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Induced pluripotent stem

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340154/irradiation-strongly-reduces-tumorigenesis-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#1
Shoki Inui, Kazumasa Minami, Emiko Ito, Hiromasa Imaizumi, Seiji Mori, Masahiko Koizumi, Satsuki Fukushima, Shigeru Miyagawa, Yoshiki Sawa, Nariaki Matsuura
Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have demonstrated they can undergo self-renewal, attain pluripotency, and differentiate into various types of functional cells. In clinical transplantation of iPS cells, however, a major problem is the prevention of tumorigenesis. We speculated that tumor formation could be inhibited by means of irradiation. Since the main purpose of this study was to explore the prevention of tumor formation in human iPS (hiPS) cells, we tested the effects of irradiation on tumor-associated factors such as radiosensitivity, pluripotency and cell death in hiPS cells...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339768/the-transcription-factor-olig2-is-important-for-the-biology-of-diffuse-intrinsic-pontine-gliomas
#2
Jane L Anderson, Ranjithmenon Muraleedharan, Nicole Oatman, Amanda Klotter, Satarupa Sengupta, Ronald R Waclaw, Jianqiang Wu, Rachid Drissi, Lili Miles, Eric H Raabe, Matthew L Weirauch, Maryam Fouladi, Lionel M Chow, Lindsey Hoffman, Mariko DeWire, Biplab Dasgupta
Background.: Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a high-grade brainstem glioma of children with dismal prognosis. There is no single unifying model about the cell of origin of DIPGs. Proliferating cells in the developing human and mouse pons, the site of DIPGs, express neural stem/progenitor cell (NPC) markers, including Sox2, nestin, vimentin, Olig2, and glial fibrillary acidic protein, in an overlapping and non-overlapping manner, suggesting progenitor cell heterogeneity in the pons...
February 23, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339300/genetic-manipulation-by-zinc-finger-nucleases-in-rat-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#3
Sheng Yang, Shufang Ding, Qianhua Xu, Xiong Li, Qiong Xiong
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have an extensive application in regenerative medicine, pharmaceutical discovery, and basic research. With the recent derivation of rat iPSCs, it is now feasible to apply genetic manipulation in this species. But such tools do not yet exist for many rat strains, especially for disease model rat. The Sprague Dawley (SD) rat is an inbred disease model for hypertension, nephropathy, pulmonary hypertension, depression, and alcohol consumption. In this study, the SD rat iPSCs were generated using lentiviral method...
March 24, 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335495/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-loaded-ps80-pbca-nanocarrier-for-in-vitro-neural-differentiation-of-mouse-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#4
Chiu-Yen Chung, Martin Hsiu-Chu Lin, I-Neng Lee, Tsong-Hai Lee, Ming-Hsueh Lee, Jen-Tsung Yang
Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) can induce neural differentiation in stem cells and has the potential for repair of the nervous system. In this study, a polysorbate 80-coated polybutylcyanoacrylate nanocarrier (PS80 PBCA NC) was constructed to deliver plasmid DNAs (pDNAs) containing BDNF gene attached to a hypoxia-responsive element (HRE-cmvBDNF). The hypoxia-sensing mechanism of BDNF expression and inductiveness of the nano-formulation on mouse induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to differentiate into neurons following hypoxia was tested in vitro with immunofluorescent staining and Western blotting...
March 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335032/allele-specific-ablation-rescues-electrophysiological-abnormalities-in-a-human-ips-cell-model-of-long-qt-syndrome-with-a-calm2-mutation
#5
Yuta Yamamoto, Takeru Makiyama, Takeshi Harita, Kenichi Sasaki, Yimin Wuriyanghai, Mamoru Hayano, Suguru Nishiuchi, Hirohiko Kohjitani, Sayako Hirose, Jiarong Chen, Fumika Yokoi, Taisuke Ishikawa, Seiko Ohno, Kazuhisa Chonabayashi, Hideki Motomura, Yoshinori Yoshida, Minoru Horie, Naomasa Makita, Takeshi Kimura
Background: Calmodulin is a ubiquitous Ca 2+ sensor molecule encoded by three distinct calmodulin genes, CALM1-3 . Recently, mutations in CALM1-3 have been reported to be associated with severe early-onset long-QT syndrome (LQTS). However, the underlying mechanism through which heterozygous calmodulin mutations lead to severe LQTS remains unknown, particularly in human cardiomyocytes. Objectives: We aimed to establish an LQTS disease model associated with a CALM2 mutation (LQT15) using human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and to assess mutant allele-specific ablation by genome editing for the treatment of LQT15...
March 1, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334866/c9orf72-and-rab7l1-regulate-vesicle-trafficking-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-and-frontotemporal-dementia
#6
Yoshitsugu Aoki, Raquel Manzano, Yi Lee, Ruxandra Dafinca, Misako Aoki, Andrew G L Douglas, Miguel A Varela, Chaitra Sathyaprakash, Jakub Scaber, Paola Barbagallo, Pieter Vader, Imre Mäger, Kariem Ezzat, Martin R Turner, Naoki Ito, Samanta Gasco, Norihiko Ohbayashi, Samir El Andaloussi, Shin'ichi Takeda, Mitsunori Fukuda, Kevin Talbot, Matthew J A Wood
A non-coding hexanucleotide repeat expansion in intron 1 of the C9orf72 gene is the most common cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia (C9ALS/FTD), however, the precise molecular mechanism by which the C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion directs C9ALS/FTD pathogenesis remains unclear. Here, we report a novel disease mechanism arising due to the interaction of C9ORF72 with the RAB7L1 GTPase to regulate vesicle trafficking. Endogenous interaction between C9ORF72 and RAB7L1 was confirmed in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells...
February 23, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334857/co-cultures-with-stem-cell-derived-human-sensory-neurons-reveal-regulators-of-peripheral-myelination
#7
Alex J Clark, Malte S Kaller, Jorge Galino, Hugh J Willison, Simon Rinaldi, David L H Bennett
Effective bidirectional signalling between axons and Schwann cells is essential for both the development and maintenance of peripheral nerve function. We have established conditions by which human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived sensory neurons can be cultured with rat Schwann cells, and have produced for the first time long-term and stable myelinating co-cultures with human neurons. These cultures contain the specialized domains formed by axonal interaction with myelinating Schwann cells, such as clustered voltage-gated sodium channels at the node of Ranvier and Shaker-type potassium channel (Kv1...
February 15, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334780/eif4a3-deficient-human-ipscs-and-mouse-models-demonstrate-neural-crest-defects-that-underlie-richieri-costa-pereira-syndrome
#8
Emily E Miller, Gerson S Kobayashi, Camila M Musso, Miranda Allen, Felipe A A Ishiy, Luiz C de Caires Junior, Ernesto S G Guimarães, Karina Griesi-Oliveira, Roseli M Zechi-Ceide, Antonio Richieri-Costa, Debora R Bertola, Maria Rita Passos-Bueno, Debra L Silver
Biallelic loss-of-function mutations in the RNA binding protein EIF4A3 cause Richieri-Costa-Pereira syndrome (RCPS), an autosomal recessive condition mainly characterized by craniofacial and limb malformations. However, the pathogenic cellular mechanisms responsible for this syndrome are entirely unknown. Here we used two complementary approaches, patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and conditional Eif4a3 mouse models, to demonstrate that defective Neural Crest Cell (NCC) development explains RCPS craniofacial abnormalities...
March 2, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334554/rapid-establishment-of-the-european-bank-for-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-ebisc-the-hot-start-experience
#9
Paul A De Sousa, Rachel Steeg, Elisabeth Wachter, Kevin Bruce, Jason King, Marieke Hoeve, Shalinee Khadun, George McConnachie, Julie Holder, Andreas Kurtz, Stefanie Seltmann, Johannes Dewender, Sascha Reimann, Glyn Stacey, Orla O'Shea, Charlotte Chapman, Lyn Healy, Heiko Zimmermann, Bryan Bolton, Trisha Rawat, Isobel Atkin, Anna Veiga, Bernd Kuebler, Blanca Miranda Serano, Tomo Saric, Jürgen Hescheler, Oliver Brüstle, Michael Peitz, Cornelia Thiele, Niels Geijsen, Bjørn Holst, Christian Clausen, Majlinda Lako, Lyle Armstrong, Shailesh K Gupta, Alexander J Kvist, Ryan Hicks, Anna Jonebring, Gabriella Brolén, Andreas Ebneth, Alfredo Cabrera-Socorro, Patrik Foerch, Martine Geraerts, Tina C Stummann, Shawn Harmon, Carol George, Ian Streeter, Laura Clarke, Helen Parkinson, Peter W Harrison, Adam Faulconbridge, Luca Cherubin, Tony Burdett, Cesar Trigueros, Minal J Patel, Christa Lucas, Barry Hardy, Rok Predan, Joh Dokler, Maja Brajnik, Oliver Keminer, Ole Pless, Philip Gribbon, Carsten Claussen, Annette Ringwald, Beate Kreisel, Aidan Courtney, Timothy E Allsopp
A fast track "Hot Start" process was implemented to launch the European Bank for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (EBiSC) to provide early release of a range of established control and disease linked human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) lines. Established practice amongst consortium members was surveyed to arrive at harmonised and publically accessible Standard Operations Procedures (SOPs) for tissue procurement, bio-sample tracking, iPSC expansion, cryopreservation, qualification and distribution to the research community...
March 7, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334019/cell-survival-and-differentiation-with-nanocrystalline-glass-like-carbon-using-substantia-nigra-dopaminergic-cells-derived-from-transgenic-mouse-embryos
#10
Noela Rodriguez-Losada, Pablo Romero, Guillermo Estivill-Torrús, Roberto Guzmán de Villoria, Jose A Aguirre
Regenerative medicine requires, in many cases, physical supports to facilitate appropriate cellular architecture, cell polarization and the improvement of the correct differentiation processes of embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent cells or adult cells. Because the interest in carbon nanomaterials has grown within the last decade in light of a wide variety of applications, the aim of this study was to test and evaluate the suitability and cytocompatibility of a particular nanometer-thin nanocrystalline glass-like carbon film (NGLC) composed of curved graphene flakes joined by an amorphous carbon matrix...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333962/different-regulation-of-limb-development-by-p63-transcript-variants
#11
Manabu Kawata, Yuki Taniguchi, Daisuke Mori, Fumiko Yano, Shinsuke Ohba, Ung-Il Chung, Tomomi Shimogori, Alea A Mills, Sakae Tanaka, Taku Saito
The apical ectodermal ridge (AER), located at the distal end of each limb bud, is a key signaling center which controls outgrowth and patterning of the proximal-distal axis of the limb through secretion of various molecules. Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), particularly Fgf8 and Fgf4, are representative molecules produced by AER cells, and essential to maintain the AER and cell proliferation in the underlying mesenchyme, meanwhile Jag2-Notch pathway negatively regulates the AER and limb development. p63, a transcription factor of the p53 family, is expressed in the AER and indispensable for limb formation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333933/geometry-dependent-functional-changes-in-ipsc-derived-cardiomyocytes-probed-by-functional-imaging-and-rna-sequencing
#12
Christopher A Werley, Miao-Ping Chien, Jellert Gaublomme, Karthik Shekhar, Vincent Butty, B Alexander Yi, Joel M Kralj, William Bloxham, Laurie A Boyer, Aviv Regev, Adam E Cohen
Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CM) are a promising platform for cardiac studies in vitro, and possibly for tissue repair in humans. However, hiPSC-CM cells tend to retain morphology, metabolism, patterns of gene expression, and electrophysiology similar to that of embryonic cardiomyocytes. We grew hiPSC-CM in patterned islands of different sizes and shapes, and measured the effect of island geometry on action potential waveform and calcium dynamics using optical recordings of voltage and calcium from 970 islands of different sizes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333915/directed-differentiation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-into-functional-cholangiocyte-like-cells
#13
Fotios Sampaziotis, Miguel Cardoso de Brito, Imbisaat Geti, Alessandro Bertero, Nicholas Rf Hannan, Ludovic Vallier
The difficulty in isolating and propagating functional primary cholangiocytes is a major limitation in the study of biliary disorders and the testing of novel therapeutic agents. To overcome this problem, we have developed a platform for the differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into functional cholangiocyte-like cells (CLCs). We have previously reported that our 26-d protocol closely recapitulates key stages of biliary development, starting with the differentiation of hPSCs into endoderm and subsequently into foregut progenitor (FP) cells, followed by the generation of hepatoblasts (HBs), cholangiocyte progenitors (CPs) expressing early biliary markers and mature CLCs displaying cholangiocyte functionality...
April 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333144/aberrant-ipsc-derived-human-astrocytes-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
V C Jones, R Atkinson-Dell, A Verkhratsky, L Mohamet
The pathological potential of human astroglia in Alzheimer's disease (AD) was analysed in vitro using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology. Here, we report development of a human iPSC-derived astrocyte model created from healthy individuals and patients with either early-onset familial AD (FAD) or the late-onset sporadic form of AD (SAD). Our chemically defined and highly efficient model provides >95% homogeneous populations of human astrocytes within 30 days of differentiation from cortical neural progenitor cells (NPCs)...
March 23, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332949/public-attitudes-in-japan-towards-human-animal-chimeric-embryo-research-using-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#15
Tsutomu Sawai, Taichi Hatta, Misao Fujita
AIM: To understand the steps and objectives for which Japanese people are willing to accept human-animal chimeric embryo research using human induced pluripotent stem cells. METHODS: An internet-based survey was conducted for the general public and researchers in Japan in 2016. RESULTS: Over 60% of the public and 83.8% of researchers supported the creation of human-swine chimeras and 81.0% of the public and 92.4% of researchers supported the creation of human-swine chimeric embryos...
March 2, 2017: Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332752/bovine-trophectoderm-cells-induced-from-bovine-fibroblasts-with-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-reprogramming-factors
#16
Neil C Talbot, Wendy O Sparks, Caitlin Phillips, Alan D Ealy, Anne M Powell, Thomas J Caperna, Wesley M Garrett, David M Donovan, Le Ann Blomberg
Thirteen independent induced bovine trophectroderm (iBT) cell lines were established by reprogramming bovine fetal liver-derived fibroblasts after viral-vector transduction with either 6 or 8 factors, including POU5F1 (OCT4), KLF4, SOX2, MYC, NANOG, LIN28, SV40 large T antigen, and hTERT.. Light- and electron-microscopy analysis showed that the iBT cells had epithelial cell morphology typical of bovine trophectoderm cells. Reverse-transcription-PCR assays indicated that all of the cell lines expressed interferon-tau (IFNT) at passages 1 or 2...
March 23, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332572/xeno-free-culture-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-on-oligopeptide-grafted-hydrogels-with-various-molecular-designs
#17
Yen-Ming Chen, Li-Hua Chen, Meng-Pei Li, Hsing-Fen Li, Akon Higuchi, S Suresh Kumar, Qing-Dong Ling, Abdullah A Alarfaj, Murugan A Munusamy, Yung Chang, Giovanni Benelli, Kadarkarai Murugan, Akihiro Umezawa
Establishing cultures of human embryonic (ES) and induced pluripotent (iPS) stem cells in xeno-free conditions is essential for producing clinical-grade cells. Development of cell culture biomaterials for human ES and iPS cells is critical for this purpose. We designed several structures of oligopeptide-grafted poly (vinyl alcohol-co-itaconic acid) hydrogels with optimal elasticity, and prepared them in formations of single chain, single chain with joint segment, dual chain with joint segment, and branched-type chain...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331619/processing-and-selection-of-surgically-retrieved-sperm-for-icsi-a-review
#18
Greta Verheyen, Biljana Popovic-Todorovic, Herman Tournaye
Although the technique of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has been a revolution in the alleviation of male infertility, the use of testicular sperm for ICSI was a formerly unseen breakthrough in the treatment of the azoospermic man with primary testicular failure. At the clinical level, different procedures of testicular sperm retrieval (conventional TESE, micro-TESE, FNA/TESA, MESA, PESA) are being performed, the choice is mainly based on the cause of azoospermia (obstructive versus non-obstructive) and the surgeon's skills...
2017: Basic and Clinical Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331164/immortalized-prairie-vole-derived-fibroblasts-vmf-k4dts-can-be-transformed-into-pluripotent-stem-cells-and-provide-a-useful-tool-with-which-to-determine-optimal-reprogramming-conditions
#19
Masafumi Katayama, Takashi Hirayama, Tohru Kiyono, Manabu Onuma, Tetsuya Tani, Satoru Takeda, Katsuhiko Nishimori, Tomokazu Fukuda
The cellular conditions required to establish induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), such as the number of reprogramming factors and/or promoter selection, differ among species. The establishment of iPSCs derived from cells of previously unstudied species therefore requires the extensive optimization of programming conditions, including promoter selection and the optimal number of reprogramming factors, through a trial-and-error approach. While the four Yamanaka factors Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc are sufficient for iPSC establishment in mice, we reported previously that six reprogramming factors were necessary for the creation of iPSCs from primary prairie vole-derived cells...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331029/the-sac1-domain-in-synaptojanin-is-required-for%C3%A2-autophagosome-maturation-at-presynaptic%C3%A2-terminals
#20
Roeland Vanhauwaert, Sabine Kuenen, Roy Masius, Adekunle Bademosi, Julia Manetsberger, Nils Schoovaerts, Laura Bounti, Serguei Gontcharenko, Jef Swerts, Sven Vilain, Marina Picillo, Paolo Barone, Shashini T Munshi, Femke Ms de Vrij, Steven A Kushner, Natalia V Gounko, Wim Mandemakers, Vincenzo Bonifati, Frederic A Meunier, Sandra-Fausia Soukup, Patrik Verstreken
Presynaptic terminals are metabolically active and accrue damage through continuous vesicle cycling. How synapses locally regulate protein homeostasis is poorly understood. We show that the presynaptic lipid phosphatase synaptojanin is required for macroautophagy, and this role is inhibited by the Parkinson's disease mutation R258Q. Synaptojanin drives synaptic endocytosis by dephosphorylating PI(4,5)P2, but this function appears normal in Synaptojanin(RQ) knock-in flies. Instead, R258Q affects the synaptojanin SAC1 domain that dephosphorylates PI(3)P and PI(3,5)P2, two lipids found in autophagosomal membranes...
March 22, 2017: EMBO Journal
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