dose related toxicity make necessary the development of new therapeutic approach to sensitize GBM to TMZ. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of the treatment morphine plus TMZ metronmic doses (1,77 and 0,9 mg/kg) in GBM therapy...
October 27, 2017: Oncotarget
Niloy Ranjan Datta, Bernhard Pestalozzi, Pierre-Alain Clavien, Alexander Siebenhüner, Emsad Puric, Shaka Khan, Christoph Mamot, Oliver Riesterer, Jürg Knuchel, Cäcilia Sophie Reiner, Stephan Bodis
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer has a dismal prognosis with 5-year overall survival rate of around 5%. Although surgery is still the best option in operable cases, majority of the patients who present in locally advanced stages are deemed inoperable. Novel approaches are therefore needed for the management of around 80% of these inoperable locally advanced pancreatic cancers (LAPC). Hyperthermia (39-43 °C) is a potent radiosensitizer and further enhances the action of gemcitabine, also a known radiosensitizer...
November 21, 2017: Radiation Oncology
Anne Sömmer, Peter Sandner, Sönke Behrends
Nitric oxide sensitive guanylyl cyclase (NOsGC), a hemoprotein and the major physiological receptor for nitric oxide (NO), is a heterodimer with the α1/β1 and α2/β1 isoforms known to be important for NO-signaling and conversion of GTP to cGMP in humans. Two innovative classes of compounds modulating the NO/cGMP signaling pathway have been discovered: the heme-dependent sGC stimulators, that stimulate NOsGC directly and also increase the affinity towards NO, and the heme-independent sGC activators, that are thought to bind to oxidized and heme-free NOsGC in tissues exposed to oxidative stress...
November 15, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
Xiaoshu Liu, Zhengliang Xie, Hong Teng, Lijuan Chen, Jing Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical efficacy of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) on the treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) caused by severe pneumonia after kidney transplantation. METHODS: The clinical data of 17 patients who were diagnosed as ARDS caused by severe pneumonia after kidney transplantation and treated with NIV in Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital from January 1st, 2014 to June 1st, 2016 were collected and retrospectively analyzed...
November 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
Sumin Bian, Erwin Dreesen, Ho Tsun Tang, Griet Compernolle, Miet Peeters, Gert Van Assche, Marc Ferrante, Séverine Vermeire, Ann Gils
BACKGROUND: Vedolizumab (VDZ) has been approved for the treatment of patients with moderate-to-severe Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. The GEMINI trials reported a low prevalence of anti-VDZ antibodies (AVA). However, the AVA assays used in GEMINI were drug sensitive, resulting in a possible underestimation of the rate of AVA formation. This study aimed to monitor immunogenicity of VDZ in a real-life cohort using a drug-resistant AVA assay. METHODS: Using a combination of VDZ/AVA complex precipitation and acid dissociation, a drug-resistant assay for AVA detection in the presence of high VDZ concentrations has been developed and analytically validated...
December 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
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