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Dosage sensitivity

Szu Han Lin, Po Chung Cheng, Shih Te Tu, Shang Ren Hsu, Yun Chung Cheng, Yu Hsiu Liu
Background: Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Studies have consistently identified dyslipidemia as an important risk factor for the development of macrovascular disease. The landmark United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study has shown that metformin therapy reduces cardiovascular events in overweight people with T2DM. This study investigates the effect of metformin monotherapy on serum lipid profile in statin-naïve individuals with newly diagnosed T2DM, and whether the effect, if any, is dosage-related...
2018: PeerJ
Marta Jaskulak, Agnieszka Rorat, Anna Grobelak, Małgorzata Kacprzak
The aim of the study was to evaluate sensitivity and potential applications of selected biomarkers in phytoremediation under complex heavy metal contamination in Sinapis alba L., Robinia pseudoacacia L. and Lupinus luteus L as a potential tools in effective phytoremediation management. The toxicity assessment was conducted using selected measurement endpoints, both classical and advanced, i.e., germination index, roots length, guaiacol peroxidase activity (GPX), chlorophyll and protein content, the amount of total phenolic compounds (TPC) and level of expression of one of the ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase genes (rbcL)...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Fawzi A El-Yazbi, Omayma A Amin, Eman I El-Kimary, Essam F Khamis, Sameh E Younis
Two simple, sensitive and specific high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) methods were developed for the determination of febuxostat (FEB) individually, and simultaneously with diclofenac (DIC) in human plasma. Method A presents the first HPTLC-ultraviolet attempt for FEB determination in human plasma. FEB was separated from endogenous plasma components (at hRF  = 70) with ethyl acetate-methanol-water (9:2:1, v/v) mixture as mobile phase and quantified by densitometry at its λmax (315 nm)...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Sayed M Derayea, Mahmoud A Omar, Ahmed A Abu-Hassan
A simple, sensitive and non-extractive spectrofluorimetric method has been developed and validated for the determination of two psychoanaleptic drugs, atomoxetine and fluvoxamine, in pure forms and pharmaceutical dosage forms. The proposed method is based on the formation of binary complexes between eosin Y and the studied drugs in the presence of a Teorell-Stenhagen buffer. The quenching of the native fluorescence of eosin Y due to complex formation with the studied drugs was measured spectrofluorimetrically at 545 nm after excitation at 302 nm...
March 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Wei Li, Samuel Patton, Jamie M Gleason, Stephen Peter Mezyk, Kenneth P Ishida, Haizhou Liu
A sequential combination of membrane treatment and UV-based advanced oxidation processes (UV/AOP) has become the industry standard for potable water reuse. Chloramines are used as membrane anti-fouling agents and therefore carried over into the UV/AOP. In addition, persulfate (S2O82-) is an emerging oxidant which can be added into a UV/AOP, thus creating radicals generated from both chloramines and persulfate for water treatment. This study investigated the simultaneous photolysis of S2O82- and monochloramine (NH2Cl) on the removal of 1,4-dioxane (1,4-D) for potable water reuse...
April 13, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Diego Rativa, Bruno J T Fernandes, Alexandre Roque
Height and weight are measurements explored to tracking nutritional diseases, energy expenditure, clinical conditions, drug dosages, and infusion rates. Many patients are not ambulant or may be unable to communicate, and a sequence of these factors may not allow accurate estimation or measurements; in those cases, it can be estimated approximately by anthropometric means. Different groups have proposed different linear or non-linear equations which coefficients are obtained by using single or multiple linear regressions...
2018: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
Nurul Hasyiqin Fauzi, Yunita Dewi Ardini, Zarina Zainuddin, Widya Lestari
Tooth agenesis in the reduction of tooth number which includes hypodontia, oligodontia and anodontia is caused by disturbances and gene mutations that occur during odontogenesis. To date, several genetic mutations that unlock the causes of non-syndromic tooth agenesis are being discovered; these have been associated with certain illnesses because tooth development involves the interaction of several genes for tooth epithelium and mesenchyme odontogenesis. Mutation of candidate genes PAX9 and MSX1 have been identified as the main causes of hypodontia and oligodontia; meanwhile, AXIN2 mutation is associated with anodontia...
February 2018: Japanese Dental Science Review
Claire E Hirst, Andrew T Major, Craig A Smith
Our understanding of avian sex determination and gonadal development is derived primarily from the studies in the chicken. Analysis of gynandromorphic chickens and experimental chimeras indicate that sexual phenotype is at least partly cell autonomous in the chicken, with sexually dimorphic gene expression occurring in different tissue and different stages. Gonadal sex differentiation is just one of the many manifestations of sexual phenotype. As in other birds, the chicken has a ZZ male: ZW female sex chromosome system, in which the male is the homogametic sex...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Ahmed B Hamid Al-Rikabi, Sona Pekova, Xioabo Fan, Tereza Jančušková, Thomas Liehr
Background: Cytogenetically visible chromosomal imbalances in humans are deleterious and adverse in the majority of the cases. However, healthy persons living with chromosomal imbalances in the range of several megabasepairs (Mbps) in size, like carriers of small Supernumerary Marker Chromosomes (sSMCs) exist. Materials & Methods: The identification of healthy sSMC carriers with euchromatic centromere-near (ECN) imbalances led to the following proposal: ECN-regions do not contain any dosage sensitive genes...
April 2018: Current Genomics
Ana Monteagudo-Sánchez, Intza Garin, Guiomar Perez de Nanclares, David Monk
Imprinting disorders are a group of congenital diseases that can result from multiple mechanisms affecting imprinted gene dosage including cytogenetic aberration and epigenetic anomalies. Quantification of CpG methylation and correct copy-number calling is required for molecular diagnosis. Methylation-sensitive multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA) is a multiplex method that accurately measures both parameters in a single assay. This technique relies upon the ligation of MLPA probe oligonucleotides and digestion of the genomic DNA-probe hybrid complexes with the Hha1 methylation-sensitive restriction endonuclease prior to fluorescent PCR amplification with a single primer pair...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Fabian Jung, Lisa Nothnagel, Fiona Gao, Manuela Thurn, Vitali Vogel, Matthias G Wacker
As a growing number of nanotherapeutics enters the market, improved analytical techniques for measuring the drug release are required. Biorelevant release tests have become a standard in the prediction of in vivo pharmacokinetics but also in quality control of novel dosage forms. In the present study, two methods for testing the drug release from nanocarriers, namely the filtration technique and the dispersion releaser technology, have been investigated. Initially, the in vitro release rates were determined using two different biorelevant media...
March 27, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Xia Wang, Shoujiang You, Shoichiro Sato, Jie Yang, Cheryl Carcel, Danni Zheng, Sohei Yoshimura, Craig S Anderson, Else Charlotte Sandset, Thompson Robinson, John Chalmers, Vijay K Sharma
The optimal dose of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) for acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) remains controversial, especially in Asian countries. We aimed to update the evidence regarding the use of low-dose versus standard-dose rtPA. We performed a systematic literature search across MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PsycINFO and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) from inception to 22 August 2016 to identify all related studies...
March 2018: Stroke and Vascular Neurology
Maartje S Jacobs, Jeroen F Schouten, Pieter T de Boer, Mikael Hoffmann, Lars-Åke Levin, Maarten J Postma
OBJECTIVE: There is limited evidence on patients' adherence and the impact of the prescribed dosing regimen in non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOACs). We aimed to assess secondary adherence to NOACs and to determine the impact of the dosing regimen in patients with atrial fibrillation. METHODS: Patients using a NOAC between 2009 and 2013 were identified from the nation-wide Swedish Prescribed Drug Register and the Dutch regional database. Patients using a consistent dosage for at least 180 consecutive days were included...
March 30, 2018: Current Medical Research and Opinion
Ajoy Velayudhan, Frank Smith, Dimitrios Voulgarelis
BACKGROUND: Agent-based models provide a formidable tool for exploring complex and emergent behaviour of biological systems as well as accurate results but with the drawback of needing a lot of computational power and time for subsequent analysis. On the other hand, equation-based models can more easily be used for complex analysis in a much shorter timescale. Methods & Objective: This paper formulates an ordinary differential equations and stochastic differential equations model to capture the behaviour of an existing agent-based model of tumour cell reprogramming and applies it to optimization of possible treatment as well as dosage sensitivity analysis...
March 28, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Priscilla A Erickson, Jiyeon Baek, James C Hart, Phillip A Cleves, Craig T Miller
In nature, multiple adaptive phenotypes often coevolve and can be controlled by tightly linked genetic loci known as supergenes. Dissecting the genetic basis of these linked phenotypes is a major challenge in evolutionary genetics. Multiple freshwater populations of threespine stickleback fish ( Gasterosteus aculeatus ) have convergently evolved two constructive craniofacial traits, longer branchial bones and increased pharyngeal tooth number, likely as adaptations to dietary differences between marine and freshwater environments...
March 28, 2018: Genetics
Gitte O Skajaa, Jens Fuglsang, Ulla Kampmann, Per G Ovesen
Context: Tight glycemic control throughout type 1 diabetes pregnancies is crucial and knowledge about which factors that affect insulin sensitivity could improve the outcome for both mother and offspring. Objective: The purpose of the study was to evaluate insulin requirements in women with type 1 diabetes during pregnancy and test whether parity affects insulin requirements. Design: We conducted an observational cohort study consisting of women with type 1 diabetes who gave birth at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark from 2004-2014...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Marwa R El-Zahry
This contribution describes a simple, fast, and sensitive application of localized surface plasmon resonance effect of silver nanoparticles for simultaneous determination of antihypertensive drugs' mixture atenolol and amiloride in both pharmaceutical dosage forms and in biological samples (urine). Silver nanoparticles were prepared by chemical reduction of silver nitrate using hydroxylamine HCL in an alkaline medium. Application of silver-hydroxylamine nanoparticles (SH NPs) provides many advantages including reproducibility, sensitivity, and cost effective way of analyte determination...
2018: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
Tim Anderson, Jing Liu, Scott McMurry, Carey Pope
We compared biochemical, functional and behavioral responses to the organophosphorus anticholinesterase chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) in mice (Mus musculus, CD-1) and toads (Anaxyrus cognatus, Great Plains toad). Toads were substantially less sensitive to acute lethality of CPO based on the maximum tolerated (nonlethal) dose (MTD: toads, 77 mg/kg; mice, 5.9 mg/kg). Sublethal exposures led to classical signs of toxicity (increased involuntary movements, autonomic secretions) in mice, but hypo-activity in toads...
March 24, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Anthony N Cutrupi, Megan H Brewer, Garth A Nicholson, Marina L Kennerson
Inherited peripheral neuropathies (IPNs) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of diseases affecting the motor and sensory peripheral nerves. IPNs have benefited from gene discovery and genetic diagnosis using next-generation sequencing with over 80 causative genes available for testing. Despite this success, up to 50% of cases remain genetically unsolved. In the absence of protein coding mutations, noncoding DNA or structural variation (SV) mutations are a possible explanation. The most common IPN, Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy type 1A (CMT1A), is caused by a 1...
March 23, 2018: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
Anna Roszkowska, Marcos Tascon, Barbara Bojko, Krzysztof Goryński, Pedro Reck Dos Santos, Marcelo Cypel, Janusz Pawliszyn
The fast and sensitive determination of concentrations of anticancer drugs in specific organs can improve the efficacy of chemotherapy and minimize its adverse effects. In this paper, ex vivo solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to LC-MS/MS as a method for rapidly quantitating doxorubicin (DOX) in lung tissue was optimized. Furthermore, the theoretical and practical challenges related to the real-time monitoring of DOX levels in the lung tissue of a living organism (in vivo SPME) are presented. In addition, several parameters for ex vivo/in vivo SPME studies, such as extraction efficiency of autoclaved fibers, intact/homogenized tissue differences, critical tissue amount, and the absence of an internal standard are thoroughly examined...
June 1, 2018: Talanta
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